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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Mukhtiar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Fluorine-Free Ionic Liquids and Electrolytes: From Synthesis to Energy Storage Applications2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since their introduction by Sony in 1990, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have acquired a sizable market share. They have the best energy densities, a high open circuit voltage, a low self-discharge rate, no memory effect, and a slow loss of charge when not in use. These properties make them the most popular rechargeable batteries for portable gadgets, electric vehicles and aerospace applications. They do, however, pose major safety issues since the conventional electrolytes are made of fluorinated salts dissolved in volatile organic solvents, the former being meta-stable at ambient temperature and the latter being flammable with a high vapour pressure. Thus, there is an urge to develop thermally and electrochemically stable non-fluorinated electrolytes to improve the safety and performance of batteries. Electrolytes based on ionic liquids (ILs) offer a range of advantages over traditional electrolytes including low volatility and high thermal and electrochemical stabilities, and can additionally be made fluorine-free and task-specific. In addition, the transport properties of ILs can be controlled by structural design of chemical functionalities to reduce the ionic interactions and enhance the ion mobilities.

    This thesis is focussed on the development of new fluorine-free ILs and electrolytes for safer energy storage applications. An overview of synthesis, physicochemical and electrochemical characterizations of six different families of ILs and their structurally analogous electrolytes based on the aromatic heterocyclic rings, oligoether based aromatic and aliphatic carboxylates, oligoether phosphates and aromatic sulfonyl anions coupled with n- tetrabutylphosphonium-, imidazolium-, pyrrolidinium-based and alkali metal cations is presented. The structures and purity of the new anions, their intermediate products and the ILs are characterized by using multinuclear NMR, FTIR and mass spectrometry. These studies are further complemented by using NMR diffusometry to investigate the relative anion and anion mobilities and understand the possible interaction mechanisms between the oppositely charged ions within the ILs and the electrolytes, and especially, the influence of Li+ addition in the IL-based electrolytes. Among the synthesized ILs, the sulfonyl-based ILs revealed highest thermal stabilities, aromatic oligoether-based ILs showed the best electrochemical stabilities and aromatic sulfonyl -based ILs exhibited highest ionic conductivities. Some of the synthesized salts displayed promising performance as electrolytes in energy storage devices.

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  • 2.
    Ahmed, Mukhtiar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Bhowmick, Sourav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Filippov, Andrei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Materials Physics, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shah, Faiz Ullah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Ionic Liquids and Electrolytes with Flexible Aromatic Anions2023In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 29, no 41, article id e202301000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five new n-tetrabutylphosphonium (P4444)+ cation based ionic liquids (ILs) with oligoether substituted aromatic carboxylate anions have been synthesized. The nature and position of the oligoether chain affect thermal stability (up to 330 ºC), phase behaviour (Tg < -55 ºC) and ion transport. Furthermore, with the aim of application in lithium batteries, electrolytes were created for two of the ILs by 10 mol% doping using the corresponding Li-salts. This affects the ion diffusion negatively, from being higher and equal for cations and anions to lower for all ions and unequal. This is due to the stronger ionic interactions and formation of aggregates, primarily between the Li+ ions and the carboxylate group of the anions. Electrochemically, the electrolytes have electrochemical stability windows up to 3.5 V, giving some promise for battery application.

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  • 3.
    Akbar, Kamran
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, Venezia Mestre, 30172 Italy.
    Moretti, Elisa
    Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, Venezia Mestre, 30172 Italy.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, Venezia Mestre, 30172 Italy.
    Carbon Dots for Photocatalytic Degradation of Aqueous Pollutants: Recent Advancements2021In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071, Vol. 9, no 17, article id 2100532Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immense progress of humanity on the technological, domestic, and industrial fronts comes at the cost of polluting the planet. Aquatic pollution is particularly dangerous since all life forms are directly linked to it. Each year tons of industrial and domestic pollutants make their way into aqueous systems. Efficient removal/degradation of these pollutants is of prime importance for the sustainable future. Among many technologies, photodegradation is an emerging and promising method for the successful removal of aqueous pollutants since it is powered by abundant solar light. The last decade had shown that carbon dots are among the most promising materials that can be utilized as an efficient tool to derive various solar-driven chemical reactions. Carbon dots possess unique photophysical and chemical properties such as light-harvesting over a broad-spectrum region, upconversion photoluminescence, photosensitizers, chemical inertness, and bivalent redox character, etc. The ease of synthesis of carbon dots at low cost also contributes hugely to their utilizations as an efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of aqueous pollutants. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the field of photodegradation of aqueous pollutants with the aid of carbon dots and their hybrids, highlighting the critical role carbon dots can play in the field. 

  • 4.
    Alay-e-Abbas, Syed Muhammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Computational Materials Modeling Laboratory, Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan.
    Abbas, Ghulam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Zulfiqar, Waqas
    Computational Materials Modeling Laboratory, Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan; Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Sajjad, Muhammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Physics, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, 127788, United Arab Emirates.
    Singh, Nirpendra
    Department of Physics, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, 127788, United Arab Emirates; Center for Catalysis and Separation (CeCaS), Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, 127788, United Arab Emirates.
    Larsson, J. Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Structure inversion asymmetry enhanced electronic structure and electrical transport in 2D A3SnO (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba) anti-perovskite monolayers2023In: Nano Reseach, ISSN 1998-0124, E-ISSN 1998-0000, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1779-1791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-perovskites A3SnO (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba) are an important class of materials due to the emergence of Dirac cones and tiny mass gaps in their band structures originating from an intricate interplay of crystal symmetry, spin-orbit coupling, and band overlap. This provides an exciting playground for modulating their electronic properties in the two-dimensional (2D) limit. Herein, we employ first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations by combining dispersion-corrected SCAN + rVV10 and mBJ functionals for a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the structural, thermodynamic, dynamical, mechanical, electronic, and thermoelectric properties of bulk and monolayer (one unit cell thick) A3SnO anti-perovskites. Our results show that 2D monolayers derived from bulk A3SnO anti-perovskites are structurally and energetically stable. Moreover, Rashba-type splitting in the electronic structure of Ca3SnO and Sr3SnO monolayers is observed owing to strong spin-orbit coupling and inversion asymmetry. On the other hand, monolayer Ba3SnO exhibits Dirac cone at the high-symmetry Γ point due to the domination of band overlap. Based on the predicted electronic transport properties, it is shown that inversion asymmetry plays an essential character such that the monolayers Ca3SnO and Sr3SnO outperform thermoelectric performance of their bulk counterparts.

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  • 5.
    Alberoni, Chiara
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Barroso-Martín, Isabel
    Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía (Unidad Asociada al ICP-CSIC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Málaga, Spain.
    Infantes-Molina, Antonia
    Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía (Unidad Asociada al ICP-CSIC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Málaga, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique
    Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía (Unidad Asociada al ICP-CSIC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Málaga, Spain.
    Talon, Aldo
    Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Zhao, Haiguang
    Qingdao University – College of Physics & State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071, P. R. China.
    You, Shujie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Moretti, Elisa
    Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Ceria doping boosts methylene blue photodegradation in titania nanostructures2021In: Materials Chemistry Frontiers, E-ISSN 2052-1537, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 4138-4152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceria-doped titania photocatalysts (ceria loading 0.25–5.0 wt%) were synthesized by hydrothermal methods for water remediation. Nanotubes (CeTNTx) and nanoparticles (CeTNPx) were obtained. Ceria doping was applied to tune the electronic properties of nanostructured titania, boosting its photocatalytic activity. CeTNT nanostructures contained anatase as the only titania phase, whereas the CeTNP series consisted of both anatase and rutile polymorphs. The Ce addition induced a decrease in the energy gap, allowing enhancement of visible light harvesting. The photodegradation of methylene blue, MB, in aqueous solution was chosen to study the influence of the morphology and the ceria loading on the photocatalytic response, under UV and solar light. Both CeO2–TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes were found to be very active under UV light. The highest MB degradation rates were obtained for the 0.25 wt% CeO2 doping, for both nanotubes and nanoparticles (0.123 and 0.146 min−1, respectively), able to photodegrade completely the dye after 120 min. The two samples are stable after a 3-cycle reusability test. The photo-response under simulated solar light confirmed that doping titania with ceria allows harvesting visible light absorption, enhancing its photoactivity. A maximum efficiency of 85% under simulated sunlight at a degradation rate of 0.054 min−1 was obtained. Transient photoluminescence confirmed that MB acts as a charge scavenger for the composite system. These results pointed out ceria-doped titania nanostructures as a promising class of photocatalysts for the degradation of dyes and other hazardous organic compounds in wastewater.

