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  • 1.
    Abba, Alia Besma
    et al.
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Saggai, Sofiane
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Touil, Youcef
    Laboratory of Biogeochemical of Desert Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Kouadri, Saber
    Laboratory of Water and Environment Engineering in Saharan Environment, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Nouasria, Fatima Zohra
    Dynamic Interactions and Reactivity of Systems, University of Ouargla, PB 147 RP, Ouargla 30000, Algeria.
    Najm, Hadee Mohammed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Zakir Husain Engineering College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.
    Mashaan, Nuha S.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.
    Eldirderi, Moutaz Mustafa A.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia.
    Khedher, Khaled Mohamed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, High Institute of Technological Studies, Mrezgua University Campus, Nabeul 8000, Tunisia.
    Copper and Zinc Removal from Wastewater Using Alum Sludge Recovered from Water Treatment Plant2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 16, article id 9806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to determine Aluminum sludge composition and structure for its valorisation as an alternative natural material for heavy metals removal from wastewater for further reuse as treated water in different applications. The study was conducted to investigate the introduction of Al-bearing sludge composition. The physical and chemical properties were examined using X-ray diffraction tests (XRD), scanning electron microscope tests (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared tests (FTIR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller tests (BET). Furthermore, the heavy metal concentrations of synthetic wastewater were measured using the spectrophotometry method. The experimental procedure is based on testing different pH limits and amounts of aluminum sludge to find the optimum conditions for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal. The results demonstrated a high removal efficiency where its value reached up to 97.4% and 96.6% for Zn and Cu, respectively, in an acidic medium (pH = 6) using a relatively high amount of sludge (1400 mg). Nevertheless, a low efficiency was obtained in the strongly acidic medium (pH = 4) and a smaller sludge amount of about 480 mg.

  • 2.
    Abd El‑Hameed, Mona M.
    et al.
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Abuarab, Mohamed E.
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Abdel Mottaleb, Shady
    Agricultural Botany Department - Plant Physiology Division, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Bakeer, Gomaa A.
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Gyasi‑Agyei, Yeboah
    School of Engineering and Built Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, 4111, Australia.
    Mokhtar, Ali
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Phycoremediation of contaminated water by cadmium (Cd) using two cyanobacterial strains (Trichormus variabilis and Nostoc muscorum)2021In: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 33, no 1, article id 135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Water pollution with heavy metals is a severe dilemma that concerns the whole world related to its risk to natural ecosystems and human health. The main objective was to evaluate the removal efficiency of Cd of various concentrations from contaminated aqueous solution by use of two cyanobacterial strains (Nostoc muscorum and Trichormus variabilis). For this purpose, a specially designed laboratory pilot-scale experiment was conducted using these two cyanobacterial strains on four different initial concentrations of Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L−1) for 21 days.

    Results

    N. muscorum was more efficient than T. variabilis for removing Cd (II), with the optimum value of residual Cd of 0.033 mg L−1 achieved by N. muscorum after 21 days with initial concentration of 0.5 mg L−1, translating to removal efficiency of 93.4%, while the residual Cd (II) achieved by T. variabilis under the same conditions was 0.054 mg L−1 (89.13% removal efficiency). Algal growth parameters and photosynthetic pigments were estimated for both cyanobacterial strains throughout the incubation period.

    Conclusions

    High Cd concentration had a more toxic impact on algal growth. The outcomes of this study will help to produce treated water that could be reused in agrarian activities.

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  • 3.
    Abdelnasser, Amr
    et al.
    Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University. Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha.
    Kumral, Mustafa
    Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University.
    Zoheir, Basem
    Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benaha.
    Karaman, Muhittin
    Geological Engineering Department, Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    REE geochemical characteristics and satellite-based mapping of hydrothermal alteration in Atud gold deposit, Egypt2018In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, ISSN 0899-5362, Vol. 145, p. 317-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New geochemical data of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with gold-bearing quartz veins at Atud mine are used for better understanding the ore evolution and exploration vectoring. ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI data are used to elucidate the distribution of gold-associated alteration zones. Three alteration zones are defined; zone 1 (sericite-kaolinite-quartz-pyrite), zone 2 (quartz-sericite-albite-pyrite), and zone 3 (chlorite-carbonate-epidote ± pyrite). Sericite and hydrothermal quartz are confined to the mineralized quartz veins. Fe-OH and OH-bearing minerals are observed along NW- and NE-trending shear zones in the Main Atud mine. The association of gold-bearing quartz veins and sericite alteration is constrained by processing ASTER- and OLI-imagery data. The geochemical data of the ore-enveloping hydrothermally altered rocks are used to assess the behavior of the REEs during the mineralization process. Mild enrichment in LREE and significant enrichment in the HREE are associated with sericite in zones (1) and (2) alterations. Carbonate alteration (zone 3) is enriched in LREE and in immobile HREE. Moreover, LREE and Eu anomalies have negative correlated with the Alteration Index (A.I.) and K2O index (K.I.) in zones 1 and 2, suggesting high mobility of LREE in K-rich hydrothermal fluids. On the other hand, HREE anomalies with increasing MgO index (M.I.) in alteration zone 3 may imply low solubility of these elements in alkaline solutions. Au anomalies linked to sericite/silica alteration is a rather meaningful vector for further exploration in the area.

  • 4.
    Abdolmaleki, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pal, Mahendra K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Exploration of IOCG Mineralizations Using Integration of Space-Borne Remote Sensing Data with Airborne Geophysical Data2020In: XXIV ISPRS Congress, Commission III (Volume XLIII-B3-2020) / [ed] N. Paparoditis, C. Mallet, F. Lafarge, J. Jiang, A. Shaker, H. Zhang, X. Liang, B. Osmanoglu, U. Soergel, E. Honkavaara, M. Scaioni, J. Zhang, A. Peled, L. Wu, R. Li, M. Yoshimura, K. Di, O. Altan, H. M. Abdulmuttalib, F. S. Faruque, International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) , 2020, p. 9-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, remote sensing technologies are playing a significant role in mineral potential mapping. To optimize the exploration approach along with a cost-effective way, narrow down the target areas for a more detailed study for mineral exploration using suitable data selection and accurate data processing approaches are crucial. To establish optimum procedures by integrating space-borne remote sensing data with other earth sciences data (e.g., airborne magnetic and electromagnetic) for exploration of Iron Oxide Copper Gold (IOCG) mineralization is the objective of this study. Further, the project focus is to test the effectiveness of Copernicus Sentinel-2 data in mineral potential mapping from the high Arctic region. Thus, Inglefield Land from northwest Greenland has been chosen as a study area to evaluate the developed approach. The altered minerals, including irons and clays, were mapped utilizing Sentinel-2 data through band ratio and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. Lineaments of the study area were extracted from Sentinel-2 data using directional filters. Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were used for classification and analysing the available data. Further, various thematic maps (e.g., geological, geophysical, geochemical) were prepared from the study area. Finally, a mineral prospectively map was generated by integrating the above mentioned information using the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP). The prepared potential map for IOCG mineralization using the above approach of Inglefield Land shows a good agreement with the previous geological field studies.

  • 5.
    Abdulhameed, Isam Mohammed
    et al.
    University of Anbar, College of Engineering, Upper Euphrates Basin Developing Centre, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Sulaiman, Sadeq Oleiwi
    University of Anbar, College of Engineering, Dams and Water Resources Department, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Ahmed Najm, Abu Baker
    University of Anbar, College of Engineering, Dams and Water Resources Department, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Optimising water resources management by Using Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) in the West of Iraq2022In: Journal of Water and Land Development, ISSN 1429-7426, no 53, p. 176-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been suffering from decreasing Euphrates discharge due to the construction of dams within upstream countries and the use of surface irrigation systems. The country is facing a problem with meeting the increasing demand for water as a result of population growth and development in the industrial and agricultural sectors. Therefore, a simulation modelling was applied for western Iraq (Ramadi city as a case study) using the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) for the period 2018–2035. This research follows a four-step approach that involves: (i) evaluating the available water of the Euphrates River under declined water imports caused by the construction of dams in Turkey and Syria, (ii) assessing present and future water demands of the domestic, industrial, and agricultural sectors, (iii) improving water productivity (WP) by means of saving more water, (iv) estimating the economic returns under improved water use. The results showed that Iraq would face a serious problem in the coming years, represented by the limited storage of Haditha Dam, which is considered the strategic water storage site for the central and southern regions of Iraq. The study indicated the necessity of finding alternative sources of water supply by adopting new water management strategies to reduce the water deficit. 

