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  • 1.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Chief Researcehr, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimaniyah, KRG, Iraq.
    Climate Change and the Need for Future Research2022In: Water Resources in Iraq: Perspectives and Prognosis (ICWRPP 2022), Institute of Physics (IOP), 2022, article id 012029Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate Changes have impacted our planet since the beginning of time. These were manifested by cyclic Ice Ages and Warm Periods ever since. The changes were caused by natural forcing such as, continental drift, plate tectonics, major volcanic eruptions, and internal dynamics of earth and oceans interactions with the atmosphere. The present warm period, the “Holocene Epoch”, is not different from other such periods except for the sharp global warming which began at the onset of the industrial revolution. This was proven by scientific research to be due to anthropogenic drives, i.e., increased fossil fuel burning and increased Co2 and other Green House Gases (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere. These gases trap the sun radiation reflected from earth surface and result in higher earth temperature. The steep rate of rise in temperature trend since 1960s is directly linked to the use of much more fossil fuels in power production and transportation. This has led to more research to quantify the changes and their impacts on the environment and humans. This paper gives a brief history of the scientific research carried out hitherto and policy suggestions made so far to combat the negative impacts of the increasing global warming of the world. Needed future scientific research in this field is outlined, while at the same time suggesting the needs of Iraq of such research. This includes among other things, forming a regional scientific panel for the Middle East countries (ME. IPCC) for carrying out research on regional level, fostering research on national level, encouraging academics for climate change-oriented research and providing the necessary funds and facilities for such research.

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  • 2.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Management Department, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, Iraq.
    Jehad Fahmi, Khalid
    Consulting Engineering Seismologist, SeisEng International, Toronto, Canada.
    Ali Abed, Salwan
    College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Diwaniyah, Iraq.
    Climate Change: Droughts and Increasing Desertification in the Middle East, with Special Reference to Iraq2022In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 235-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change impacts on Earth’s atmosphere have caused drastic changes in the environment of most regions of the world. The Middle East region ranks among the worst affected of these regions. This has taken forms of increasing atmospheric temperatures, intensive heat waves, decreased and erratic precipitation and general decline in water resources; all leading to frequent and longer droughts, desertification and giving rise to intensive and recurrent (SDS). The present conditions have led to increasing emissions of (GHG) in the earth atmosphere. All future projections especially those using (IPCC) models and emission scenarios indicate that the Middle East will undergo appreciable decrease in winter precipitation with increasing temperature until the end of this century both of which are inductive to increased dryness and desertification. Iraq as one of the countries of this region and due to its geographical location, its dependence mostly on surface water resources originating from neighboring countries, long years of neglect and bad land management put it in the most precarious and unstable position among the other countries of the region. Modelling studies have shown that Iraq is suffering now from excessive dryness and droughts, increasing loss of vegetation cover areas, increasing encroachment of sand dunes on agricultural lands, in addition to severe and frequent (SDS). These negative repercussions and their mitigations require solutions not on the local level alone but collective cooperation and work from all the countries of the region.