  • 6.
    Ali, Asad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Laaksonen, Aatto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden; Center of Advanced Research in Bionanoconjugates and Biopolymers, ‘‘Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 700469, Romania; State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.
    Huang, Guo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hussain, Shahid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Luo, Shuiping
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.
    Shen, Pei Kang
    School of Resources, Environment and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, PR China.
    Zhu, Jinliang
    School of Resources, Environment and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, PR China.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Emerging strategies and developments in oxygen reduction reaction using high-performance Platinum-based electrocatalysts2023In: Nano Reseach, ISSN 1998-0124, E-ISSN 1998-0000Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ali, Asad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. School of Resources, Environment and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Featured Metal Materials and Life-cycle Safety for Composite Structures, Nanning 530004 Guangxi, P. R. China, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China; School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China.
    Liang, Fengxing
    School of Resources, Environment and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Featured Metal Materials and Life-cycle Safety for Composite Structures, Nanning 530004 Guangxi, P. R. China, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China.
    Feng, Huiyan
    School of Resources, Environment and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Featured Metal Materials and Life-cycle Safety for Composite Structures, Nanning 530004 Guangxi, P. R. China, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China; School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China.
    Tang, Mei
    School of Resources, Environment and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Featured Metal Materials and Life-cycle Safety for Composite Structures, Nanning 530004 Guangxi, P. R. China, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China.
    Jalil Shah, Syed
    School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China.
    Ahmad, Fawad
    Department of Chemistry, University of Wah, Quaid Avenue, Wah Cantt, (47010), Punjab, Pakistan.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kang Shen, Pei
    School of Resources, Environment and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Featured Metal Materials and Life-cycle Safety for Composite Structures, Nanning 530004 Guangxi, P. R. China, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China.
    Zhu, Jinliang
    School of Resources, Environment and Materials, State Key Laboratory of Featured Metal Materials and Life-cycle Safety for Composite Structures, Nanning 530004 Guangxi, P. R. China, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China.
    Gram-scale production of in-situ generated iron carbide nanoparticles encapsulated via nitrogen and phosphorous co-doped bamboo-like carbon nanotubes for oxygen evolution reaction2023In: Materials Science for Energy Technologies, E-ISSN 2589-2991, Vol. 6, p. 301-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing electrocatalytic activity and recognizing the most reactive sites for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts are valuable to the order of renewable power. In this research article, we explored an innovative in-situ annealing technique for constructing iron carbide nanoparticles (Fe3C NPs) encapsulated via nitrogen and phosphorous doped bamboo-shape carbon nanotubes (NP-CNTs) for OER. Interestingly, the constructed Fe3C NPs@NP-CNT-800 composite exhibited remarkable electrochemical operation and offered a stable current density of 10 mA/cm2 at a lower overpotential (280 mV) in an alkaline solution. Furthermore, an innovative Fe3C NPs@N,P-CNT-800 hybrid surpassed the standard RuO2 electrocatalyst in terms of OER performance and showed negligible degradation in chronoamperometric (21 h) and chronopotentiometry (3000 cycles) analyses. The remarkable performance and stability are ascribed to the Fe3C NPs, novel tubular bamboo-like morphology of its carbon materials, and heteroatom doping, which contribute to the electrochemical interfaces, large surface area, active catalytic sites, and rapid charge transfer kinetics.

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  • 8.
    Ali, Salamat
    et al.
    School of Materials and Energy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.
    Ahmad, Awais
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan; Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus Universitario de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie (C3), E-14014 Córdoba, Spain.
    Hussain, Iftikhar
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Shah, Syed Shoaib Ahmad
    Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.
    Ali, Shafqat
    Department of Physics, Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Khairpur, Sindh, 66202, Pakistan.
    Ali, Asad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan
    Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan; School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.
    Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of MXenes-Based Energy Storage and Energy Conversion Devices2023In: Journal of Chemistry and Environment, E-ISSN 2959-0132, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 54-81Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides (MXenes) have become an appealing framework for developing various energy applications. MXenes with van der Waals (vdW) interactions are facile, highly efficient, affordable, and self-assembled features that improve energy density. MXenes exhibit large surface area, high electric conductivity, and excellent electrochemical characteristics for various energy applications. This review summarizes and emphasizes the current developments in MXene with improved performance for energy storage or conversion devices, including supercapacitors (SCs), various types of rechargeable batteries (RBs), solar cells, and fuel cells. We discuss the crystal structures of MXenes properties of MXenes and briefly discuss them for different types of energy applications. Finally, the critical outlook and perspective for the MXene progress for applications in energy applications are also described.

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  • 9.
    Al-Jayyousi, Hiba
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates.
    Eswaran, Mathan Kumar
    SRM Research Institute, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Ray, Avijeet
    Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, India.
    Sajjad, Muhammad
    Department of Physics, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates.
    Larsson, J. Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Singh, Nirpendra
    Department of Physics, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates; Center for Catalysis and Separations, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi 127788, United Arab Emirates.
    Exploring the Superior Anchoring Performance of the Two-Dimensional Nanosheets B2C4P2 and B3C2P3 for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries2022In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 7, no 43, p. 38543-38549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential anchoring materials in lithium–sulfur batteries help overcome the shuttle effect and achieve long-term cycling stability and high-rate efficiency. The present study investigates the two-dimensional nanosheets B2C4P2 and B3C2P3 by employing density functional theory calculations for their promise as anchoring materials. The nanosheets B2C4P2 and B3C2P3 bind polysulfides with adsorption energies in the range from −2.22 to −0.75 and −2.43 to −0.74 eV, respectively. A significant charge transfer occurs from the polysulfides, varying from −0.74 to −0.02e and −0.55 to −0.02e for B2C4P2 and B3C2P3, respectively. Upon anchoring the polysulfides, the band gap of B3C2P3 reduces, leading to enhanced electrical conductivity of the sulfur cathode. Finally, the calculated barrier energies of B2C4P2 and B3C2P3 for Li2S indicate fast diffusion of Li when recharged. These enthralling characteristics propose that the nanosheets B2C4P2 and B3C2P3 could reduce the shuttle effect in Li–S batteries and significantly improve their cycle performance, suggesting their promise as anchoring materials.

  • 10.
    Alvi, Sajid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE‐412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Milczarek, Michal
    Department of Mechanics of Materials (ZMM), Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.
    Jarzabek, Dariusz M.
    Department of Mechanics of Materials (ZMM), Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.
    Hedman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Research Center for Computational Design of Advanced Functional Materials, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1‐1‐1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305‐8568 Japan; Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Ulsan, 44919 Republic of Korea.
    Gilzad Kohan, Mojtaba
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Levintant-Zayonts, Neonila
    Department of Mechanics of Materials (ZMM), Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre Venezia, Italy.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Enhanced mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of high‐entropy HfMoNbTaTiVWZr thin film metallic glass and its nitrides2022In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 24, no 9, article id 2101626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inception of high-entropy alloy promises to push the boundaries for new alloy design with unprecedented properties. This work reports entropy stabilisation of an octonary refractory, HfMoNbTaTiVWZr, high-entropy thin film metallic glass, and derived nitride films. The thin film metallic glass exhibited exceptional ductility of ≈60% strain without fracture and compression strength of 3 GPa in micro-compression, due to the presence of high density and strength of bonds. The thin film metallic glass shows thermal stability up to 750 °C and resistance to Ar-ion irradiation. Nitriding during film deposition of HfMoNbTaTiVWZr thin film of strong nitride forming refractory elements results in deposition of nanocrystalline nitride films with compressive strength, hardness, and thermal stability of up to 10 GPa, 18.7 GPa, and 950 °C, respectively. The high amount of lattice distortion in the nitride films leads to its insulating behaviour with electrical conductivity as low as 200 S cm−1 in the as-deposited film. The design and exceptional properties of the thin film metallic glass and derived nitride films may open up new avenues of development of bulk metallic glasses and the application of refractory-based high entropy thin films in structural and functional applications.

  • 11.
    An, Rong
    et al.
    Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.
    Laaksonen, Aatto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden; Center of Advanced Research in Bionanoconjugates and Biopolymers, “Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 700469, Romania; State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.
    Wu, Muqiu
    Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.
    Zhu, Yudan
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.
    Shah, Faiz Ullah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Atomic force microscopy probing interactions and microstructures of ionic liquids at solid surfaces2022In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, no 14, p. 11098-11128Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are room temperature molten salts that possess preeminent physicochemical properties and have shown great potential in many applications. However, the use of ILs in surface-dependent processes, e.g. energy storage, is hindered by the lack of a systematic understanding of the IL interfacial microstructure. ILs on the solid surface display rich ordering, arising from coulombic, van der Waals, solvophobic interactions, etc., all giving near-surface ILs distinct microstructures. Therefore, it is highly important to clarify the interactions of ILs with solid surfaces at the nanoscale to understand the microstructure and mechanism, providing quantitative structure–property relationships. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) opens a surface-sensitive way to probe the interaction force of ILs with solid surfaces in the layers from sub-nanometers to micrometers. Herein, this review showcases the recent progress of AFM in probing interactions and microstructures of ILs at solid interfaces, and the influence of IL characteristics, surface properties and external stimuli is thereafter discussed. Finally, a summary and perspectives are established, in which, the necessities of the quantification of IL–solid interactions at the molecular level, the development of in situ techniques closely coupled with AFM for probing IL–solid interfaces, and the combination of experiments and simulations are argued.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Brander, Linus
    Division of Built Environment—Infrastructure and Concrete, Research Institute of Sweden, SE-501 15 Borås, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Roos, Ake
    Boliden AB, SE-101 20 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    A Method for Synthesizing Iron Silicate Slags to Evaluate Their Performance as Supplementary Cementitious Materials2023In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, no 14, article id 8357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing iron silicate copper slag as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) is a means to improve resource efficiency and lower the carbon dioxide emissions from cement production. Despite multiple studies on the performance of these slags in SCM applications, the variations in cooling procedure, grinding, and methods for evaluating reactivity limit the ability to assess the influence of chemical composition on reactivity from the literature data. In this study, a methodology was developed to synthesize iron silicate slags, which were then evaluated for their inherent reactivity using the R-3 calorimeter-based experiments. The results demonstrated that laboratory-scale granulation produced the same reactivity as industrially granulated slag. Furthermore, a synthesized triplicate sample showed high repeatability. Based on these two aspects, this method can be used to systematically study the influence of chemical composition on the inherent reactivity of iron silicate slags while producing results that are directly translatable to industrial slags.

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  • 13.
    Babanejad, Safoura
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, P.O. Box 87, Helwan 114 21, Egypt.
    Andersson, Charlotte
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Hall, Björn
    Stena Recycling International AB, P.O. Box 4088, 400 40 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Arnerlöf, Linn
    Boliden Smelters, Klarabergsviadukten 90 A, Stockholm, Sweden.
    High-Temperature Behavior of Spent Li-Ion Battery Black Mass in Inert Atmosphere2022In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 8, p. 566-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased demand for Li-ion batteries has prompted the scientific community to improve recycling routes in order to reuse the valuable materials in batteries. After their end-of-life, the batteries are collected, discharged, and mechanically disintegrated, generating plastic and metallic streams that are recycled directly; this leaves behind a small particle size fraction known as black mass (BM). BM is composed mainly of graphite and Li-metal complex oxides. Pyrometallurgy is a route known for recycling of BM, in which identifying the BM’s behavior at high temperatures is essential. In this study, two types of BM are characterized in two fractions of 150–700 µm and smaller than 150 µm. The thermal behavior of the BM is studied with thermal analysis techniques. The analyses demonstrate that the mineralogical and morphological properties of the two fractions do not significantly differ, while the amounts of C and organic materials might vary. When the BM was thermally treated, the binders decomposed until a temperature of 500 ℃ was reached, where the volatilization of hydrocarbons was observed, although F mostly persisted in the BM. The Li-metal oxide was partially reduced to lower oxides and Li carbonate at ⁓ 600 ℃, and the main mass loss was caused by carbothermic reduction immediately thereafter. As the products of this process, metallic Co and Ni phases were formed, and part of the graphite remained unreacted. Regarding the Li behavior, it was observed that in the presence of Al, AlLiO2 is the most likely composition to form, and it changes to LiF by increasing the F concentration in the composition.