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  • 6.
    Abdul-Kareem, Mohammed B.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Rashid, Hayder M.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Hassan, Waqed H.
    College of Engineering, University of Warith Al-Anbiyaa, Kerbala, Iraq; Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Kerbala 56001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Lakhera, Sandeep Kumar
    Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Hatshan, Mohammad Rafe
    Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Faisal, Ayad A.H.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Preparation of coated MgFe layered double hydroxide nanoparticles on cement kiln dust and intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate as an intermediate layer for the adsorption of estrogen from water2023In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 344, article id 140338Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abdulredha, Muhammad
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq.
    Al-Samarrai, Shatha Y.
    Chemistry Department, College of Science, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq.
    Hussein, Ameer H.
    Al-Mussaib Technical Institute/Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Babylon, Iraq.
    Sadi Samaka, Isra’a
    Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Aldhaibani, Omar A.
    Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.
    Electrochemical defluorination of water: an experimental and morphological study2022In: Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, ISSN 2043-9083, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 394-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study concerns the elimination of fluoride from water using an electrocoagulation reactor having a variable flow direction in favour of increasing the electrolysing time, saving the reactor area, and water mixing. The detention time of the space-saver EC reactor (S-SECR) was measured and compared to the traditional reactors using an inert dye (red drain dye). Then, the influence of electrical current (1.5 ≤ δ ≤ 3.5 mA cm−2), pH of water (4 ≤ pH ≤ 10), and distance between electrodes (5 ≤ ϕ ≤ 15) on the defluoridation of water was analysed. The effect of the electrolysing activity on the electrodes' morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the operational cost was calculated. The results confirmed the removal of fluoride using S-SECR met the guideline of the World Health Organization (WHO) for fluoride levels in drinking water of ≤1.5 mg/L. S-SECR abated fluoride concentration from 20 mg/L to the WHO's guideline at δ, ϕ, pH, operational cost, and power consumption of 2.5 mA cm−2, 5 mm, 7, 0.346 USD m−3, and 5.03 kWh m−3, respectively. It was also found the S-SECR enhanced the detention time by 190% compared to the traditional reactors. The appearance of dents and irregularities on the surface of anodes in the SEM images proves the electrolysing process.

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  • 8.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Chief Researcehr, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimaniyah, KRG, Iraq.
    Climate Change and the Need for Future Research2022In: Water Resources in Iraq: Perspectives and Prognosis (ICWRPP 2022), Institute of Physics (IOP), 2022, article id 012029Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate Changes have impacted our planet since the beginning of time. These were manifested by cyclic Ice Ages and Warm Periods ever since. The changes were caused by natural forcing such as, continental drift, plate tectonics, major volcanic eruptions, and internal dynamics of earth and oceans interactions with the atmosphere. The present warm period, the “Holocene Epoch”, is not different from other such periods except for the sharp global warming which began at the onset of the industrial revolution. This was proven by scientific research to be due to anthropogenic drives, i.e., increased fossil fuel burning and increased Co2 and other Green House Gases (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. These gases trap the sun radiation reflected from earth surface and result in higher earth temperature. The steep rate of rise in temperature trend since 1960s is directly linked to the use of much more fossil fuels in power production and transportation. This has led to more research to quantify the changes and their impacts on the environment and humans. This paper gives a brief history of the scientific research carried out hitherto and policy suggestions made so far to combat the negative impacts of the increasing global warming of the world. Needed future scientific research in this field is outlined, while at the same time suggesting the needs of Iraq of such research. This includes among other things, forming a regional scientific panel for the Middle East countries (ME. IPCC) for carrying out research on regional level, fostering research on national level, encouraging academics for climate change-oriented research and providing the necessary funds and facilities for such research.

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  • 9.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Management Department, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq.
    Jehad Fahmi, Khalid
    Consulting Engineering Seismologist, SeisEng International, Toronto, Canada.
    Ali Abed, Salwan
    College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Diwaniyah, Iraq.
    Climate Change: Droughts and Increasing Desertification in the Middle East, with Special Reference to Iraq2022In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 235-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change impacts on Earth’s atmosphere have caused drastic changes in the environment of most regions of the world. The Middle East region ranks among the worst affected of these regions. This has taken forms of increasing atmospheric temperatures, intensive heat waves, decreased and erratic precipitation and general decline in water resources; all leading to frequent and longer droughts, desertification and giving rise to intensive and recurrent (SDS). The present conditions have led to increasing emissions of (GHG) in the earth atmosphere. All future projections especially those using (IPCC) models and emission scenarios indicate that the Middle East will undergo appreciable decrease in winter precipitation with increasing temperature until the end of this century both of which are inductive to increased dryness and desertification. Iraq as one of the countries of this region and due to its geographical location, its dependence mostly on surface water resources originating from neighboring countries, long years of neglect and bad land management put it in the most precarious and unstable position among the other countries of the region. Modelling studies have shown that Iraq is suffering now from excessive dryness and droughts, increasing loss of vegetation cover areas, increasing encroachment of sand dunes on agricultural lands, in addition to severe and frequent (SDS). These negative repercussions and their mitigations require solutions not on the local level alone but collective cooperation and work from all the countries of the region.

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  • 10.
    Agostinetti, Nicola Piana
    et al.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Universitadi Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, I-20126 Milano, Italy; Department of Geology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Malinverno, Alberto
    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, NY, USA.
    Bodin, Thomas
    Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, ENSL, CNRS, LGL-TPE, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France.
    Dahner, Christina
    Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Dineva, Savka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Kissling, Eduard
    Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Weighing geophysical data with trans-dimensional algorithms: An earthquake location case studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In geophysical inverse problems, the distribution of physical properties in an Earth model is inferred from a set of measured data. A necessary step is to select data that are best suited to the problem at hand. This step is performed ahead of solving the inverse problem, generally on the basis of expert knowledge. However, expert-opinion can introduce bias based on pre-conceptions. Here we apply a trans-dimensional algorithm to automatically weigh data on the basis of how consistent they are with the fundamental assumptions made to solve the inverse problem. We demonstrate this approach by inverting arrival times for the location of a seismic source in an elastic half space, under the assumptions of a point source and constant velocities. The key advantage is that the data do no longer need to be selected by an expert, but they are assigned varying weights during the inversion procedure.

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  • 11. Ahl, Martin
    et al.
    Bergman, Stefan
    Bergström, Ulf
    Eliasson, Thomas
    Ripa, Magnus
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Geochemical classification of plutonic rocks in central and northern Sweden2001Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ask, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lund, Björn
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Revealing the deeper structure of the end-glacial Pärvie fault system in northern Sweden by seismic reflection profiling2015In: Solid Earth Discussions, ISSN 1869-9537, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 537-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault scarps that extend up to 155 km and have offsets of tens of meters at the surface are present in the northern parts of Finland, Norway and Sweden. These fault scarps are inferred to have formed during earthquakes with magnitudes up to 8 at the time of the last deglaciation. The Pärvie fault system represents the largest earthquake so far documented in northern Scandinavia, both in terms of its length and its calculated magnitude. It is also the longest known glacially induced fault in the world. Present-day microearthquakes occur along the length of the fault scarp on the eastern side of the scarp, in general agreement with an east dipping main fault. In the central section of the fault, where there is a number of subsidiary faults east of the main fault, it has been unclear how the earthquakes relate to the faults mapped at the surface. A seismic profile across the Pärvie Fault system acquired in 2007, with a mechanical hammer as a source, showed a good correlation between the surface mapped faults and moderate to steeply dipping reflectors. The most pronounced reflector could be mapped to about 3 km depth. In an attempt to map the fault system to deeper levels, a new 22 km long 2-D seismic profile which followed the 2007 line was acquired in June 2014. For deeper penetration an explosive source with a maximum charge size of 8.34 kg in 20 m deep shot holes was used. Reflectors can now be traced to deeper levels with the main 65◦ east dipping fault interpreted as a weakly reflective structure. As in the previous profile, there is a pronounced strongly reflective 60◦ west dipping structure present to the east of the main fault that can now be mapped to about 8 km depth. Extrapolations of the main and subsidiary faults converge at a depth of about 11.5 km where current earthquake activity is concentrated, suggesting their intersection has created favorable conditions for seismic stress release. Based on the present and previous seismic reflection data, potential locations for future boreholes for drilling into the fault system are proposed.