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  • 3.
    Alomar, Mohamed Khalid
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Maarif University College, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Khaleel, Faidhalrahman
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Maarif University College, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Aljumaily, Mustafa M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Maarif University College, Ramadi, Iraq.
    Masood, Adil
    Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India.
    Razali, Siti Fatin Mohd
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    AlSaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim
    Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hameed, Mohammed Majeed
    Department of Civil Engineering, Al-Maarif University College, Ramadi, Iraq; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Data-driven models for atmospheric air temperature forecasting at a continental climate region2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 11, article id e0277079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric air temperature is the most crucial metrological parameter. Despite its influence on multiple fields such as hydrology, the environment, irrigation, and agriculture, this parameter describes climate change and global warming quite well. Thus, accurate and timely air temperature forecasting is essential because it provides more important information that can be relied on for future planning. In this study, four Data-Driven Approaches, Support Vector Regression (SVR), Regression Tree (RT), Quantile Regression Tree (QRT), ARIMA, Random Forest (RF), and Gradient Boosting Regression (GBR), have been applied to forecast short-, and mid-term air temperature (daily, and weekly) over North America under continental climatic conditions. The time-series data is relatively long (2000 to 2021), 70% of the data are used for model calibration (2000 to 2015), and the rest are used for validation. The autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions have been used to select the best input combination for the forecasting models. The quality of predicting models is evaluated using several statistical measures and graphical comparisons. For daily scale, the SVR has generated more accurate estimates than other models, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 3.592°C), Correlation Coefficient (R = 0.964), Mean Absolute Error (MAE = 2.745°C), and Thiels’ U-statistics (U = 0.127). Besides, the study found that both RT and SVR performed very well in predicting weekly temperature. This study discovered that the duration of the employed data and its dispersion and volatility from month to month substantially influence the predictive models’ efficacy. Furthermore, the second scenario is conducted using the randomization method to divide the data into training and testing phases. The study found the performance of the models in the second scenario to be much better than the first one, indicating that climate change affects the temperature pattern of the studied station. The findings offered technical support for generating high-resolution daily and weekly temperature forecasts using Data-Driven Methodologies.

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  • 4.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marbuah, George
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mubanga, Mwenya
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Climate variability and infectious diseases nexus: Evidence from Sweden2017In: Infectious Disease Modelling, ISSN 2468-0427, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 203-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies on the link between climate variability and infectious diseases are based on biophysical experiments, do not account for socio-economic factors and with little focus on developed countries. This study examines the effect of climate variability and socio-economic variables on infectious diseases using data from all 21 Swedish counties. Employing static and dynamic modelling frameworks, we observe that temperature has a linear negative effect on the number of patients. The relationship between winter temperature and the number of patients is non-linear and “U” shaped in the static model. Conversely, a positive effect of precipitation on the number of patients is found, with modest heterogeneity in the effect of climate variables on the number of patients across disease classifications observed. The effect of education and number of health personnel explain the number of patients in a similar direction (negative), while population density and immigration drive up reported cases. Income explains this phenomenon non-linearly. In the dynamic setting, we found significant persistence in the number of infectious and parasitic-diseased patients, with temperature and income observed as the only significant drivers.

  • 5.
    Asante, Felix A.
    et al.
    Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG74 Legon, Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Climate Change and Variability in Ghana: Stocktaking2015In: Climate, E-ISSN 2225-1154, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 78-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a holistic literature review of climate change and variability in Ghana by examining the impact and projections of climate change and variability in various sectors (agricultural, health and energy) and its implication on ecology, land use, poverty and welfare. The findings suggest that there is a projected high temperature and low rainfall in the years 2020, 2050 and 2080, and desertification is estimated to be proceeding at a rate of 20,000 hectares per annum. Sea-surface temperatures will increase in Ghana’s waters and this will have drastic effects on fishery. There will be a reduction in the suitability of weather within the current cocoa-growing areas in Ghana by 2050 and an increase evapotranspiration of the cocoa trees. Furthermore, rice and rooted crops (especially cassava) production are expected to be low. Hydropower generation is also at risk and there will be an increase in the incidence rate of measles, diarrheal cases, guinea worm infestation, malaria, cholera, cerebro-spinal meningitis and other water related diseases due to the current climate projections and variability. These negative impacts of climate change and variability worsens the plight of the poor, who are mostly women and children.

  • 6.
    Baghban, Sahar
    et al.
    Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, 3158777871, Karaj, Iran.
    Bozorg-Haddad, Omid
    Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, 3158777871, Karaj, Iran.
    Berndtsson, Ronny
    Division of Water Resources Engineering and Centre for Advanced Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hobbins, Mike
    Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado-Boulder and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Physical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mitigation and Adaptation Measures2022In: Climate Change in Sustainable Water Resources Management / [ed] Omid Bozorg-Haddad, Springer Nature , 2022, 1, p. 331-360Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has directly and indirectly impacted natural and human systems across the globe in recent decades.