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  • 14.
    Bhatti, Adeel Liaquat
    et al.
    Institute of Physics University of Sindh Jamshoro, 76080, Sindh Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Dr. M.A Kazi Institute of Chemistry University of Sindh Jamshoro, 76080, Sindh Pakistan.
    Gradone, Alessandro
    Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Italian National Research Council, Section of Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129, Bologna, Italy; Department of Chemistry “G.Ciamician”, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
    Mazzaro, Raffaello
    Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Italian National Research Council, Section of Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129, Bologna, Italy; Department of Physics and Astronomy “A. Righi”, University of Bologna, Via Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127, Bologna, Italy.
    Morandi, Vittorio
    Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, Italian National Research Council, Section of Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129, Bologna, Italy.
    aftab, Umair
    Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, 7680 Jamshoro, Sindh Pakistan.
    Abro, Muhammad Ishaq
    Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, 7680 Jamshoro, Sindh Pakistan.
    Nafady, Ayman
    Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Qi, Kezhen
    Institute of Catalysis for Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034, China.
    Infantes-Molina, Antonia
    Department of Inorgnic Chemistry, Crystallography and Mineralogy. (Unidad Asociada al ICP-CSIC), Faculty of Sciences, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Malaga, Spain..
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, 30172 Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Dr. M.A Kazi Institute of Chemistry University of Sindh Jamshoro, 76080, Sindh Pakistan.
    Nanostructured Co3O4 electrocatalyst for OER: The role of organic polyelectrolytes as soft templates2021In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 398, article id 139338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing an efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media is highly needed but very challenging task. Herein, we used organic polyelectrolytes such as (carboxymethyl cellulose) CMC and polyacrylamide polymers for the growth of Co3O4 nanostructures by aqueous chemical growth method. The morphology and composition studies were performed on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The structural properties and the surface chemistry of the Co3O4 electrocatalysts were correlated to the OER performance, and the enhancement mechanism with respect to pristine Co3O4 was observed to be specifically related to the polyelectrolyte templating role.

    Co3O4@CMC composites displayed reduced crystallite size, producing OER overpotential as low as 290 mV at 10 mAcm−2 in 1.0 KOH and Tafel slope of 71 mVdec−1, suggesting fast transfer of intermediates and electrons during water electrolysis. On the other hand, the use of polyacrylamide and its different templating mechanism resulted in similar crystallite size, but preferential exposed faces and larger surface vacancies content, as demonstrated by HR-TEM and XPS, respectively. Consistently, this material displays cutting-edge OER performance, such as overpotential of 260 mV at 10 mAcm−2 and a low Tafel slope of 63 mVdec−1. The proposed strategy for the preparation of Co3O4 nanostructures in the presence of CMC and polyacrylamide is facile, mass production, thus it could equally contributed towards the realization of hydrogen energy. Therefore, these nanostructures of Co3O4 can be regarded as an alternative and promising materials for the different electrochemical applications including fuel cells, metal air batteries, overall water electrolysis and other energy storage devices.

  • 15.
    Bhowmick, Sourav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Tatrari, Gaurav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Filippov, Andrei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden; ALISTORE-European Research Institute, CNRS FR 3104, Hub de l’Energie, 80039 Amiens, France.
    Shah, Faiz Ullah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Structurally Flexible Pyrrolidinium- and Morpholinium-based Ionic Liquid Electrolytes2023In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 25, no 29, p. 19815-19823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion transport measures and details as well as physico-chemical and electrochemical properties are presented for a small set of structurally flexible pyrrolidinium (Pyrr) and morpholinium (Morph) cation-based ionic liquids (ILs), all with oligoether phosphate-based anions. All have high thermal stabilities, low glass transition temperatures, and wide electrochemical stability windows, but rather moderate ionic conductivities, whereas both the anions and the cations of the Pyrr-based ILs diffuse faster than those of the Morph-based ILs. Overall the former ILs have significantly more promise as high-temperature supercapacitor electrolytes, rendering a specific capacitance of 164 F g−1 at 1 mV s−1, a power density of 241 W kg−1 and a specific energy density of 30 Wh kg−1 at 90 °C in a symmetric graphite supercapacitor.

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  • 16.
    Bu, Xiangning
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Coal Processing and Efficient Utilization (Ministry of Education), School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.
    Danstan, January Kadenge
    Key Laboratory of Coal Processing and Efficient Utilization (Ministry of Education), School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.
    Hassanzadeh, Ahmad
    Department of Geoscience and Petroleum, Faculty of Engineering Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Maelgwyn Mineral Services Ltd, Cardiff, UK.
    Behrad Vakylabad, Ali
    Department of Materials, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Metal extraction from ores and waste materials by ultrasound-assisted leaching -an overview2022In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, ISSN 0882-7508, E-ISSN 1547-7401Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional leaching process is characterized by extensive reaction time, low efficiency, and considerable leaching reagent consumption. It was well demonstrated that using ultrasound could effectively enhance the leaching reaction rate by removing the passivating layer and increasing the mass transfer rates. This improvement would result from bubble cavitation and other mechanical-chemical mechanisms that ultrasounds can generate during ultrasound-assisted leaching (UAL). Thus, these days using UAL for the recovery and recycling of various valuable metals has markedly received attention as an environmentally friendly process. However, surprisingly no comprehensive overview has been provided to focus on various reaction mechanisms through the applications of UAL and deliberate them for nearly two decades. This work has explored various applications of UAL applied for ore and waste processing by a systematic approach to fill this gap. An overview of different mechanisms (mechanical, thermal, sonochemical) based on main ultrasound operating variables (frequency, power, and time) and their level of leaching effectiveness on the leaching metallurgical responses in varied conditions was discussed in detail. It was indicated that the common approach for conducting UAL investigation mainly focuses on improving the leaching efficiency of metals by using single-frequency ultrasound. While analyzing the correlation between ultrasonic cavitation theory and assisted leaching process and exploring the systematic effect of multi-frequency ultrasonic system need to be further clarified in future research. In general, the present work is going to potentially pave the path for understanding UAL and further its development in the future.

  • 17.
    Chandrasekaran, Sundaram
    et al.
    Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magneto-chemical, Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, PR China; College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, PR China.
    Zhang, Chenle
    College of Julong, Shenzhen Technology University, Shenzhen Guangdong 518118, PR China.
    Shu, Yiqing
    Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices, Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.
    Wang, Huide
    Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices, Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.
    Chen, Sanming
    College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, PR China.
    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Liu, Yongping
    Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magneto-chemical, Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, PR China.
    Namachivayam, Karthik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Misra, R.D.K.
    College of Engineering Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, Texas 79968, USA.
    Deng, Libo
    College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, PR China.
    Yin, Peng
    Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices, Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.
    Ge, Yanqi
    Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices, Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.
    Al-Hartomy, Omar A.
    Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed
    Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
    Wageh, Swelm
    Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
    Zhang, Peixin
    College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, PR China.
    Bowen, Chris
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, BA2 7AY Bath, UK.
    Han, Zhang
    Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices, Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.
    Advanced opportunities and insights on the influence of nitrogen incorporation on the physico-/electro-chemical properties of robust electrocatalysts for electrocatalytic energy conversion2021In: Coordination chemistry reviews, ISSN 0010-8545, E-ISSN 1873-3840, Vol. 449, article id 214209Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of a wide range of methods for incorporating nitrogen atoms on robust catalysts has given rise to fundamental advances in the field of energy conversion and storage. Recently, nitrogen incorporation has proven to be able to fine-tune the electron densities of exposed active sites to create high-performance electrocatalysts. The preservation of a strong interface between the local atomic coordination of nitrogen atoms on bare carbon, single metal atoms, transition metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, and MXenes during synthesis plays an important role in producing an efficient electrocatalysts. In addition, the ability of nitrogen atoms to bind with carbon or metal atoms can be influenced by processing conditions. In this regard, this review is the first comprehensive overview of the range of synthetic strategies to form nitrogen incorporated catalysts and assess their chemical, structural, physical electronic property modification and their influence on electrocatalytic ORR, OER, and HER performance. This review will describe how specific strategies have been utilized to realise effective electrocatalytic systems, including the energy conversion of nitrogen incorporated catalysts, structural coordination, and material optimization. Finally, the main challenges to be considered in future investigations in order to initiate new research efforts in this promising research area are discussed.

  • 18.
    Chen, Jun
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Björling, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    In-situ polymerized siloxane urea enhanced graphene-based super-fast, durable, all-weather elec-photo-thermal anti-/de-icing coating2023In: Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices, ISSN 2468-2284, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 100604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous investigations on anti-/de-icing techniques have primarily focused on mild laboratory conditions, which have limited practical applicability due to their short service life. Consequently, there is an urgent demand for the development of durable anti-/de-icing technologies capable of withstanding complex environmental conditions. In this research endeavour, we have successfully formulated a hydrophobic coating based on graphene. To circumvent the challenges associated with environmentally unfriendly organic solvents, we utilized a graphene water slurry as the foundational material and subsequently incorporated a poly (vinyl alcohol)-water solution. The resulting solution was subjected to in situ polymerization of a siloxane urea crosslinked polymer, yielding the desired coating solution. Following a solution spraying and drying process, the ultimate product obtained was the hydrophobic conductive graphene (HCG) siloxane Coating. The HCG siloxane Coating exhibits a conductivity of 66 S/m, enabling it to melt ice droplets within a mere 10 s, whereas conventional coatings require 20–500 s for the same task. A comprehensive field test conducted during an entire winter period on a high mountain situated within the Arctic Circle in Finland demonstrated the excellent anti-icing properties of the developed coating when subjected to approximately 310 W/m2 power. Furthermore, the coating exhibited satisfactory de-icing performance under approximately 570 W/m2 power, successfully removing ice accumulations within approximately 10 min. Throughout the field test, temperatures frequently plummeted to −20 °C, accompanied by wind speeds reaching up to 12 m/s. Material characterization revealed that the micro-nano structure of the coating surface, which engenders favourable hydrophobic behaviour, was primarily attributed to the phase separation resulting from hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, the semi-interpenetrating structure formed by the polyvinyl alcohol molecular chains and in-situ polymerized siloxane urea ensured the coating's strength.