  • 13.
    Ahmadlou, Mohammad
    et al.
    GIS Department, Geodesy and Geomatics Faculty, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Karimi, Mohammad
    GIS Department, Geodesy and Geomatics Faculty, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The use of maximum entropy and ecological niche factor analysis to decrease uncertainties in samples for urban gain models2023In: GIScience & Remote Sensing, ISSN 1548-1603, E-ISSN 1943-7226, Vol. 60, no 1, article id 2222980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is a common problem in spatial modeling and geographical information systems (GIS). Furthermore, urban gain modeling (UGM) contains various dimensions and components of uncertainties. Data sampling is important in UGM, and may cause the results of the models to contain many uncertainties as well as affects their precision and accuracy. A poorly sampled or biased dataset can lead to inaccurate predictions and decreased performance of the models. This paper aims to present and develop novel strategies for sampling and building training datasets that can enhance the performance of data-driven models. In other words, the present study used maximum entropy (ME) and ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA) models to select pure non-change samples with minimal uncertainty for training datasets in UGM of Isfahan and Tabriz cities in Iran. The urban gain of two time intervals of 1992–2002 and 2002–2012 were used for Tabriz City and two time intervals of 1994–2004 and 2004–2014 for Isfahan City. Nine and 14 urban gain drivers were used in the UGM of Isfahan and Tabriz cities, respectively. After the ME and ENFA models produced a training dataset with change and non-change samples with the lowest uncertainty, three well-known models, namely random forest (RF), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM) were used for the modeling. Moreover, the ME and ENFA models that were used to investigate the uncertainty of the sampling procedure were used as the one-class prediction models. Compared to extant studies, the proposed ME – based sampling strategy increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), figure of merit, producer’s accuracy, and overall accuracy by 5.5%, 5%, 5%, and 3%, respectively, in the validation phase of Isfahan City and by 5%, 6%, 14%, and 17%, respectively, for Tabriz City. For Isfahan, the accuracies of ME (AUROC = 0.649) and ENFA (AUROC = 0.661) one – class models were closer to that of the ANN – ME (AUROC = 0.646), ANN – ENFA (AUROC = 0.619), and RF – ENFA (AUROC = 0.631) models but differed significantly from that of the RF – ME (AUROC = 0.737) model. For Tabriz, the accuracies of ME (AUROC = 0.657) and ENFA (AUROC = 0.688) one – class models were lower than that of the two class RF-ME (AUROC = 0.852), and ANN-ME (AUROC = 0.778) models. The results showed that the ME model was able to identify relatively pure non-change samples and properly remove impure non-change samples from the training dataset. This study discovered that binary models are preferable to one-class models, and showed that an optimal sampling strategy is an essential step in UGM as it can decrease uncertainty. As such, modelers must adopt efficient sampling methods.

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  • 14.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Dold, Bernhard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Proenza, Joaquin A.
    UB, Dept Mineral Petrol & Geol Aplicada, Barcelona, Spain.
    Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina
    Univ Brighton, SET, Brighton, E Sussex, England.
    Torro, Lisard
    Pontifical Catholic Univ Peru PUCP, Fac Sci & Engn, Geol Engn Program, Lima, Peru.
    Ramirez, Australia
    Serv Geol Nacl, Santo Domingo, Dominican Rep.
    Rodriguez, Jesus
    Serv Geol Nacl, Santo Domingo, Dominican Rep.
    Geochemistry of REE-rich karst bauxite ore deposits from the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic2019In: Proceedings of the 15th SGA Biennial Meeting, 27-30 August, University of Glasgow Publicity Services , 2019, Vol. 4, p. 1834-1836Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the geochemistry of REE-rich karst bauxite ore from several deposits of the Sierra de Bahoruco (Dominican Republic) has been investigated. The bauxite ores are geochemically heterogenous and show differences with respect to major, minor and trace elements. According to their major element geochemistry, the studied ores classify mostly as Fe-rich bauxites. The minor elements Cr and Ni are in general relatively high (up to 1250 and 2370 ppm, respectively), hence pointing towards a (ultra-)mafic source for the bauxite formation. The sum of REE contents range from similar to 400 to similar to 5400 ppm (average similar to 1200 ppm) at varying LREE/HREE between similar to 1 and similar to 25 (average similar to 8). In general, REE chondrite-normalized patterns for studied bauxites show negative Ce and Eu anomalies with rather flat segments for HREE. However, three samples from different bauxite ore deposits with the highest REE contents show significant enrichment trends for heavier REE, particularly for Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd as well as for Tb and Dy (one sample). Mineralogical studies reveal that formation of secondary REE-bearing minerals (i.e. phosphates, carbonates and oxides) occurred. Karst bauxite ores hosted in the Sierra de Bahoruco represent an excellent natural laboratory to study the geochemical behaviour of REE in weathering systems.

  • 15.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès s/n, Barcelona, 08028, Spain.
    González-Jiménez, José M.
    Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, Granada, 18002, Spain; ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems (CCFS), GEMOC National Key Centre, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia.
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès s/n, Barcelona, 08028, Spain.
    Galí, Salvador
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès s/n, Barcelona, 08028, Spain.
    Longo, Francisco
    Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Catolica Tecnologica del Cibao (UCATECI), Ave. Universitaria, esq. Ave. Pedro Rivera, P.O. Box 401, La Vega, Dominican Republic.
    Griffin, William L.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems (CCFS), GEMOC National Key Centre, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia.
    O’Reilly, Suzanne Y.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems (CCFS), GEMOC National Key Centre, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia.
    Open system Re-Os isotope behavior in platinum-group minerals during laterization?2021In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this short communication, we present preliminary data on the Re-Os isotopic systematics of platinum-group minerals (PGM) recovered from different horizons in the Falcondo Ni-laterite in the Dominican Republic. The results show differences in the Os-isotope composition in different populations of PGM: (i) pre-lateritic PGM yield 187 Os/188 Os varying from 0.11973 ± 0.00134 to 0.12215 ± 0.00005 (2σ uncertainty) whereas (ii) lateritic PGM are more radiogenic in terms of 187 Os/188 Os (from 0.12390 ± 0.00001 to 0.12645 ± 0.00005; 2σ uncertainty). We suggest that these differences reflect the opening of the Re-Os system in individual grains of PGM during lateritic weathering. The implications of these results are twofold as they will help to (1) elucidate the small-scale mobility of noble metals in the supergene setting and therefore the possible formation of PGM at these very low temperatures, (2) better refine the Os-isotopic datasets of PGM that are currently being used for defining dynamic models of core–mantle separation, crustal generation, and fundamental plate-tectonic processes such as the opening of oceans.

  • 16.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Crystallography, Mineralogy, and Ore Deposits, University of Barcelona.
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Font-Bardia, Mercé
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Baurier-Aymat, Sandra
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Galí, Salvador
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Lewis, John F.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, George Washington University, .
    Longo, Francisco
    Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Católica Tecnológica del Cibao (UCATECI), La Vega.
    Supergene neoformation of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloys: multistage grains explain nugget formation in Ni-laterites2016In: Mineralium Deposita, ISSN 0026-4598, E-ISSN 1432-1866, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic host rare but extremely platinum-group element (PGE)-rich chromitites (up to 17.5 ppm) without economic significance. These chromitites occur either included in saprolite (beneath the Mg discontinuity) or as ‘floating chromitites’ within limonite (above the Mg discontinuity). Both chromitite types have similar iridium-group PGE (IPGE)-enriched chondrite normalized patterns; however, chromitites included in limonite show a pronounced positive Pt anomaly. Investigation of heavy mineral concentrates, obtained via hydroseparation techniques, led to the discovery of multistage PGE grains: (i) Os-Ru-Fe-(Ir) grains of porous appearance are overgrown by (ii) Ni-Fe-Ir and Ir-Fe-Ni-(Pt) phases which are overgrown by (iii) Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni mineral phases. Whereas Ir-dominated overgrowths prevail in chromitites from the saprolite, Pt-dominated overgrowths are observed within floating chromitites. The following formation model for multistage PGE grains is discussed: (i) hypogene platinum-group minerals (PGM) (e.g. laurite) are transformed to secondary PGM by desulphurization during serpentinization; (ii) at the stages of serpentinization and/or at the early stages of lateritization, Ir is mobilized and recrystallizes on porous surfaces of secondary PGM (serving as a natural catalyst) and (iii) at the late stages of lateritization, biogenic mediated neoformation (and accumulation) of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni nanoparticles occurs. The evidence presented in this work demonstrates that in situ growth of Pt-Ir-Fe-Ni alloy nuggets of isometric symmetry is possible within Ni-laterites from the Dominican Republic.