  • 7.
    Bengtsson, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Dagvattenmodellering i Kärrgruvan med klimatanpassning för ett hållbart dagvattensystem2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att avleda vattenmassor som bildas från nederbörd har dagvattensystem konstruerats i vårt samhälle. Dessa system är byggda efter rådande förhållandena vilket betyder att ledningarna kan bli underdimensionerade om regneventen blir större i framtiden vilket de uppskattas göra på grund av klimatförändringar. Problem kan även uppstå då ledningsnätet byggs ut och ledningar i slutet av ledningsnätet utsätts för större flöden än ledningen är dimensionerad efter.

    Kommuner har ofta dålig vetskap om förhållandena som råder i ledningsnätet vilket betyder att verktyg behövs för att undersöka ledningsnätet. Dessa verktyg kan vara modeller som SWMM eller Mike Urban som kan modellera flödet i dagvattennät.

    I programmen SWMM och Mike Urban kan brunnar, ledningar, avrinningsområden och regn konstrueras. Som grund till programmen används kartor över ledningsnätet samt flödesmätningar och regnmätningar som används för att validera modellerna. Det som skiljer modellerna är beräkningssätten vilket betyder att modellerna kan få olika resultat för samma område.

    Syftet med projektet är att använda SWMM och Mike Urban för att undersöka och kilmatanpassa dagvattennätet i Kärrgruvan som är lokaliserat i norra Norberg. Detta område har några kända problem som kan användas för att validera modellerna. Modellernas fördelar och nackdelar, förmåga att klimatanpassas samt användning för konsulter ska utredas. Examensarbete gjordes i samarbete med ÅF, Atkins och Norra Västmalands kommunalteknikförbund.

    Projektet visade att programmet Mike Urbans resultat var mer jämna och logiska än SWMMs där resultaten kunde fluktuera oerhört när systemet utsattes för förändringar. Kalibreringen som utfördes i detta projekt skulle kunna förbättras vilket antagligen är en bidragande effekt till att resultaten i SWMM blev sämre än Mike Urbans resultat. Hade kalibreringen förbättrats hade antagligen Horton’s infiltrationsmodell som SWMM bygger på kunna ha anpassats bättre efter området och gett mer realistiska resultat. Båda modellerna återspeglade de rådande förhållandena väl, men SWMM hanterade implementeringen av förändring sämre än Mike Urban. Detta är på grund av att infiltrationen i Mike Urban var konstant medan SWMM byggde på Hortons infiltrationsmodell som försämrar infiltrationen allt eftersom. Hade kalibreringen varit bättre hade antagligen resultaten blivit mer lika i SWMM och Mike Urban.