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  • 19.
    Chen, Yuran
    et al.
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.
    Li, Pan
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.
    Bu, Xiangning
    School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu, China.
    Wang, Liqiang
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.
    Liang, Xuemin
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    In-depth purification of spent pot-lining by oxidation-expansion acid leaching: A comparative study2022In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 303, article id 122313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spent pot lining (SPL) is a hazardous solid waste generated after overhauling the aluminum electrolytic cell. SPL contains carbon resources with high graphitization and toxic impurities, such as NaF, Na3AlF6, and CaF2. These toxic substances are difficult to remove from graphite completely. This study introduces an innovative method of oxidation-expansion acid leaching (OEAL) to eliminate impurities inside the graphitized carbon. For such a purpose, typical purification methods (conventional leaching, flotation-acid leaching) were investigated and compared to OEAL. The experimental outcomes indicated that the process efficiency for removing SPL impurities by various methods had the following sequence from high to low: OEAL > flotation-acid leaching > conventional leaching. The maximum SPL impurities removal rate by conventional leaching and flotation-acid leaching was 89.65 %, while it was 99.36 % with the OEAL method. For understanding fundamental aspects of the SPL impurity removal, their rejection mechanisms in the examined methods were systematically studied by different instrumentals and chemical analysis techniques. As a result of the reaction between H+ and residuals during OEAL process, the distance between graphitized carbon layers expands. This expansion resulted in a qualitative improvement in the SPL impurity removal by OEAL, making SPL one of the graphite or graphene oxide resources.

  • 20.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Balasubramanian, Karthik Babu Nilagiri
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute, Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, 785697, Sivasagar, Assam, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rantuch, Peter
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Martinka, Jozef
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mohanty, Amar
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Misra, Manjusri
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Functionalised biochar in biocomposites: The effect of fire retardants, bioplastics and processing methods2023In: Composites Part C: Open Access, E-ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 11, article id 100368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire retardants, although can impart fire-safety in polymeric composites, are detrimental to the mechanical properties. Biochar can be used, in conjunction with fire retardants, to create a balance between fire-safety and mechanical performance. It is possible to thermally dope fire retardants into the pores of biochar to make it functionalised. Thus, the current work is intended in identifying a composite having the combination of the most desirable fire retardant, bioplastic, and a suitable processing method. A comparison was made between two fire retardants (lanosol and ammonium polyphosphate), bioplastics (wheat gluten and polyamide 11), and composite processing methods (compression and injection moulding). It was found that wheat gluten containing ammonium polyphosphate-doped biochar made by compression moulding had the best fire-safety properties with the lowest peak heat release rate (186 kW/m2), the highest fire performance index (0.6 m2s/kW), and the lowest fire growth index (1.6 kW/ms) with acceptable mechanical properties compared to the corresponding neat bioplastic. Thus, for gluten-based polymers, the use of ammonium polyphosphate thermally doped into biochar processed by compression moulding is recommended to both simultaneously improve fire-safety and conserve the mechanical strength of the resulting biocomposites.

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  • 21.
    Di Mauro, Alessandro
    et al.
    CNR-IMM, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Natile, Marta Maria
    Istituto di Chimica della Materia Condensata e Tecnologie per l’Energia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ICMATE-CNR) and Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova, Italy.
    Landström, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Concina, Isabella
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ferroni, Matteo
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Via Branze, Brescia, Italy. CNR-IMM, Via Gobetti, Bologna, Italy.
    Privitera, Vittorio
    CNR-IMM, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Impellizzeri, Giuliana
    CNR-IMM, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Epifani, Mauro
    CNR-IMM, Via Monteroni c/o Campus Universitario, 73100 Lecce, Italy.
    Visible Light Photodegradation of Dyes and Paracetamol by Direct Sensitization Mechanism onto Metallic MoO2 Nanocrystals2021In: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, ISSN 1010-6030, E-ISSN 1873-2666, Vol. 413, article id 113258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MoO2 nanocrystals were prepared by solvothermal treatment of a Mo chloromethoxide at 250 °C in oleic acid. The monoclinic MoO2 phase, with a mean crystallite size of 29 nm, formed through reduction of molybdenum bronzes. The as-prepared MoO2 nanocrystals were free from organics, allowing their use in photodegradation tests of organic pollutants (methylene blue, rhodamine B, paracetamol), without any preliminary purification treatment of the nanocrystals. It was found that MoO2 was an efficient adsorbent of methylene blue (43 mg g-1 for 1.5 × 10−4 M concentration) in the dark and an efficient photodegradation catalyst under visible light (all methylene blue removed from the solution after 240 min). From the analysis of the combined photodegradation tests of rhodamine B and paracetamol, it was clarified that direct sensitization was responsible for photodegradation. This finding was related to the work function value of metallic MoO2, placed at more negative values if compared with other metallic materials.

  • 22.
    Ding, Junwei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002, China.
    Zheng, Huaiyang
    College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002, China.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    One-step side-by-side 3D printing constructing linear full batteries2022In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 58, no 34, p. 5241-5244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-step side-by-side 3D printing method is proposed to construct linear lithium-, sodium-, and zinc-ion full batteries with high electrochemical performance. The inks of the battery components present shear thinning characteristics and can be printed on different substrates. This approach to design high performance linear full batteries is a general strategy.

  • 23.
    Ding, Junwei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, China.
    Zheng, Huaiyang
    College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, China.
    Wang, Shiwen
    College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, China.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hydrogenated borophene nanosheets based multifunctional quasi-solid-state electrolytes for lithium metal batteries2022In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 615, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that solid-state electrolytes have attracted broad research interests, the limited ion transfer and high interface impedance restrain their application in high-performance batteries with high cyclic stability and power density. Here, a new quasi-solid-state polymer electrolyte containing lightweight semiconducting hydrogenated borophene (HB) nanosheets, ionic liquids, and poly (ethylene oxide) is reported. The cyclic overpotential of the Li-Li symmetrical battery is about 65 mV lower than that of HB-free quasi-solid-state electrolyte, demonstrating the lower interface impedance. The interaction between lithium-ion and ethylene-oxide chains decreases owing to the existence of HB nanosheets and ionic liquids, which facilitates lithium-ion diffusion. The lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide molecule surface adsorption at the HB nanosheets enhances the dissociation of lithium ions, and thus the matched lithium iron phosphate/Li full cell delivers the acceptable rate performance up to 5C. This work provides a new filler candidate to enhance the ionic conductivity of quasi-solid-state electrolytes that may facilitate to construct the high-performance HB nanosheets and ionic liquids-based lithium metal batteries.

  • 24.
    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel
    et al.
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Atchudan, Raji
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Namachivayam, Karthik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Chandrasekaran, Pitchai
    Department of Chemistry, The Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Gandhigram, 624 302, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Perumal, Suguna
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Arunachalam, Prabhakarn
    Electrochemical Sciences Research Chair (ESRC), Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Raja, Pandian Bothi
    School of Science and Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia.
    Gopalakrishnan Sethuraman, Mathur
    Department of Chemistry, The Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Gandhigram, 624 302, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Lee, Yong Rok
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Electrochemically exfoliated graphene sheets as electrode material for aqueous symmetric supercapacitors2021In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 416, article id 127150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we have demonstrated a prompt anodic electrochemical exfoliation of graphite into graphene sheets (GS) in aqueous media. For the synthesis of GS, a constant potential of +10 V has been applied between two identical graphite sheets in 0.1 M aqueous ammonium sulfate. The exfoliated GS were characterized via standard analytical tools such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrum (FE-SEM with EDS). Further, the electrochemical performance of GS coated Ni foam (GS/Ni foam) was assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in 2 M KOH. The quasi-rectangular shaped voltammograms and charge-discharge curves in a three-electrode system evidenced the double-layer capacitance of GS and GS/Ni foam which exhibited maximum specific capacitance of 84.8 and 40. 8 F/g at 2 mV/s, and 0.1 A/g of current density, respectively. Moreover, the symmetric two-electrode performance of GS/Ni foam was also examined, which showed good energy density (3.03 Wh/kg) and power density (562.5 W/kg). This study proves that the anodically exfoliated GS can act as a good symmetric supercapacitor in KOH.

  • 25.
    Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel
    et al.
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Atchudan, Raji
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Namachivayam, Karthik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Chandrasekaran, Sundaram
    Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magneto-chemical, Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, PR China.
    Perumal, Suguna
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Raja, Pandian Bothi
    School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
    Perumal, Veeradasan
    Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia.
    Lee, Yong Rok
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Deep eutectic solvent assisted electrosynthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles on stainless steel mesh for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction2021In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 297, article id 120786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are considered as a green non-toxic electrolyte for the replacement of cyanide based toxic electrolytes towards the electrodeposition of noble metal and alloy nanoparticles on conducting surfaces. In this work, ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) are electrochemically synthesized over cathodically treated stainless-steel mesh (CSS) by applying the cathodic current of −15 mA/cm2 using ruthenium chloride and deep eutectic mixture consists of choline chloride/urea as electrolyte. The resulting material is abbreviated as RuNPs@CSS and are characterized by surface analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning elctron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrum (FE-SEM with EDS). Further, the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity of RuNPs@CSS is accessed and compared with state of art Pt electrode using open circuit potential (OCP), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 0.5 M H2SO4. The calculated HER's onset potential and over potential @ −10 mA/cm2 of RuNPs@CSS are about −0.0273 and −0.0657 V vs. RHE, which are very close to the bare Pt values. The EIS results suggested that, RuNPs@CSS possess excellent conductivity, which decrease the charge transfer resistance and enhances the HER. This study proved that the electrodeposited RuNPs@SS is better replacement for Pt based electrocatalysts towards acidic HER.