  • 17.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Crystallography, Mineralogy, and Ore Deposits, University of Barcelona.
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Galí, Salvador
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Rius, Jordi
    Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
    Longo, Francisco
    Falcondo Glencore, Santo Domingo .
    Domènech, Cristina
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Facultat de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de Barcelona (UB).
    The supergene origin of ruthenian hexaferrum in Ni-laterites2017In: Terra Nova, ISSN 0954-4879, E-ISSN 1365-3121, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 106-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For two decades, the nature of Fe‐rich, oxygen‐bearing, Ru–Os compounds found in the supergene environment has been debated. Ru–Os–Fe‐oxides and nano‐intergrowths of ruthenium with magnetite have been proposed. We applied FE‐SEM, EMPA, μ‐Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron tts‐μXRD to Ru–Os–Fe compounds recovered from Ni‐laterites from the Dominican Republic. The results demonstrate that a significant portion of Fe exists in a common structure with the Ru–Os alloy, that is, ruthenian hexaferrum. This mineral occurs both as nanoparticles and as micrometric patches within a matrix of Fe‐oxide(s). Our data suggest that supergene ruthenian hexaferrum with a (Ru0.4(Os,Ir)0.1Fe0.5)Ʃ1.0 stoichiometry represents the most advanced weathering product of primary laurite within Ni‐laterites from the Dominican Republic.

  • 18.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Lewis, John F.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, George Washington University, .
    Labrador, Manuel
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Svojtka, Martin
    Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences.
    Rojas-Purón, Arturo
    Departamento de Geología, Instituto Superior Minero Metalúrgico de Moa.
    Longo, Francisco
    Falcondo Glencore Nickel.
    Ďurišová, Jana
    Institute of Geology, Academy of Sciences.
    Critical metals (REE, Sc, PGE) in Ni laterites from Cuba and the Dominican Republic2016In: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 73, p. 127-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ni laterites are considered worthy targets for critical metals (CM) exploration as Rare Earth Elements (REE), Sc and platinum group elements (PGE) can be concentrated during weathering as a result of residual and secondary enrichment. In this contribution geochemical and mineralogical data of CM from two different nickel laterite types (i) from the Moa Bay mining area in Cuba (oxide type) and (ii) from the Falcondo mining area in the Dominican Republic (hydrous Mg silicate type) are presented. Emphasis is given on examining their potential to accumulate CM and on processes involved. Results show that CM are concentrated towards the surface in specific zones: (i) REE in clay minerals rich horizons and within zones composed of secondary Mn oxide(s), (ii) Sc within zones rich in secondary Fe and Mn bearing oxide(s) and (iii) PGE in zones with high concentrations of residual chromian spinel and secondary Fe and Mn bearing oxide(s) at upper levels of the Ni laterite profiles. Concentration factors involve (i) residual enrichment by intense weathering, (ii) mobilization of CM during changing Eh and pH conditions with subsequent reprecipitation at favourable geochemical barriers and (iii) interactions between biosphere and limonitic soils at highest levels of the profile (critical zone) with involved neoformation processes. Total contents of CM in both Ni laterite types are low when compared with conventional CM ore deposits but are of economic significance as CM have to be seen as cost inexpensive by-products during the Ni (+ Co) production. Innovative extraction methods currently under development are believed to boost the significance of Ni laterites as future unconventional CM ore deposits.

  • 19.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Department of Crystallography, Mineralogy, and Ore Deposits, University of Barcelona.
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Longo, Francisco
    Falcondo Glencore, Santo Domingo .
    Font-Bardia, Mercé
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Galí, Salvador
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Roqué, Josep
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Facultat de Ciències de la Terra, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Baurier-Aymat, Sandra
    Departament de Mineralogia, Petrologia i Geologia Aplicada, Universitat de Barcelona .
    Fibrous Platinum-Group Minerals in “Floating Chromitites” from the Loma Larga Ni-Laterite Deposit, Dominican Republic2016In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution reports on the observation of enigmatic fibrous platinum-group minerals (PGM) found within a chromitite body included in limonite (“floating chromitite”) from Ni-laterites in the Dominican Republic. Fibrous PGM have a Ru-Os-Ir-Fe dominated composition and are characterized by fibrous textures explained by grain-forming fibers which are significantly longer (1–5 _m) than they are wide (~100 nm). Back-scattered electron (BSE) images suggest that these nanofibers are platinum-group elements (PGE)-bearing and form <5 _m thick layers of bundles which are oriented orthogonal to grains’ surfaces. Trace amounts of Si are most likely associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers. One characteristic fibrous PGM was studied in detail: XRD analyses point to ruthenian hexaferrum. However, the unpolished fibrous PGM shows numerous complex textures on its surface which are suggestive for neoformation processes: (i) features suggesting growth of PGE-bearing nanofibers; (ii) occurrence of PGM nanoparticles within film material (biofilm?) associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers; (iii) a Si-rich and crater-like texture hosting PGM nanoparticles and an Ir-rich accumulation of irregular shape; (iv) complex PGM nanoparticles with ragged morphologies, resembling sponge spicules and (v) oval forms (<1 _m in diameter) with included PGM nanoparticles, similar to those observed in experiments with PGE-reducing bacteria. Fibrous PGM found in the limonite may have formed due to supergene (bio-)weathering of fibrous Mg-silicates which were incorporated into desulphurized laurite during stages of serpentinization.

  • 20.
    Aiglsperger, Thomas
    et al.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, .
    Proenza, Joaquín A.
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona.
    Zaccarini, Frederica
    Department of Applied Geological Sciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben.
    Lewis, John F.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, George Washington University, .
    Garuti, Giorgio
    Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, University of Leoben.
    Labrador, Manuel
    Departament de Cristal·lografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, .
    Longo, Francisco
    Falcondo Glencore, Santo Domingo .
    Platinum group minerals (PGM) in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit, Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)2015In: Mineralium Deposita, ISSN 0026-4598, E-ISSN 1432-1866, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 105-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two Ni-laterite profiles from the Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic) have been investigated for their platinum group element (PGE) geochemistry and mineralogy. One profile (Loma Peguera) is characterized by PGE-enriched (up to 3.5 ppm total PGE) chromitite bodies incorporated within the saprolite, whereas the second profile is chromitite-free (Loma Caribe). Total PGE contents of both profiles slightly increase from parent rocks (36 and 30 ppb, respectively) to saprolite (∼50 ppb) and reach highest levels within the limonite zone (640 and 264 ppb, respectively). Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of saprolite and limonite reveal rather flat shapes with positive peaks of Ru and Pd. Three types of platinum group minerals (PGM) were found by using an innovative hydroseparation technique: (i) primary PGM inclusions in fresh Cr-spinel (laurite and bowieite), (ii) secondary PGM (e.g., Ru-Fe-Os-Ir compounds) from weathering of preexisting PGM (e.g., serpentinization and/or laterization), and (iii) PGM precipitated after PGE mobilization within the laterite (neoformation). Our results provide evidence that (i) PGM occurrence and PGE enrichment in the laterite profiles is independent of chromitite incorporation; (ii) PGE enrichment is residual on the profile scale; and (iii) PGE are mobile on a local scale leading to in situ growth of PGM within limonite, probably by bioreduction and/or electrochemical metal accretion.