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  • 8.
    Cheng, Ka Yuen
    et al.
    School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.
    Lau, Kevin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Shek, Ying Ting
    Institute of Future Cities, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.
    Liu, Zhixin
    School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.
    Ng, Edward
    School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China; Institute of Future Cities, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China; Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.
    Evaluation on the performance of tree view factor in a high-density subtropical city: A case study in Hong Kong2023In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 239, article id 110431Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Elbeltagi, Ahmed
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.
    Zerouali, Bilel
    Vegetal Chemistry-Water-Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Department of Hydraulic, Hassiba Benbouali University of Chlef, B.P. 78C, Ouled Fares, 02180, Chlef, Algeria.
    Bailek, Nadjem
    Energies and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Matter Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Tamanrasset, 10034, Tamanrasset, Algeria.
    Bouchouicha, Kada
    Unité de Recherche en Energies Renouvelables en Milieu Saharien (URERMS), Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), 01000, Adrar, Algeria.
    Pande, Chaitanya
    Department of Geology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, MS, 444602, India.
    Guimarães Santos, Celso Augusto
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, 58051-900, Brazil.
    Towfiqul Islam, Abueza Reza Md.
    Department of Disaster Management, Begum Rokeya University, Rangpur, Bangladesh.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    El-kenawy, El-Sayed M.
    Department of Communications and Electronics, Delta Higher Institute of Engineering and Technology, Mansoura, 35111, Egypt; Faculty of Artificial Intelligence, Delta University for Science and Technology, Mansoura, 35712, Egypt.
    Optimizing hyperparameters of deep hybrid learning for rainfall prediction: a case study of a Mediterranean basin2022In: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511, E-ISSN 1866-7538, Vol. 15, article id 933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting rainfall amount is essential in water resources planning and for managing structures, especially those against floods and long-term drought establishment. Machine learning techniques can produce good results using a minimum dataset requirement, making it a leader among the prediction algorithms. This work develops a hybrid learning model for monthly rainfall prediction at four geographical locations representing Mediterranean basins in Northern Algeria and desert areas in Egypt. The study proposes an adaptive dynamic-based hyperparameter optimization algorithm to improve the accuracy of hybrid deep learning models. The proposed model provided a good fit, based on the obtained Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSE ≈ 0.90) with a high correlation coefficient of R ≈ 0.96, providing improvements of up to 62% in the RMSE. The proposed method proved to be an encouraging and promising tool to simulate water cycle components for better water resources management and protection.

  • 10.
    Fonseca, Ricardo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martín-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), 18100 Granada, Spain.
    High-Resolution Dynamical Downscaling of Re-Analysis Data over the Kerguelen Islands using the WRF Model2019In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483, Vol. 135, no 3-4, p. 1259-1277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the climate of the Kerguelen Islands (49° S, 69° E) and investigate its inter-annual variability. Here, we have dynamically downscaled 30 years of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) over these islands at 3-km horizontal resolution. The model output is found to agree well with the station and radiosonde data at the Port-aux-Français station, the only location in the islands for which observational data is available. An analysis of the seasonal mean WRF data showed a general increase in precipitation and decrease in temperature with elevation. The largest seasonal rainfall amounts occur at the highest elevations of the Cook Ice Cap in winter where the summer mean temperature is around 0 °C. Five modes of variability are considered: conventional and Modoki El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Subtropical IOD (SIOD) and Southern Annular Mode (SAM). It is concluded that a key mechanism by which these modes impact the local climate is through interaction with the diurnal cycle in particular in the summer season when it has a larger magnitude. One of the most affected regions is the area just to the east of the Cook Ice Cap extending into the lower elevations between the Gallieni and Courbet Peninsulas. The WRF simulation shows that despite the small annual variability, the atmospheric flow in the Kerguelen Islands is rather complex which may also be the case for the other islands located in the Southern Hemisphere at similar latitudes.

  • 11.
    Janta, Rungruang
    et al.
    School of Languages and General Education, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.
    Khwanchum, Laksanara
    School of Languages and General Education, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.
    Ditthakit, Pakorn
    Center of Excellence in Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand; School of Engineering and Technology, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Linh, Nguyen Thi Thuy
    Institute of Applied Technology, Thu Dau Mot University, Thu Dau Mot 75000, Vietnam.
    Water Yield Alteration in Thailand’s Pak Phanang Basin Due to Impacts of Climate and Land-Use Changes2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 15, article id 9106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and land-use change are important factors in the hydrological process. Climatic and anthropic changes have played a crucial role in surface runoff changes. The objective of this research was to apply land-use change and future climate change to predict runoff change in the Pak Phanang River Basin. The Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model was used to predict the land-use change, while the climate data from 2025 to 2085 under RPC2.6, RPC4.5, and RPC8.5 were generated using the MarkSim model. Additionally, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) combined land-use change and the generated meteorological data to predict the runoff change in the study area. The results showed that the annual runoff in the area would increase in the upcoming year, which would affect the production of field crops in the lowland area. Therefore, a good water drainage system is required for the coming years. Since the runoff would be about 50% reduced in the middle and late 21st century, an agroforestry system is also suggested for water capturing and reducing soil evaporation. Moreover, the runoff change’s overall impact was related to GHG emissions. This finding will be useful for the authorities to determine policies and plans for climate change adaptation in the Malay Peninsula.