  • 26.
    El Ouardi, Youssef
    et al.
    Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Engineering Science, Department of Separation Science, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Lamsayah, Morad
    Laboratory of Applied and Environmental Chemistry (LCAE), Faculty of Science, University Mohammed First, 60 000, Oujda, Morocco.
    Butylina, Svetlana
    Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Engineering Science, Department of Separation Science, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Geng, Shiyu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Esmaeili, Mohammadamin
    Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Engineering Science, Department of Separation Science, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Giove, Alessio
    Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Engineering Science, Department of Separation Science, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland; Université de Toulon, MAPIEM, Toulon, France.
    Massima Mouele, Emile S.
    Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Engineering Science, Department of Separation Science, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Virolainen, Sami
    Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Engineering Science, Department of Separation Science, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland.
    El Barkany, Soufian
    Laboratory of Molecular Chemistry, Materials and Environment (LMCME), Department of Chemistry, Faculty Multidisciplinary Nador, Mohamed 1st University, P. B. 300, Nador 62700, Morocco.
    Ouammou, Abdelkrim
    LIMOME Laboratory, Dhar El Mehraz Faculty of Sciences, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, B.P. 1796, Atlas, Fes 30000, Morocco.
    Repo, Eveliina
    Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Engineering Science, Department of Separation Science, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Katri
    Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, School of Engineering Science, Department of Separation Science, Yliopistonkatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Sustainable composite material based on glutenin biopolymeric-clay for efficient separation of rare earth elements2022In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 440, article id 135959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare earth metals (REEs) are crucial for modern industries and technological development. Their extraction from non-renewable primary sources has almost reached its threshold due to excessive global demand. An effectual approach for REEs recovery is recycling secondary sources governed by separation materials. In this work, a novel glutenin-based Na-bentonite (Gle@Na_Bex:y) composite was produced via the in-situ hydrothermal route followed by a subsequent freeze-drying process. Additionally, a possible production route for the composites was proposed. The novel Gle@Na_Bex:y composites were characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, and zeta potential (ZP) measurements. FTIR results complemented with SEM images and XRD measurements confirmed the successful incorporation of glutenin into the Na-bentonite clay. The separation of REEs from aqueous solution was used as a model system to demonstrate the material’s ability for selective metal recovery. The best conditions (T, pH, time) for REE sorption were assessed using equilibrium batch adsorption experiments. The kinetics of REE adsorption were effectively explained by a pseudo-second-order model; all the adsorption equilibrium data followed the Langmuir model. Thermodynamic investigations revealed that the adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous, and the adsorption of REEs occurred through a chemisorption process. The sorption mechanism of REE ions was investigated using molecular modelling. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing Gle@Na_Be50:50 composite as an efficient material for REEs removal. The maximum adsorption capacities of Y3+, La3+, and Nd3+ achieved with Gle@Na_Be50:50, were 76.87, 56.71, and 74.61 mg/g, respectively. This work offers a new route for engineering, valuable composite materials for the separation of REEs from diverse sources.

  • 27.
    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, Armilla Granada, Spain. Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Sainz-Díaz, C. Ignacio
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, Armilla Granada, Spain.
    Chemobrionic Fabrication of Hierarchical Self‐Assembling Nanostructures of Copper Oxide and Hydroxide2019In: ChemSystemsChem, E-ISSN 2570-4206, Vol. 1, no 3, article id e1900011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper oxide nanostructures have great potential use in a plethora of nanotechnology applications including nanoelectronics, photovoltaics, sensors, electrochemistry, and pharmacology. In the present work we show how hierarchically nano‐structured copper oxide and hydroxide may be prepared through self‐assembly from CuSO4 salt and silicate solutions using the chemobrionic growth process of a chemical garden. Procedures were explored using the cupric salt in either solid (pellet and seed growth methods) or liquid phase (fluid injection techniques). Self‐assembling nanostructures were characterized by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) with energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, micro‐Raman spectroscopy and X‐ray diffraction. Our results show the formation of crystalline aggregates of copper oxide and hydroxide in complex hierarchical nanostructured forms including fans, flowers, petals, skeins, lentils, and sheaves. Analytical methods corroborate that these nanostructures may be selected in shape and chemical composition with the reaction conditions.

  • 28.
    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.; International Research Centre in Critical Raw Materials-ICCRAM, Universidad de Burgos, Burgos, Spain.
    Zorzano, María-Paz
    Department of Planetology and Habitability, Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), CSIC-INTA, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain; School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Sainz-Díaz, Claro Ignacio
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain; Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Self-Assembled Structures Formed in CO2-Enriched Atmospheres: A Case-Study for Martian Biomimetic Forms2022In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 863-879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biomimetic precipitation processes that follow the chemical-garden reaction of brines of CaCl2 and sulfate salts with silicate in alkaline conditions under a Mars-type CO2-rich atmosphere. We characterize the precipitates with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope micrography, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. Our analysis results indicate that self-assembled carbonate structures formed with calcium chloride can have vesicular and filamentary features. With magnesium sulfate as a reactant a tentative assignment with Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of natroxalate in the precipitate. These morphologies and compounds appear through rapid sequestration of atmospheric CO2 by alkaline solutions of silica and salts.

  • 29.
    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Hernández-Laguna, Alfonso
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Saínz-Díaz, C.Ignacio
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    DFT study of the reduction reaction of calcium perchlorate on olivine surface: Implications to formation of Martian’s regolith2020In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 512, article id 145634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perchlorates have been found widespread on the surface of Mars, their origin and degradation pathways are not understood to date yet. We investigate here, from a theoretical point of view, the potential redox processes that take place in the interaction of Martian minerals such as olivine, with anhydrous and hydrated perchlorates. For this theoretical study, we take as mineral substrate the (1 0 0) surface of forsterite and calcium perchlorate salt as adsorbate. Our DFT calculations suggests a reduction pathway to chlorate and chlorite. When the perchlorate has more than 4 water molecules, this mechanism, which does not require high-temperature or high energy sources, results in parallel with the oxidation of the mineral surface, forming magnesium peroxide, MgO2, and in the formation of ClO3, which through photolysis is known to form ClO-O2. Because of the high UV irradiance that reaches the surface of Mars, this may be a source of O2 on Mars. Our results suggest that this process may be a natural removal pathway for perchlorates from the Martian regolith, which in the presence of atmospheric water for salt hydration, can furthermore lead to the production of oxygen. This mechanism may thus have implications on the present and future habitability of the Martian surface.

  • 30.
    Fedina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Belelli, Filippo
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via G. La Masa 1, 20156, Milano, Italy.
    Lupi, Giorgia
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via G. La Masa 1, 20156, Milano, Italy.
    Brandau, Benedikt
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Jenoptik Optical Systems GmbH, Göschwitzersrasse 25, 07745 Jena, Germany.
    Casati, Riccardo
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via G. La Masa 1, 20156, Milano, Italy.
    Berneth, Raphael
    Fraunhofer IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Brueckner, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development. Fraunhofer IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
    Kaplan, Alexander F.H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Influence of AlSi10Mg powder aging on the material degradation and its processing in laser powder bed fusion2022In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 412, article id 118024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of powder aging on the degradation of AlSi10Mg powder during processing in laser powder bed fusion. Powder aging as result of handling, continuous storage and recycling is a fundamental concern for aluminum alloys as it introduces oxygen to the feedstock material. In this work, the analysis of the powder properties, affected by laser exposure and the aging procedure, showed a change of chemical and morphological characteristics of the powders in virgin and aged conditions. The oxygen content in the powders appeared to have a significant effect on the powders' surface appearance and light absorbance, gradually deteriorating the processability of the powders with the increase of oxygen level. Optical microscopy and X-ray computed tomography were used to analyze the porosity distribution in the printed part samples, identifying the origin, size and location of the pores. A direct relationship between the pore occurrence in final parts and the oxygen content in the powders was observed, revealing a higher degree of porosity in the aged powder sample (6.5%) in comparison with the virgin state (3.16%). The evolution of mechanical properties in the part samples after laser processing and powder aging was also studied, demonstrating a rapid decrease of ultimate tensile strength and elongation from virgin condition to aged.

  • 31.
    Feltrin, Ana C.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Hedman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Transformation of metastable dual-phase (Ti0.25V0.25Zr0.25Hf0.25)B2 to stable high-entropy single-phase boride by thermal annealing2021In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 119, no 16, article id 161905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition metal borides have a unique combination of high melting point and high chemical stability and are suitable for high temperature applications (>2000 °C). A metastable dual-phase boride (Ti0.25V0.25Zr0.25Hf0.25)B2 with distinct two hexagonal phases and with an intermediate entropy formation ability of 87.9 (eV/atom)−1 as calculated via the density functional theory (DFT) was consolidated by pulsed current sintering. Thermal annealing of the sintered dual-phase boride at 1500 °C promoted the diffusion of metallic elements between the two boride phases leading to chemical homogenization and resulted in the stabilization of a single-phase high-entropy boride. Scanning electron microscopy, in situ high temperature x-ray diffraction, and simultaneous thermal analysis of the as-sintered and annealed high-entropy borides showed the homogenization of a dual-phase to a single-phase. The experimentally obtained single-phase structure was verified by DFT calculations using special quasirandom structures, which were further used for theoretical investigations of lattice distortions and mechanical properties. Experimentally measured mechanical properties of the single-phase boride showed improved mechanical properties with a hardness of 33.2 ± 2.1 GPa, an elastic modulus of 466.0 ± 5.9 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 4.1 ± 0.6 MPa m1/2.

  • 32.
    Feltrin, Ana Carolina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Akhtar, Farid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    High-temperature oxidation kinetics of a metastable dual-phase diboride and a high-entropy diboride2023In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 43, no 16, p. 7363-7372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processing of multicomponent (Ti0.25V0.25Zr0.25Hf0.25)B2 ultra-high temperature hexagonal transition metal diboride in dual-phase and single-phase microstructures and investigation of oxidation behavior in the air at 1000 and 1500 °C are reported. The dual-phase diboride is a metastable phase composed of Hf-Zr-rich and Ti-V-rich phases that undergo phase transformation to a single-phase high-entropy diboride after thermal annealing. At 1000 °C, a B2O3 layer was formed on the material's surface, and the oxidation kinetics followed a para-linear behavior. At 1500 °C, a porous oxide layer was formed, facilitating oxygen diffusion and reaction with the diboride, resulting in linear oxidation kinetics. The prediction of the lifetime of the materials during high-temperature oxidation suggested that the high-entropy material outperforms the dual-phase diboride, making it most suitable for related applications. The superior performance of the high-entropy single-phase diboride was associated with the high-entropy and sluggish diffusion effects.