  • 21.
    Al Bayaty, Majd
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al Mousawi, Eman
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Jahad, Udai A.
    Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Majdi, Ali
    Department of Building and Construction Techniques Engineering, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Riparian Management and Nutrients Distribution in Different Zones of Euphrates Riverbanks2023In: International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, ISSN 1755-7437, E-ISSN 1755-7445, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic of nutrient cycling is a critical factor in riparian regions. It is essential to understand the behaviour of riparian areas in the maintenance and management river ecosystem. Sediment load, nutrients, and pathogens are transported to water bodies through land drainage and riverside flow. The classification of environmental agencies was poor for them. In this study, a qualitative investigation was implemented to determine the relationship between these practices and variations in nutrient retention for several types of riverbank soil. Also, the riverbank soils were including soil covered by wild reed plants. All the field works were along the Euphrates River in three locations. Moreover, study the variation in the content of vegetation riverbank soils from nitrogen, organic matter (OM), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), and PH. The results presented that riverbanks consider important locations for nutrient retention. Whilst agricultural activities have minimized the content of soil of OM (30%), N (49%), and K (3%), in subsurface soil but not so great lowering in surface layers. In contrast, management practices and human activities such as burning caused an apparent increase of OM (4%), N (77%), and a clear reduction in P (12%) content at both surface and subsurface layers of soil. Under all circumstances, riverbank soils showed a relative increase of nutrients at wet toe-slopes. Furthermore, it is noted that riparian vegetation and aquatic plants played a significant role by causing critical changes in riparian sides or even contrary effects on riverbank management practices and destruction of natural soil nutrient conditions. Thus, it should be carefully considered when evaluating the ecological impacts of riparian disturbances.

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  • 22.
    Al Mousawi, Eman
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Babylon, Hillah, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Jahad, Udai Adnain
    Department of Environment Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Babylon, Hillah, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Majdi, Ali
    Building and Construction Techniques Engineering, Al-Mustaqbal University College, 51001, Babylon, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Applying Different Water Quality Indices and GIS to Assess the Water Quality, Case Study: Euphrates River in Qadisiyah Province2023In: Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, ISSN 1230-1485, E-ISSN 2083-5906, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 4201-4217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-known tool for assessing the quality of surface water is the water quality index (WQI) model. In this study, the WQI was generated to classify the water flowing in the Euphrates River in Qadisiyah Province. To develop analytical models, a connection between the findings and satellite images was developed. It is possible to determine what category a river’s water quality for domestic use will fall into. The Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index (WWQI), Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI),and Bascarón Water Quality Index (BWQI) were used to evaluate and examine the suitability of the Euphrates River in the city by analysing the water quality of samples taken from the five locations (Muhanawia (L1), Salahia (L2), Shamiyah (L3), Shamiyah (L4), Gammas (L5)). The hydrogen ionspH, temperature T, dissolved oxygen DO, nitrate NO3, calcium Ca, magnesium Mg, total hardness TH, potassium K, sodium Na, sulfate SO4, chlorine Cl, total dissolved solids TDS, and electrical conductivity ECvalues are provided for 2020 and 2021. Results showed the Euphrates River was deemed severely contaminated at location Gammas (L5) but acceptable at location Muhanawia (L1). During the research phase, the water quality for the Euphrates achieved a maximum of 87.43 using the CWQI for Muhanawia (L1) in 2021 and a minimum of 15.6 using the BWQI for Gammas (L5) in 2021. The excessive sulphate, total dissolved solids, calcium, and total hardness concentrations led to the low WQI. The results are analysed using a GIS, and a network database connected to the GIS is required to utilize its analytical capabilities and the geographically scattered data throughout the study region. The Water Quality Index (WQI) is not suitable for drinking, as it is below the average of the World Health Organization (WHO) suggestions.

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  • 23.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: Kolarctic ENBI EnviMIne2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the project are to develop a methodology for environmentally safe mine closure under specific conditions in the Barents region by cross border cooperation, exchange experiences and scientific knowledge.

  • 24.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sulphide oxidation and geochemical processes in mine tailings2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) from oxidation of sulphide- bearing waste is a world wide problem, due to low pH levels and the release of metals to recipients. It is therefore important to understand the fundamental geochemical processes occurring in mine waste. The geochemistry of the drainage water from the tailings at the abandoned Laver copper mine in Northern Sweden was studied in 2001 and compared with a previous study performed in 1993. All drainage water is collected in a brook, which means that Laver is a favourable site for mass balance studies. The results show a decrease in the amount of sulphide-associated elements such as S, Cu and Zn in the drainage water, and an increase of the pH level. It has been suggested that this is due to the decrease in the sulphide oxidation rate in the tailings. Modelling the oxidation front movement using the shrinking core model gives similar results. This indicates that the sulphur transported in the drainage water could relatively well reflect the oxidation rate in the tailings. Oxygen sampling was also performed in 2001- 2002 to evaluate whether the flux of oxygen into the tailings was restricted by a vegetation cover. The results show that vegetation does not limit oxygen diffusion into the tailings. There is an atmospheric concentration throughout a profile through oxidised grass covered tailings during the whole sampling period. Oxygen concentrations at depths where sulphide oxidation occurs show seasonal variations, probably due to varying water saturation. Cemented layers were sampled at two locations in the Laver impoundment tailings, where they had been formed in spite of the low sulphide content and lack of carbonates. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of cemented layer formation on metal mobility in the tailings. The cementing agents are jarosite and Fe-oxyhydroxides. Arsenic is strongly enriched and somewhat higher concentrations of Pb, V, Mo and Hg, compared to those in unoxidised tailings, occur in these layers. Sequential extraction shows that these metals are mostly adsorbed/co-precipitated with crystalline iron oxyhydroxides. The enriched metals will probably be remobilised if changes towards more reducing conditions occur, for instance as a result of remediation of the tailings impoundment. An attempt was made to use LA-ICP-SMS to quantify the role of pyrite surfaces as scavengers of metals in oxidising mine tailings. Pyrite grains were collected from a profile through the pyrite-rich tailings at the Kristineberg mine in Northern Sweden. At each spot hit by the laser, the surface layer was analysed in the first shot, and a second shot on the same spot indicated the chemical composition of the pyrite immediately below. The crater diameter for a laser shot is known, and by estimating the crater depth and total pyrite surface, the total enrichment on pyrite grains was calculated. Results are presented for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn. The results clearly show that there is an enrichment of As, Cd, Cu and Zn on the pyrite surfaces below the oxidation front in the tailings, but not of Co and Ni. Arsenic is also enriched on the pyrite grains that survived in the oxidised zone. However, only 1.4 to 3.1% of the Cd and Zn released by sulphide oxidation in the oxidised zone had been enriched on the pyrite surfaces in the unoxidised tailings, but for As and Cu the corresponding figures are about 64 and 43%, respectively. The results should not be taken too literally but allow the conclusion that scavenging to pyrite surfaces is an important process for retention of As and Cu below the oxidation front in pyrite-rich tailings. Although only pyrite grains that appeared to be fresh, without surface coatings, were used in this study, the possibility of a thin layer of Fe-hydroxides occurring must be considered. Both adsorption to the pyrite directly, or to Fe-oxyhydroxides, may explain the enrichment of As, Cd, Cu and Zn on the pyrite surfaces, and, in the case of Cu, also replacement of Fe (II) by Cu(II) in pyrite.

  • 25.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sulphide oxidation, oxygen diffusion and metal mobility in sulphide-bearing mine tailings in Northern Sweden2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large quantities of sulphide-bearing mining wastes produced from ore processing are deposited throughout the world. Sulphide oxidation in the wastes may release acidic water with high concentrations of metals to the environment. Remediation strategies are usually site specific, since the physical and chemical properties of the wastes vary. Therefore, sulphide oxidation, oxygen diffusion and metal mobility in unoxidised and oxidised, remediated and unremediated wastes have been studied in the present work. The efficiency of different cover systems on unoxidised tailings from Kristineberg, were studied in pilot-scale test cells (5*5*3 m3)under field conditions. Clayey till, sewage sludge, apatite and Trisoplast were used as sealing layers and unspecified till as a protective cover. In one cell tailings were left uncovered. Unoxidised tailings in the test-cells in the initial stage after deposition showed relatively low sulphur release (600- 800 mg/l)in leachate waters, which probably was an effect of high moisture content in the tailings prior to deposition. Near-neutral pH found in the leachates was an effect of neutralisation by carbonate minerals present and lime (Ca(OH)2) added prior to deposition. Similar sulphur concentrations were found also in the uncovered tailings. The sulphide oxidation rate increased with time in the uncovered tailings, and decreased in the covered. The lowest oxygen concentrations were observed below the cover system with sewage sludge, which was the most effective barriar against oxygen in a short-term perspective. The oxygen fluxes through the clayey till and apatite layers were within the same magnitude and varied between 0.5 and 4 mole/year,m2. The Trisoplast layer seemed to have failed as a barrier against oxygen. Tailings studied at field scale at Laver and Kristineberg had oxidised for more than 50 years. The tailings at Kristineberg have high pyrite content (c.25% and 50%) and those at Laver have low grade of pyrrhotite (2-3%). The Laver tailings are unremediated, while at Kristineberg the tailings were remediated in 1996. The transport of metals in the drainage water at Laver decreased during a study period of 8 years. The transport of dissolved sulphur indicated a declining trend of sulphide oxidation rate in the tailings, which was confirmed by oxygen measurements in the tailings and weathering rate estimations. The decline was considered to be natural as a result of the increased distance that oxygen has to travel to reach unoxidised sulphide grains. The major part of the amounts of metals released by sulphide oxidation were secondarily retained in the tailings, and to a small extent in layers cemented by jarosite and Fe-(oxy)hydroxides. Sequential extraction of these layers showed that metals such as Cu and Pb were mostly associated with crystalline Fe-(oxy)hydroxides. Most important retention mechanism was, however, sorption onto minerals surfaces below the oxidation front. The studied Impoundment 1 at Kristineberg was remediated by two different methods; on one part a dry cover consisting of a sealing layer and a protective cover were applied, and the groundwater table was raised and a single dry cover applied on the other part. When the groundwater table was raised in oxidised tailings, secondarily retained metals such as Fe, Mg, Mn, S and Zn were remobilised resulting in increased concentrations in the groundwater. The concentrations declined with time, due to dilution by inflowing uncontaminated water. Decreased concentrations of Fe, Mg, Mn, S and Zn were observed also in the groundwater below the dry cover as the amount of percolating water decreased. The concentrations of trace elements such as Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb were almost depleted in the groundwater, since these metals were retained within the tailings by mechanisms such as co-precipitation, precipitation and sorption. Analysis of pyrite grains by LA-ICP-SMS showed that pyrite surfaces were important for retention of As and Cu, in particular, but also for Cd and Zn. This study shows that the physico-chemical conditions expressed by pH and redox potential have a large impact on element mobility’s. For example, As was mobilised as a result of remediation, while the concentrations of most metals decreased in the drainage waters.

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  • 26.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andersson, Elin
    Vectura Consulting AB.
    Mueller, Seth
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes2013In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 7907-7916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system’s neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pH < 2) with high concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6 mg/L), and Zn (150 mg/L) after 258 days. The leachate from water-saturated waste rock had lower concentrations of As and Cu (<2 μg/L), Pb and Zn (20 μg/L and 5 mg/L), respectively, and its pH was around 6. Crushed (<6 mm) waste rock mixed with different fractions (1–5 wt %) of green liquid dregs, fly ash, mesa lime, and argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) slag was leached on a small scale for 65 day, and showed near-neutral pH values, except for mixtures of waste rock with AOD slag and fly ash (5 % w/w) which were more basic (pH > 9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation

  • 27.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.

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  • 28.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Dagli, Deniz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Literature review on potential geochemical and geotechnical effects of adopting paste technology under cold climate conditions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize the recent research regarding geochemical and geotechnical stability of paste tailings, identify knowledge gaps and future research needs. The present study has been conducted by the Division of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering together with the Division of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering at Luleå University of Technology on behalf of Boliden Mineral, LKAB and Outotec.A survey conducted by MEND (Mine Environment Neutral Drainage) in 2006 on the environmental effects related to the use of paste tailings summarizes that only a few studies had been performed about long-term effects on the surface and groundwater quality. Instead, the focus had been on the additives and the strength of the paste. It is still uncertain how the paste technology affects the long-term environmental stability from a geochemical point of view. Concerns regarding the stability of paste with high sulphide content are still relevant. Studies performed indicate that sulphide oxidation occurs within cemented paste as well as on the surface of non-cemented paste and cracks formed on the surfaces could induce oxidation. For cemented paste, metals released by sulphide oxidation might be sequestered due to high pH induced by the alkaline additives, but anion such as Se has been shown to be mobilized. The leachate has been shown to be near-neutral initially, but the neutrality decreases with time and probably metals sequestered in the matrix will also be released. Again, it should be noted that no long term study was performed on leaching of paste, cemented or uncemented. The longest leaching study was performed for one year. Arsenic has been proven to be retained in Ca-arsenates in cemented paste, but the long term stability of these precipitates is relatively unknown. Expanded secondary phases e.g. gypsum and ettringite have been observed to form when there is sulphate in the process or drainage of water. These phases could crack the paste, but, on the other hand, can also fill former cracks when deposited in layers. The effects of the formation of these phases are relatively uncertain in a long-term perspective. Presence of different elements such as ammonium, sulphates and metals in the water has been shown to negatively affect the curing process and therefore water is suggested to be treated before use. The presence of carbon dioxide during the paste formation could also affect the curing process, but could sequester metals in carbonate phases.Geotechnical and rheological properties of paste is well defined and documented. Several case studies have been found in literature providing valuable information about the details of the works being carried out. However, a difficulty has been noted during the investigation of the effects of cold climate conditions when current practice is applied in the colder parts of the world. It is not certain how some specific and vital parameters are going to be affected by cold temperatures. Parameters such as deposition slopes and deposition scheme, strength development of the paste are expected to be responsive to cold climate conditions. There are predictions about which properties are going to be affected in what way, but there is also a need to establish a scientific base for discussion. These have been highlighted as research needs and information gaps at the end of the report.

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  • 29.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hamberg, Roger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: ERA-MIN project "Tools for sustainable gold mining in EU"2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This research identifies and evaluates environmental impacts and economical challenges of gold mining in Finland, Sweden, Portugal, Romania, Poland and Ireland. The focus of this project is in gold exploration, mineral processing, water treatment, waste management, environmental monitoring, risk assessment and socio-economic impacts of gold mining. Finasieras av Vinnova

  • 30.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nason, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Simulation of pyrite oxidation in fresh mine tailings under near-neutral conditions2012In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 2245-2253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulphidic residual products from ore processing may produce acid rock drainage, when exposed to oxygen and water. Predictions of the magnitude of ARD and sulphide oxidation rates are of great importance in mine planning because they can be used to minimize or eliminate ARD and the associated economic and environmental costs. To address the lack of field data of sulphide oxidation rate in fresh sulphide-rich tailings under near-neutral conditions, determination and simulation of the rate was performed in pilot-scale at Kristineberg, northern Sweden. The quality of the drainage water was monitored, along with oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The chemical composition of the solid tailings was also determined. The field data were compared to predictions from simulations of pyrite oxidation using a 1-D numerical model. The simulations' estimates of the amount of Fe and S released over a seven year period (52 kg and 178 kg, respectively) were in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by analysing the tailings (34 kg and 155 kg, respectively). The discrepancy is probably due to the formation of secondary precipitates such as iron hydroxides and gypsum; which are not accounted for in the model. The observed mass transport of Fe and S (0.05 and 1.0 kg per year, respectively) was much lower than expected on the basis of the simulations and the core data. Neutralization reactions involving carbonates in the tailings result in a near-neutral pH at all depths except at the oxidation front (pH < 5), indicating that the dissolution of carbonates was too slow for the acid to be neutralized, which instead neutralized deeper down in the tailings. This was also indicated by the reduced abundance of solid Ca at greater depths and the high levels of carbon dioxide both of which are consistent with the dissolution of carbonates. It could be concluded that the near-neutral pH in the tailings has no decreasing effect on the rate of sulphide oxidation, but does reduce the concentrations of dissolved elements in the drainage water due to the formation of secondary minerals. This means that sulphide oxidation rates may be underestimated if determined from drainage alone.

  • 31.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Öhlander, Björn
    Changes of groundwater quality in sulphide-bearing mine-tailings as a result of remediation at Kristineberg, northern Sweden2007In: Mining and the Environment International Conference: proceedings, Centre for Environmental Monitoring, Laurentian University , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the Kristineberg mine in northern Sweden, sulphide-rich tailings left open for 50 years were remediated in 1996 by applying double dry cover on one part of an impoundment, and raised groundwater level combined with simple till cover on the other part. Groundwater pipes installed in the impoundment were sampled from 1998 during a period of 6 years. The results showed that the groundwater quality varied considerably in the impoundment, even under the same type of cover. Secondarily retained Fe, S, Mg, Mn and Z were remobilised when the groundwater was raised. In the part with raised groundwater level, the average concentration of Fe ranged from 2700 to 9000mg/l in 1998, and the range for S was 2200 to 7000mg/l. During 2003 the average concentrations had decreased and ranged between 150 and 900 mg/l for Fe and between 130 and 900 mg/l for S. The improvement of the water quality was caused by inflow of less contaminated groundwater and decreasing sulphide oxidation rate. The redox potential generally decreased and pH increased. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb in groundwater decreased rather rapidly all over the impoundment after remediation. In areas with relatively high pH and low redox potential, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were almost depleted.