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  • 33.
    Foroutan, Masumeh
    et al.
    Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran 1455-6455, Iran.
    Fadaei Naeini, Vahid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Alibalazadeh, Mahtab
    Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran 1455-6455, Iran.
    Unraveling Flow Separation at the Water–Carbon Nanotube Interface: An Atomic-Scale Overview by Molecular Dynamics Simulation2022In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 38, no 14, p. 4256-4265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow separation near the fluid–solid surface has attracted attention for decades. It is critical to understand the behavior of separated flow adjacent to the solid walls to broaden its range of potential applications. Therefore, we conducted molecular dynamics investigations to consider water flow separation at the water–carbon nanotube (CNT) interface for different diameters of CNTs between 13 and 50 Å and different pressures of 0.1–1.254 GPa. Density heat maps indicated that water flow separation is observed for all CNTs under high pressures, and an empty space of water molecules or evacuation is formed behind the CNTs. It is shown that in CNTs with small diameters, (10, 10) and (20, 20), the structure of the first layer (FL) of water molecules or hydrated layer adjacent to the CNT wall is completely preserved, indicating that evacuation occurs from behind the CNTs. In (30, 30) and (40, 40) CNTs, flow separation occurred from the FL of water molecules near the solid surface, and the layered structure of water around CNTs is completely destroyed. Our findings of fluid–solid and fluid–fluid interaction energies suggested that the flow separation can be due to an attraction between the FL of water molecules and CNT and a repulsion between the water molecules in the hydrated layer and the outer layers. Moreover, analyzing the relationship between the CNT size and flow separation revealed that in the case of small CNTs, there are extra water molecules that contribute to the structural stability of the hydrated layer by strengthening the repulsive interaction in the liquid–liquid surface.

  • 34.
    Geng, Shiyu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Maennlein, Alexis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Yu, Liang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Mechanical & Industrial Engineering (MIE), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G8, Canada.
    Monolithic carbon aerogels from bioresources and their application for CO2 adsorption2021In: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, ISSN 1387-1811, E-ISSN 1873-3093, Vol. 323, article id 111236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monolithic binder-free CO2 adsorbents with high adsorption capacity, selectivity, adsorption-desorption kinetics, and regenerability are highly desired to both reduce the environmental impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and purify valuable gases from CO2. Herein, we report a strategy to prepare monolithic carbonaceous CO2 adsorbents from low-cost and underutilized bioresources, which enabled the formation of a delicate anisotropic, hierarchical porous structure. With optimized material composition and processing conditions, the biobased carbon adsorbent demonstrated a CO2 adsorption capacity of 4.49 mmol g-1 at 298 K and 100 kPa, relatively weak adsorbent-adsorbate affinity, good CO2/N2 selectivity, and advantageous hydrophobicity against water vapor. Moreover, the unique anisotropic porous structure provided high stiffness and good flexibility to the adsorbent in the axial and radial directions, respectively. We confirmed that this type of carbon adsorbent could be packed in a column for dynamic CO2 capture independent of any binders, indicating its promising future for further development toward widespread utilization.

  • 35.
    Gergely, Andras
    et al.
    Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Pannonia, Egyetem, Hungary .
    Szabó, Péter
    Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Pannonia, Egyetem, Hungary .
    Krojer, Antal
    Department of Inspection and Maintenance, Mol Nyrt., Olajmunkás, Hungary .
    Nagy, Bence
    Refining Research and Innovation, Mol Nyrt., Hungary .
    Kristof, Tamas
    Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Pannonia, Egyetem, Hungary .
    Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion of Carbon and Stainless Steel Alloys in Mixtures of Renewable Fuel Sources under Co-Processing Conditions2018In: Modern Applied Science, ISSN 1913-1844, E-ISSN 1913-1852, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 227-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion rates of steel alloys were investigated in gas oil and its mixture with waste cooking oil and animal waste lard over 1, 3, 7 and 21 days under desulfurizing condition. Co-processing conditions were attempted to simulate by batch-reactor experiment at temperatures between 200 and 300oC and pressures between 20 and 90 bar in the presence of 2 volume% hydrogen sulfide. Integral and differential corrosion rates were defined by weight losses. Intense sulfide corrosion of carbon steels was less impacted by the biomass sources. Thinner scales in gas oil was probably due to frequent cohesive failure, whereas thicker layers in biomass mixtures were allowed to form to afford limited physical protection. The high corrosion rate of low alloy steel with temperature over time is related to inefficient protection by the metal sulfide scales. Greater activation energy and enthalpy balance in the formation of activated complex is expected to reflect in thick cohesive scales. Loose layers and the less unfavorable entropy balance in the transition state did not lead to valuable barrier protection. High sulfide corrosion resistance of stainless steels is in chemical in nature markedly impacted by the biomass fuel sources and contributed especially by the acidic species. Corrosion rates increased with temperature by magnitude similar to those of carbon steels, which probably owes to the less unfavorable entropy and free energy balance between the initial and transition states of the reactants.

  • 36.
    Gezahegn, S.
    et al.
    Centre for Biocomposites and Biomaterials Processing, Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B3, Canada.
    Wei, Jiayuan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8, Canada.
    Sain, Mohini
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Centre for Biocomposites and Biomaterials Processing, Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B3, Canada; Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8, Canada.
    Lignin Spinning and Carbonization to Nano-Layered Graphitic Structure2019In: Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Composite Materials: Melbourne, Australia, August 11-16, 2019 / [ed] Adrian Mouritz; Chun Wang; Bronwyn Fox, RMIT University , 2019, p. 1482-1488, article id 110Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphitic lignin-based nanocarbons were prepared from spun lignin/PVA nanofiber networks using dry pyrolysis (DP) at 900 oC and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 200 oC under a pressure of ~200 psi. The graphite formations were confirmed in both DP and HTC treated samples using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivity of DP treated samples was improved by 14 % compared to the HTC treated samples, showing that DP converts lignin into more conductive graphite components. The photoluminescence of both charring methods showed similar patterns, with the highest emission at 320 nm. The DP samples had two times higher intensity than the HTC samples and were red-shifted, while the HTC samples showed more broad peaks. Corroborating with Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results, functional groups from lignin residue were present in the HTC samples, while they were attenuated in the DP samples. The most important finding of this study is that spun Lignoboost lignin/PVA fibers prepared via two different charring methods yield layered graphitic materials.

  • 37.
    Ghomi, Erfan Rezvani
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran; Center for Nanotechnology and Sustainability, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117581, Singapore.
    Khorasani, Saied Nouri
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Koochaki, Mohammad Sadegh
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran; Research and Development Department, Alvan Paint & Resin Production Co., Tehran, 13991-53611, Iran.
    Dinari, Mohammad
    Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Ataei, Shahla
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Enayati, Mohammad Hossein
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Synthesis of TiO2 nanogel composite for highly efficient self-healing epoxy coating2023In: Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2090-1232, Vol. 43, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Organic coatings are the most effective and facile methods of protecting steel against corrosion, which shields it from direct contact with oxygen and moisture. However, they are inherently defective and susceptible to damage, which allows the penetration of the corrosive media into the underlying substrates. Self-healing coatings were developed to address this shortcoming.

    Objective

    The current research aims to develop a coating with superior self-healing ability via embedment of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanogel composite (NC) in a commercial epoxy.

    Methods

    The TiO2 NC was prepared by efficient dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles in copolymer gel of acrylamide (AAm) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) with the help of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS). The chemical structure, morphology, and thermal properties of the modified and functionalized nanoparticles were assessed by infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. In addition, TiO2 nanoparticles, nano-TiO2 functionalized monomer (NTFM), and NTFM/AAm/AMPS in different weight percentages were incorporated into epoxy resin to prepare a self-healing coating.

    Results

    The results confirmed the successful fabrication of the NC. In addition, the incorporation of 1 wt% NTFM/AAm/AMPS led to homogenous dispersion, enhanced anti-corrosive and self-healing performance with the healing efficiencies of 100% and 98%, which were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization methods, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The prepared NC was sensitive towards salt concentration, pH, which aids the quick reaction of the TiO2 NC to corrosive ions, once the cracks occur. In addition, this is a unique feature compared to the other self-healing mechanisms, especially, the encapsulation of healing agents, which can be effective as long as the healing agent is present.

  • 38.
    Ghosh, Amar
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Behala College, Kolkata-700060, West Bengal, India; Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India.
    Kumar De, Sandip
    Nanophotonics Group, Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata-700064, West Bengal, India.
    Mondal, Subrata
    Nanophotonics Group, Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata-700064, West Bengal, India.
    Halder, Animesh
    Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India.
    Barai, Manas
    Department of Chemistry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721102, West Bengal, India.
    Chandra Guchhait, Kartik
    Department of Human Physiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721102, West Bengal, India.
    Raul, Priyanka
    Department of Human Physiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721102, West Bengal, India.
    Karmakar, Sanat
    Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal, India.
    Ghosh, Chandradipa
    Department of Human Physiology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721102, West Bengal, India.
    Patra, Anuttam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Kumar Panda, Amiya
    Department of Chemistry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721102, West Bengal, India.
    Senapati, Dulal
    Nanophotonics Group, Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata-700064, West Bengal, India.
    Kumar Sur, Ujjal
    Department of Chemistry, Behala College, Kolkata-700060, West Bengal, India.
    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its applications as sensor, catalyst, and antibacterial agent2023In: Materials Today: Proceedings, E-ISSN 2214-7853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have reported for the first time a solvated electron mediated reduction of silver ion (Ag+) in presence of extract of Murraya koenigii (Mk) leaf as a surfactant to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Synthesized NPs show efficient ascorbic acid sensing at the µM range along with selective detection of different metal ions due to the presence of different biomolecules on the surface which are present in the extract. Synthesized nontoxic AgNPs will also exhibit proficient photocatalytic behavior for the degradation of toxic dyes due to the effective coupling between surface plasmon of AgNPs and the excited state continuum of the dye fluorophores. AgNPs will also exhibit substantial antibacterial activities. Altogether, our biosynthesized nontoxic NPs could be effectively used as both chemical and biosensor, catalyst as well as antibacterial agent.