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  • 32.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Öhlander, Björn
    Pilot scale studies of different dry covers on sulphide-rich tailings in northern Sweden, oxygen diffusion2005In: Securing the future: international conference on mining and the environment, metals and energy recovery : proceedings, Stockholm: SweMin , 2005, p. 9-18Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 33. Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pilot-scale studies of different covers on unoxidised sulphide-rich tailings, northern Sweden: oxygen diffusion2010In: Mine Water and the Environment: proceedings of the 10th IMWA Congress 2008 : 2-5 June, 2008 - Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic / [ed] Nadia Rapantova; Zbyněk Hrkal, Ostrava: VSB - Technical University Ostrava, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Institute of Environmental Engineering , 2010, p. 347-350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of five cover systems to decrease oxygen intrusion into sulphide-rich tailings was studied in pilot-scale test cells (5x5x3 m(3)). The covers consisted of clayey till, sewage sludge, fine-grained apatite concentrate or Trisoplast (a mixture of a polymer, bentonite and tailings sand) as sealing layers and unspecified till as protective cover. In one reference cell, tailings were uncovered. Oxygen concentrations below the entire covers were highest below the Trisoplast and apatite layers, and lowest below the sewage sludge layer. Effective diffusion coefficients (D-eff) and oxygen fluxes were estimated in the covers with non-oxygen-consuming sealing layers (clayey till and apatite). For the protective covers the Deff ranged between E-09 and E-07 m(2)/s, and for the sealing layers between E-10 and E-09 m(2)/s, and for the entire covers between E-10 and E-08 m(2)/s. Seasonal variations in D-eff were larger within the covers than between the different cover systems. Oxygen fluxes through the entire covers with clayey till and apatite ranged between 0.2 and 4 mole m(2)/year, which was a reduction of more than 99% compared to uncovered dry tailings.

  • 34.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Projekt: Användning av restprodukter för förhindrande sulfid oxidation i reaktivt gruvavfall- en förstudie2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En inventering av lämpliga restmaterial för efterbehandling och behandling av gruvavfall har genomförts och resulterat i en rapport

  • 35.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Macsik, Josef
    Strategic services & Sustainable Development at Ecoloop AB, Sweden.
    Nyström, Elsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sandström, Nadia
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Andersson-Wikström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hällström, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kartläggning av restprodukter för efterbehandling och inhibering av gruvavfall: Funktion, tillgång och logistik2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 36.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nyström, Elsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Siren, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: Utilization of Industrial Residuals for Prevention of Sulphide Oxidation in Mine Wastes2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nason, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Declining element concentrations in groundwater after remediation in sulphide-rich tailings at Kristineberg, northern Sweden2010In: Mine Water & Innovative Thinking / [ed] Ch. Wolkersdorfer; A. Freund, Cape Breton University Press , 2010, p. 323-327Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rasmussen, Torklid Maack
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: Development, Evaluation and Optimization of Measures to Reduce the Impact on the Environment from Mining Activities in Northern Regions2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Min-North is a transnational project financed by the Interreg Nord program and coordinated by LTU. The project is a cooperation between Geological survey of Finland, GTK, Oulo University (Finland), The Arctic University of Norway, UiT and several (>17) small and large enterprises and mining companies in the northern region with expertise within geology, waste management, geophysics and geochemistry. The overall goal is to reduce the environmental impacts of mining in the northern regions by developing, evaluating, optimizing environmental techniques. In Sweden, geophysical and geochemical techniques will be integrated to develop a 4D model for tracing pollution transport in the mine waste, mine areas and in(to) the surroundings.

  • 39.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Salifu, Musah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rasmussen, Thorkild Maack
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Heino, Neea
    Geological Survey of Finland, Finland.
    Hyvönen, Eija
    Geological Survey of Finland, Finland.
    Karlsson, Teemu
    Geological Survey of Finland, Finland.
    Panttila, Hannu
    Geological Survey of Finland, Finland.
    Pietilä, Raija
    Geological Survey of Finland, Finland.
    Tornivaara, Anna
    Geological Survey of Finland, Finland.
    Turunen, Kaisa
    Geological Survey of Finland, Finland.
    Lu, Jinmei
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Fu, Shuai
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Bui, Minh Tuan
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Postila, Heini
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Leiviskä, Tiina
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Ronkanen, Anna-kaisa
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Kujala, Katharina
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Khan, Uzair
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gogoi, Harshita
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Min-North: Development, Evaluation and Optimization of Measures to Reduce the  Environmental Impact of Mining Activities in Northern Regions2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Min-North (Development, Evaluation and Optimization of Measures to Reduce the Environment Impact of Mining Activities in Northern Regions) project was a trans-national cooperative project, with participants from the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), University of Oulu (UO), UiT The Arctic University of Norway (UiT), Luleå University of Technology (LTU) and SMEs from Sweden, Finland and Norway. The project was funded by Interreg Nord and Norrbottens länsstyrelse. The participants have expertise in mine waste management, mine water treatment and geophysics. The overall aim of the project was to enhance the development of environmental protection technologies. An associated goal was to deepen cross-border cooperation by creating a larger critical mass of researchers in mine waste management and local SMEs in the Northern regions with greater capacities to disseminate and implement new methods, products and services. The project ran for 36 months from the 1st of January 2016 to the end of December 2018.

     

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  • 40.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sandström, Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hällström, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: Improve Resource Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Footprint2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The REMinE project is organized in five work packages that comprise: detailedcharacterization and risk assessment of the mine wastes selected (WP2), identification of new processing methods for mine waste (WP3), characterization and risk assessment of the remaining residuals (WP4), outlining business opportunities and environmental impact in a conceptual model for sustainable mining (WP5). The project comprises case studies of historical mine wastes from three different European countries, namely Portugal, Romania and Sweden. The interdisciplinary research collaboration in this project is innovative in the sense that separation of minerals and extraction of metals not only are basedon technical and economic gain but also considers the environmental perspective.

  • 41.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Formation and composition of cemented layers in low-sulphide mine tailings, Laver, northern Sweden2006In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 809-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cemented layers (hardpans) are common in carbonate or sulphide-rich mine tailings and where pyrrhotite is the predominating Fe-sulphide. Laver, northern Sweden, is an abandoned Cu-mine where the tailings have low pyrrhotite content, almost no pyrite and no carbonates. Two cemented layers at different locations in the Laver tailings impoundment were investigated, with the aim to determine their effects on metal mobility. The cementing agents were mainly jarosite and Fe-oxyhydroxides in the layer formed where the tailings have a barren surface, whereas only Fe-oxyhydroxides were identified below grass-covered tailings surface. Arsenic was enriched in both layers which also exhibit high concentrations of Mo, V, Hg and Pb compared to unoxidised tailings. Sequential extraction indicates that these metals and As were mainly retained with crystalline Fe-oxides, and therefore potentially will be remobilised if the oxic conditions become more reducing, for instance as a result of remediation of the tailings impoundment.

  • 42.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Pilot-scale studies of different covers on unoxidised sulphide-rich tailings in northern Sweden: the geochemistry of leachate waters2006In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 171-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leachate water quality from covered and uncovered unoxidised sulphide-rich tailings in six pilot-scale (5x5x3 m3) test cells was monitored during 2004 and 2005. The covers consisted of a layer of clayey till, sewage sludge, apatite or Trisoplast (a commercial mixture of tailings, bentonite, and a polymer). All layers were protected by an unspecified till except in one reference cell, where the tailings were left open. All leachate waters showed near-neutral pH as a result of neutralization by calcite in the tailings and by Ca(OH)2 added prior to deposition. Average dissolved sulphur concentrations in the leachates were ≈ 600 mg L-1, except in the cell with sewage sludge (300 mg L-1). The source of sulphur was mainly pyrite oxidation, but residual sulphur probably remained from the enrichment process. The near-neutral pH favoured precipitation of metal-(oxy)hydroxides with subsequent removal of trace elements such as Cd, Cu and Pb (< 15 μg L-1) from the solutions. High concentrations of Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn were found in leachates from the apatite, Trisoplast, and uncovered tailings cells. High As concentrations were found in the leachates in the sewage sludge and clayey till cells. The lowest metal concentrations, redox potential, and highest pH were found in the sewage sludge cell. Decreased elemental metal concentrations during 2004 suggest improved performance over time.