  • 39.
    Gnezdilov, Oleg I.
    et al.
    Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia.
    Filippov, Andrei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering. Medical and Biological Physics, Kazan Medical University, 420012, Kazan, Russia.
    Khan, Inayat Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Shah, Faiz Ullah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Translational and reorientational dynamics of ionic liquid-based fluorine-free lithium-ion battery electrolytes2022In: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 345, article id 117001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The translational as well as reorientational mobilities of fluorine-free electrolytes prepared by mixing lithium furan-2-carboxylate Li(FuA) salt with tetra(n-butyl)phosphonium furan-2-carboxylate (P4444)(FuA) ionic liquid are thoroughly investigated. The diffusivity of ions and T1 relaxation of protons belonging to various chemical groups of (P4444)+ and (FuA) ions and the Li+ ion present in these electrolytes are measured as a function of lithium salt concentration and temperature. The temperature dependence of correlation time for reorientational mobility of various chemical groups of (P4444)+ and (FuA) ions and the Li+ ion are estimated and used in calculations temperature dependence of the corresponding reorientational rates. It is shown that an increase in the concentration of lithium salt leads to a decrease in both the diffusion coefficients and the reorientation rates for all the chemical groups in concerted way. Activation energy of the reorientational rates for different chemical groups of the organic ions and the Li+ are discussed in details.

  • 40.
    Gong, Jie
    et al.
    College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou, 213001, Jiangsu, PR China.
    Tong, Fei
    College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou, 213001, Jiangsu, PR China.
    Zhang, Chunyong
    College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou, 213001, Jiangsu, PR China.
    Nobandegani, Mojtaba Sinaei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Yu, Liang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Zhang, Lixiong
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, PR China.
    Bacterial cellulose assisted synthesis of hierarchical pompon-like SAPO-34 for CO2 adsorption2022In: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, ISSN 1387-1811, E-ISSN 1873-3093, Vol. 331, article id 111664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, a biosynthesis route for the preparation of hierarchical pompon-like SAPO-34 was developed. Commercially available bacterial cellulose aerogel was used as template. SiO2 loaded bacterial cellulose aerogel was used as silica source and a simple hydrothermal treatment was used for crystallization. XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption and TG techniques were employed to characterize the obtained samples. The hierarchical pompon-like SAPO-34 showed a spherical morphology that was comprised of nanosheets with a thickness less than 30 nm. The specific surface area of the hierarchical pompon-like SAPO-34 was 498 m2/g that was higher than the trigonal SAPO-34 crystals of 465 m2/g. The ultrasonic treatment experiment indicated a high stability of the pompon-like structure. In addition, the hierarchical pompon-like SAPO-34 exhibited a CO2 adsorption capacity of 2.26 mmol/g at 100 kPa and 298K and the corresponding CO2/CH4 ideal separation factor was 5.7, which was higher than that of trigonal SAPO-34 crystals. The saturated adsorption capacity and b-value were estimated using single site Langmuir, Toth and Sips adsorption isotherm models and the observed results were constant. Compared with trigonal SAPO-34, hierarchical pompon-like SAPO-34 displayed a higher saturated adsorption capacity, but a lower b-value.

  • 41.
    Gong, Xiao
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.
    Jiang, Hang
    State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.
    Cao, Mengyan
    State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.
    Rao, Zhihui
    State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.
    Zhao, Xiujian
    State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Molecular Sciences and Nano Systems, Ca' Foscari University of Venice Via Torino 155, 30172 Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Eu-doped ZnO quantum dots with solid-state fluorescence and dual emission for high-performance luminescent solar concentrators2021In: Materials Chemistry Frontiers, E-ISSN 2052-1537, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 4746-4755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy-metal-free quantum dots (QDs) are promising luminophores for luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) because of environmental friendliness, which is essential for industrial applications. In order to keep high optical quality and inhibit aggregation-induced quenching, usually QDs can only be loaded at low concentration in a polymer optical waveguide material for LSCs, which significantly impairs the power conversion efficiency (PCE). Thus, it is a challenge to fabricate high-performance LSCs with high QD loading. Here, dual emission Eu-doped ZnO QDs with strong solid-state fluorescence are synthesized via a simple sol–gel method, which enables two characteristic photoluminescence peaks at 551 nm and 614 nm. Furthermore, Eu-doped ZnO QDs with dual fluorescence emission are for the first time reported to be applied in LSCs. The performance of LSCs can be influenced by the loading concentration of Eu-doped ZnO QDs in polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) films. The obtained external optical efficiency (ηopt) of the LSCs based on Eu-doped ZnO QDs can be relatively high (4.37%) compared to the reported LSCs with a similar area when the loading concentration of Eu-doped ZnO QDs is up to 13.2% because of both their high photoluminescence intensity and dual fluorescence emission. Our results demonstrate that dual emission Eu-doped ZnO QDs with strong solid-state fluorescence are promising candidates as luminophores for LSCs.

  • 42.
    Govindan, V.
    et al.
    Research Centre, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai, 603 110, India; Centre for Excellence, Functional Materials Technology Group, Ensemble3, Warsaw, Poland.
    Lellala, Kashinath
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Geetha, G. V.
    Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 003, India.
    Senthilpandian, M.
    Research Centre, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai, 603 110, India.
    Ramasamy, P.
    Research Centre, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai, 603 110, India.
    Sankaranarayanan, K.
    Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 003, India.
    One-pot microwave synthesis of SnSe and Lanthanum doped SnSe nanostructure with direct Z scheme pattern for excellent photodegradation of organic pollutants2022In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 12228-12239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel nanostructure photocatalytic material was fabricated using Lanthanum doped SnSe by one-pot microwave method is reported to newest. Photocatalytic performance efficiency of pristine SnSe and Lanthanum doped SnSe nanostructures were investigated to degrade organic pollutants from wastewater. The crystal structure, morphology, and optical properties of the nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, UV–Vis, and PL spectral studies. Nano rods/spheres for pure SnSe were altered significantly leading to higher amounts of nanorods due to La doped and increase in concertation leads higher formation of nanorods. Increased in structure and morphology played a vital role in photocatalytic activity. Nanostructure exhibits enhanced physicochemical properties and showed an excellent synergetic effect demonstrating the effect of La (1, 3, and 5%) concentrations in SnSe nanostructure. The optical energy gap has a reducing trend due to the increment of doping concentration. The individual elements oxidation states were justified from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopical studies. Thermal stability and phase changes of the nanostructure before and after doping of La were evaluated through TGA/DTA analysis. From the photocatalytic measurement rare-earth (La) doped samples expressed higher catalytic nature than the pure SnSe. It was observed that the higher atomic element La had a significant role to produce a large number of electron-hole pair recombination and defective structure in the host lattice.

  • 43.
    Hameed, Arslan
    et al.
    Catalysis and Nanomaterials Lab 27, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Batool, Mariam
    Catalysis and Nanomaterials Lab 27, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Iqbal, Waheed
    Catalysis and Nanomaterials Lab 27, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Abbas, Saghir
    Catalysis and Nanomaterials Lab 27, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
    Imran, Muhammad
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
    Khan, Inayat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Nadeem, Muhammad Arif
    Catalysis and Nanomaterials Lab 27, Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    ZIF-12/Fe-Cu LDH Composite as a High Performance Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation2021In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 9, article id 686969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are being used as electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reactions (OERs). However, low current densities limit their practical applications. Herein, we report a facile and economic synthesis of an iron-copper based LDH integrated with a cobalt-based metal-organic framework (ZIF-12) to form LDH-ZIF-12 composite (1) through a co-precipitation method. The as-synthesized composite 1 requires a low overpotential of 337 mV to achieve a catalytic current density of 10 mA cm−2 with a Tafel slope of 89 mV dec−1. Tafel analysis further demonstrates that 1 exhibits a slope of 89 mV dec−1 which is much lower than the slope of 284 mV dec−1 for LDH and 172 mV dec−1 for ZIF-12. The slope value of 1 is also lower than previously reported electrocatalysts, including Ni-Co LDH (113 mV dec−1) and Zn-Co LDH nanosheets (101 mV dec−1), under similar conditions. Controlled potential electrolysis and stability test experiments show the potential application of 1 as a heterogeneous electrocatalyst for water oxidation.

  • 44.
    Han, Mei
    et al.
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.
    Wang, Changhong
    Institute of Molecular Plus, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.
    Zhong, Jun
    Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.
    Han, Jingrui
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.
    Wang, Ning
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4, Canada.
    Seifitokaldani, Ali
    Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, H3A 0C5, Canada.
    Yu, Yifu
    Institute of Molecular Plus, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.
    Liu, Yongchang
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.
    Sun, Xuhui
    Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, 30172 Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Liang, Hongyan
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, P. R. China.
    Promoted Self-construction of β-NiOOH in Amorphous High Entropy Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction2022In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, ISSN 0926-3373, E-ISSN 1873-3883, Vol. 301, article id 120764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exploration of an efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is urgently required for sustainable renewable-energy conversion and storage. Due to the increased chemical complexity, multimetallic catalysts provide flexibility to alter their electronic and crystal structure to attain a superior intrinsic catalytic activity via synergistic effects, which is seldom accomplished using single metal catalysts. However, the high chemical complexity increases the difficulty to prepare elemental homogenous catalysts and reveal their synergistic effect during OER process, which further hinder the design of multimetallic catalysts. Here, high entropy concept is utilized to design an NiFeCoMnAl oxide with amorphous structure as OER catalyst. The direct evidence of active Ni sites is provided by the operando Raman measurements and Fe can modify oxygen intermediates binding energy on Ni sites. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveal that the incorporation of Mn can construct the electron-rich environment of active Ni center, and the relatively lower oxidation state of Ni facilitates the self-construction of β-NiOOH intermediates, which shows promoted OER activity as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. Doping Co can enhance the conductivity and doping Al leads to the formation of nanoporous structure through dealloying process, thus each component is essential for improving OER performance. The optimized NiFeCoMnAl catalyst exhibits an overpotential of 190 mV at 10 mA cm-2 in 1 M KOH solution, much superior to the ternary and quaternary counterparts. This work sheds light on understanding the origin of high entropy catalysts’ OER activity and thereby enables the rational design of multinary transition metallic catalysts.

  • 45.
    Han, Yi
    et al.
    School of Basic Medicine, Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071, P. R. China.
    Zhao, Xiujian
    State Key Laboratory of a Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Molecular Science and Nano Systems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice Via Torino 155, 30172 Venezia Mestre, Italy.
    Gong, Xiao
    State Key Laboratory of a Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.
    Zhao, Haiguang
    State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, College of Textiles & Clothing, College of Physics, University-Industry Joint Center for Ocean Observation and Broadband Communication, Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071, P. R. China.
    Red and green-emitting biocompatible carbon quantum dots for efficient tandem luminescent solar concentrators2021In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 12255-12262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are large-scale sunlight collectors, consisting of fluorophores embedded in waveguides, which can concentrate part of the absorbed sunlight at the borders of the slab through wave-guided photoluminescence. Benefiting from their low-cost and semi-transparency, they exhibit great potential for building integrated photovoltaics. Among various types of fluorophores, carbon quantum dots (C-dots) have attracted great interest due to their relatively high quantum yield (QY), low-cost, non-toxic composition and simple synthetic methods. Unfortunately, most red-emitting C-dots with high QYs were synthesized using relatively toxic and expensive precursors. The C-dots exhibiting red-emission synthesized using sustainable precursors (e.g. citric acid) have QYs less than 20%. Here we synthesized the red-emitting C-dots produced by using citric acid and urea as precursors and N,N-diethylformamide as the solvent via a solvothermal reaction. The red C-dots have a broad absorption from 300–650 nm, with a QY as high as 40% in ethanol. In addition, the C-dots exhibited good biocompatibility, even for a C-dot concentration up to 1000 μg mL−1. The LSC (LSC area 100 cm2) based on red C-dots exhibited a solar-to-electricity power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.9% under natural sunlight illumination (35 mW cm−2). We combined red-emitting C-dots with green-emitting C-dots prepared via a vacuum heating approach. By using a tandem structure, composed of two slabs each incorporating a different C-dot type, the obtained PCE of the LSC based on the combination of red and green C-dots further increases up to 2.3% (under the same irradiance equal to 35 mW cm−2), which is comparable to the reported PCEs for the LSCs based on C-dots or other types of fluorophores. This work indicates that the red-emitting C-dots produced by low-cost and environmentally-friendly precursors exhibit great potential as building blocks for the environmentally compatible LSCs.

  • 46.
    Hedman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Casting and Characterization of Advanced High Strength Steels2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Latin American steel making company Ternium S.A. aims to develop and produce a new type of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) in which the main alloying elements are carbon, aluminium, manganese, and silicon. The present work is the first phase of the development project and it involves casting and characterization of four steel compositions with varying amounts of the aforementioned elements.

    The results revealed that the Mn-content had a large impact on the development of hard phases during solidification. A steel with a Mn-content of 2 %wt. had almost completely transformed to pearlite during cooling, while a steel with a 4 %wt. Mn-content consisted of primarily martensite and retained austenite. Only the impact of the Mn-content is evaluated.

    The columnar grain size for two of the four steel compositions were in the range of 20-30 mm, which is similar to those observed from continuous casting. This indicate that the heat transfer rate was slow enough to allow these grains to grow. Measurements during casting showed an initial cooling rate of 10-20°C/min at a distance of 10 mm inside the ingot, which is much slower than the surface cooling rate during continuous casting (100-150°C/min). It was assumed that the cooling rate was similar for all castings since the methodology was identical. However, the steel used for cooling rate measurements was not characterized, why a correlation between cooling rate and composition could not be obtained.

    A heat transfer model was developed to gain further knowledge of the solidification process. As a reference to the heat transfer model, a eutectic Bi-42Sn alloy was cast with temperaturemonitoring using a casting setup identical to that of the steel castings. A similar cooling rate tothe Bi-42Sn reference casting was obtained where the cooling was faster from above of the ingot than below. Thus, the last part of the metal to solidify during the simulation was situated in the lower half of the ingot. This provides a model for testing future steel compositions.

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  • 47.
    Hegedűs, Péter
    et al.
    Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Pannonia, Hungary.
    Szabó-Bárdos, Erzsébet
    Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Pannonia, Hungary.
    Horváth, Ottó
    Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Pannonia, Hungary.
    Szabó, Péter
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Pannonia, Hungary.
    Horváth, Krisztián
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Pannonia, Hungary.
    Investigation of a TiO2 photocatalyst immobilized with poly(vinyl alcohol)2017In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 284, p. 179-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilization of TiO2 photocatalyst was realized with application of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). However, these PVA-based foils were too instable to be used for photocatalytic water cleaning. Their stability could be significantly enhanced by a thermal treatment, but this procedure generated various water-soluble derivatives such as aldehydes, ketones, and aromatic species. Photocatalytic pre-treatment of the foils proved to be suitable to remove these products from the surface of the composite. After three subsequent pre-treating cycles of irradiation and rinsing, the PVA-TiO2 foil became applicable for photocatalytic degradation of Triton X-100, a widely used non-ionic detergent. The composite catalyst kept its stability and efficiency even after some cycles of re-usage, while its surface underwent a perceptible, although quantitatively negligible degradation.

  • 48.
    Hernández-Laguna, Alfonso
    et al.
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Pérez del Valle, Carlos
    DCM and ISTerre, Université Grenoble Alps, France.
    Hernández-Haro, Noemí
    Departament de Química, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Ortega-Castro, Joaquín
    Departament de Química, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Muñoz-Santiburcio, Daniel
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain; CIC nanoGUNE, San Sebastián, Spain.
    Vidal, Isaac
    Apoyo a la Docencia - Centro de Servicios de Informática y Redes de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain; Grupo de Modelización y Diseño Molecular, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Sánchez-Navas, Antonio
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain; Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Escamilla-Roa, Elizabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Granada, Spain.
    Sainz-Díaz, Claro Ignacio
    Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Av. de las Palmeras 4, 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Compressibility of 2M1 muscovite-phlogopite series minerals2019In: Journal of Molecular Modeling, ISSN 1610-2940, E-ISSN 0948-5023, Vol. 25, no 11, article id 341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscovite (Ms) and phlogopite (Phl) belong to the 2:1 dioctahedral and trioctahedral layer silicates, respectively, and are the end members of Ms-Phl series minerals. This series was studied in the 2M1 polytype and modeled by the substitution of three Mg2+ cations in the Phl octahedral sites by two Al3+ and one vacancy, increasing the substitution up to reach the Ms. The series was computationally examined at DFT level as a function of pressure to 9 GPa. Cell parameters as a function of pressure and composition, and bulk moduli as a function of the composition agrees with the existing experimental results. The mixing Gibbs free energy was calculated as a function of composition. From these data, approximated solvi were calculated at increasing pressure. A gap of solubility is found, decreasing the gap of solubility at high pressure.

  • 49.
    Hsu, Yu-Kai
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Chungshan North Rd., Taipei City 104, Taiwan.
    Mondal, Aniruddha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Chungshan North Rd., Taipei City 104, Taiwan.
    Su, Ying-Zhou
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Chungshan North Rd., Taipei City 104, Taiwan.
    Sofer, Zdenek
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28, Prague 6, Czech Republic.
    Shanmugam Anuratha, Krishnan
    Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, No. 181, Sec. 3, Taichung Port Rd., Taichung City 40704, Taiwan.
    Lin, Jeng-Yu
    Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, No. 181, Sec. 3, Taichung Port Rd., Taichung City 40704, Taiwan.
    Highly hydrophilic electrodeposited NiS/Ni3S2 interlaced nanosheets with surface-enriched Ni3+ sites as binder-free flexible cathodes for high-rate hybrid supercapacitors2022In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 579, article id 151923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, nanostructured nickel sulfides (NiS, Ni3S2 and NiS/Ni3S2) were fabricated directly on the surface of flexible carbon fiber cloths by simply modifying the deposition parameters of pulse-reversal (PR) electrodeposition method and utilized as binder-free flexible electrodes for aqueous hybrid supercapacitors (SCs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurement studies verifies that the surface of heterostructure NiS/Ni3S2 electrode has enriched Ni3+ sites and highly hydrophilic nature. Consequently, the heterostructure NiS/Ni3S2 electrode demonstrated superior rate capability than that of both single phase NiS and Ni3S2 electrodes. Additionally, the hybrid SC device based on the flexible NiS/Ni3S2 electrode delivered a capacity of 40.4 mAh g−1 at a current density of 2 A g−1 and representing a maximum energy density of 32.3 Wh kg−1 at an impressive power density of 1.6 kW kg−1. Furthermore, the device provided excellent electrochemical stability with a capacity retention of 86.2%, even after a 120-h floating test. Hence, the heterostructure NiS/Ni3S2 with interlaced nanosheets morphology should be considered as promising binder-free flexible electrode materials for next-generation energy storage applications.

  • 50.
    Hu, Haiman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Li, Jiajia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Confining Ionic Liquids in Developing Quasi‐Solid‐State Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries2023In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, article id e202302826Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of confining ionic liquids (ILs) in developing quasi-solid-state electrolytes (QSSEs) has been proposed, where ILs are dispersed in polymer networks/backbones and/or filler/host pores, forming the so-called confinement, and great research progress and promising research results have been achieved. In this review, the progress and achievement in developing QSSEs using IL-confinement for lithium metal batteries (LMBs), together with advanced characterizations and simulations, were surveyed, summarized, and analyzed, where the influence of specific parameters, such as IL (type, content, etc.), substrate (type, structure, surface properties, etc.), confinement methods, and so on, was discussed. The confinement concept was further compared with the conventional one in other research areas. It indicates that the IL-confinement in QSSEs improves the performance of electrolytes, for example, increasing the ionic conductivity, widening the electrochemical window, and enhancing the cycle performance of the assembled cells, and being different from those in other areas, i.e., the IL-confinement concept in the battery area is in a broad extent. Finally, insights into developing QSSEs in LMBs with the confinement strategy were provided to promote the development and application of QSSE LMBs.

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