  • 43.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    The effect of vegetation on mine tailings2003In: Program with Abstracts : Joint Annual Meeting, Geological Association of Canada; Mineralogical Association of Canada , 2003, Vol. 28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major aims with passive remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings is to minimize or exclude oxygen diffusion through the tailings and decrease the oxidation of sulfides. A vegetation cover could potentially decrease the oxygen flux by oxygen consumption during decay of organic matter. The abandoned Cu mine at Laver in northern Sweden has not been remediated except for establishment of vegetation, and this offers the opportunity to investigate the effect of a vegetation cover on tailings.Whole-year sampling of surface drainage water from the tailings impoundment was performed during 1993 and 2001. The release of metals was only 5-10 % of the estimated weathering rate in the tailings during 1993 because of secondary retainment within the tailings. Results from 2001 show decreasing concentrations of several elements and increasing pH, indicating decreasing oxidation rate.Pore-gas measurement in two vertical profiles shows that vegetation on the tailings has no effect as a barrier for oxygen diffusion in comparison with barren parts.Cemented layers, which have formed at various depths in the tailings, have decreased the flux of oxygen to deeper parts; this could be an explanation of the decreased oxidation rate. The different cemented layers in the tailings differ in chemical composition and physical characteristics. There are two major types, both of which both contain iron oxides and carbon. The origin of the carbon is possibly the vegetation cover. None of the cemented layers acts as a trap for heavy metals, but As is enriched.The effect of vegetation as a oxygen barrier is negligible, but vegetation could act as a source for organic matter that could increase aggregation of iron oxides and clay minerals, thereby enhancing the formation of cemented layers or increasing metal-organic complexes which decrease the mobility of metals.

  • 44.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Lundberg, Angela
    Changes of sulphide oxidation rates over time in mine tailings, Laver, Northern Sweden2009In: 8th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD) and Securing the Future: Mining, Metals & the Environment in a Sustainable Society 2009: Skelleftea, Sweden, 22 - 26 June 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 45.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Lundberg, Angela
    Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 6, p. 1386-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings.

  • 46.
    Al-Ani, Thair
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dawood, Anwaer H.
    Koya university, Koya, Erbil, Iraq.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Trace elements in water and sediments of the Tigris river, Baghdad City, Iraq2014In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 22, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial, agricultural and rural activities may result in pollution of watercourses with elevated trace metal concentrations and implications for water supply and ecosystem functioning. The concentration of the trace metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Pb, Cu, and Cd in the water and clay fractions (<2μm) of the bank sediments of River Tigris in Baghdad city were determined. Dissolved trace metals concentrations were far below the upper permissible limits during 2012-2013. There was no consistent pattern between element concentrations and river discharge. Seasonal interrelations between water and sediments were most obvious for Fe that decreased in both environments with rising flows during autumn. Although independent of discharge, Mn in water and sediments often followed each other at all stations. Zinc, however, increased in the sediments and decreased in the water with discharge. The clay fractions were slightly to strongly enriched in trace metals with the gradient Co > Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu suggesting absorption of the metals on sediment substrate.

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  • 47.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydro-politics of Water Resources in Iraq2022In: Proceedings of the 39th IAHR World Congress: From Snow To Sea / [ed] Miguel Ortega-Sánchez, International Association for Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR) , 2022, p. 2960-2968Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq relies in its water resources on the Tigris and Euphrates and their tributaries. It is located at the lower part of the catchment area of these rivers. The long-term average annual flow that enter Iraq is about 30 BCM from the Euphrates, 22.2 BCM from the Tigris, 24.78BCM from tributaries and 7BCM from side valleys between Iraq and Iran. Now, the flow of these rivers is decreasing due to climate change and hydrological projects established in the upper parts of the catchment. Precipitation will decrease 15-25% during this century and the flow of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be reduced by 29-73%. This will cause a grave depletion of ground water resources. Turkey is trying to build 22 dams and 19 hydropower stations. Iran built 12 dams, diverted the flow of some tributaries inside Iran, and blocked all the valleys that contributes water from its land to Iraq. The factors affecting the hydro politics within these basin are: Water scarcity, Climate change and Hydrological projects, population growth rate, Energy issues, Water mismanagement, Economic changes, Expansions of projects and technology, Political issues, International water laws and Public awareness. To solve the problem of water scarcity in Iraq they should do the following: A. Reach agreements with Riparian Parties B. Develop Long-term Strategy that should take care of rehabilitating of hydrological projects, Improving the efficiency of diversion and supply, Using of Nonconventional Water Resources, Irrigation modernization using suitable techniques, Developing a Public awareness program and establishing an agenda for training.

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  • 48.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Aldardor, Wafa
    Al al-Bayt University.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Effect of treated wastewater irrigation on vegetables2013In: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 21, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treated waste water is normally used for irrigation purposes in countries suffering from water shortages to narrow the gap between supply and demand. The concept behind this is to save water consumed for agricultural activities, which consumes most of the water, for municipal and industrial uses. The Alsukhna area in Jordan is used to grow vegetables which are irrigated by treated wastewater. Surface and groundwater samples from the Zarqa region were analyzed for their major cations, anions and heavy metals. The impact of the treated waste water on the chemical components of vegetables was studied using Zn, Mn, Fe, Pb and Ni in sweet and hot pepper, tomato, cauliflower, cabbage, squash, cucumber and eggplant which were compared with similar vegetables irrigated by natural unpolluted water from the Mafraq region. The four metals, namely Zn, Fe, Pb, and Ni, had concentrations higher than in the reference vegetables by 3423%, 155%, 397%, 2949% and 289%, 187%, 211%, 214% fortomato and cauliflower, respectively. Sweet pepper was mainly influenced by an increased content of Fe, which was almost 180% higher than that in sweet pepper from the Mafraq region. Hot pepper had highly elevated concentrations of Ni (6980%) and Zn (419%), while squash demonstrated high Zn (207%) and Pb (666%). When all the heavy metals are considered, the most affected vegetable is the hot pepper with an average percent of heavy metals accumulation of 1559% while the least effected is cabbage at 116%.

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  • 49.
    Alapää, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater Using a SpinChem® Rotating Bed Reactor: Competitive Sorption of Metal(loid)s in Complex Solutions under Varying Geochemical Conditions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of utilizing a new form of chemical processing technology called SpinChem® Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR), in combination with different reactive materials, for the purpose of remediating multi-contaminated aquifers under changing environmental conditions, was investigated using laboratory studies and geochemical models. Four different reactive materials, or combinations thereof, were tested: heat-treated peat powder combined with zero-valent iron (ZVI); IronPeat, which consists of peat powder coated with a ferriferous hydrosol (FFH); and a powdered steel waste product. Results showed that the powdered steel waste was compatible with the technology while the peat-based sorbents were not. However, there were no indications that the kinetics of the sorption reactions increased. This was attributed to the fact that the rate-limiting steps, for the binding of the studied metal(loid)s onto iron oxide, are generally considered to be dependent on the later stages of the sorption process related to diffusion mechanisms and not to the rate of mass transfer through the bulk liquid phase, which is what primarily is increased through application of the SpinChem® RBR technology.

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  • 50.
    Al-Bahrani, Hussein Shakir
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Rammahi, Ali Hussein
    Faculty of Engineering, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Mamoori, Sohaib Kareem
    Department of Environmental Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Maliki, Laheab A.
    Department of Regional Planning, Faculty of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Groundwater detection and classification using remote sensing and GIS in Najaf, Iraq2022In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 19, article id 100838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the shortage of fresh surface water caused by climate change, groundwater has become a vital water supply for household, agricultural, and industrial use. Alternative methods for determining groundwater depth, amount, and quality at a lower cost and less effort are critical. This study aims to determine the depth and kind of groundwater in Najaf City, Iraq, using Aqua detector remote sensing device. Thirty-nine sample locations were chosen in rural and urban regions to cover the city’s 441.23 square kilometres. Five geographic models of groundwater depth and type were created using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation method in ArcGIS software. The results indicate that groundwater is available across the study region, beginning at 100 m and lower depths. Additionally, it has been found that the nature of groundwater fluctuates with the location and depth. The findings of this study aid in selecting wells locations and depths in the study region that generate maximum quality and quantity of groundwater.

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