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  • 12.
    Kali, Suna Ekin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Amur, Achira
    Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085, USA.
    Champlin, Lena K.
    Department of Biodiversity Earth and Environmental Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Olson, Mira S.
    Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Gurian, Patrick L.
    Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    Climate Change Scenarios Reduce Water Resources in the Schuylkill River Watershed during the Next Two Decades Based on Hydrologic Modeling in STELLA2023In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 15, no 20, article id 3666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Schuylkill River Watershed in southeastern PA provides essential ecosystem services, including drinking water, power generation, recreation, transportation, irrigation, and habitats for aquatic life. The impact of changing climate and land use on these resources could negatively affect the ability of the watershed to continually provide these services. This study applies a hydrologic model to assess the impact of climate and land use change on water resources in the Schuylkill River Basin. A hydrologic model was created within the Structural Thinking Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation (STELLA) modeling environment. Downscaled future climate change scenarios were generated using Localized Constructed Analogs (LOCA) from 2020 to 2040 for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Three regional land use change scenarios were developed based on historical land use and land cover change trends. The calibrated model was then run under projected climate and land use scenarios to simulate daily streamflow, reservoir water levels, and investigate the availability of water resources in the basin. Historically, the streamflow objective for the Schuylkill was met 89.8% of the time. However, the model forecasts that this will drop to 67.2–76.9% of the time, depending on the climate models used. Streamflow forecasts varied little with changes in land use. The two greenhouse gas emission scenarios considered (high and medium emissions) also produced similar predictions for the frequency with which the streamflow target is met. Barring substantial changes in global greenhouse gas emissions, the region should prepare for substantially greater frequency of low flow conditions in the Schuylkill River.

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  • 13.
    Munawar, Saira
    et al.
    Department of Geography, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan.
    Rahman, Ghani
    Department of Geography, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan.
    Moazzam, Muhammad Farhan Ul
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Ocean Science, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakro, Jeju 63243, Korea.
    Miandad, Muhammad
    Department of Geography, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan.
    Ullah, Kashif
    Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430079, China.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Linh, Nguyen Thi Thuy
    Institute of Applied Technology, Thu Dau Mot University, Thu Dau Mot City 7500, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam.
    Future Climate Projections Using SDSM and LARS-WG Downscaling Methods for CMIP5 GCMs over the Transboundary Jhelum River Basin of the Himalayas Region2022In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is one of the leading issues affecting river basins due to its direct impacts on the cryosphere and hydrosphere. General circulation models (GCMs) are widely applied tools to assess climate change but the coarse spatial resolution of GCMs limit their direct application for local studies. This study selected five CMIP5 GCMs (CCSM4, HadCM3, GFDL-CM3, MRI-CGCM3 and CanESM2) for performance evaluation ranked by Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and Kling–Gupta Efficiency (KGE). CCSM4 and HadCM3 large-scale predictors were favored based on ranks (0.71 and 0.68, respectively) for statistical downscaling techniques to downscale the climatic indicators Tmax, Tmin and precipitation. The performance of two downscaling techniques, Statistical Downscaling Methods (SDSM) and Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG), were examined using the Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), bias, NSE and KGE with weights (Wi) for the validation period. The results of statistical measures proved SDSM more efficient (0.67) in comparison to the LARS-WG (0.51) for the validation time for the Jhelum River basin. The findings revealed that the SDSM simulation for Tmax and Tmin are more comparable to the reference data for the validation period except simulation of extreme events by precipitation. The 21st century climatic projections exhibited a significant rise in Tmax (2.37–4.66 °C), Tmin (2.47–4.52 °C) and precipitation (7.4–11.54%) for RCP-4.5 and RCP-8.5, respectively. Overall, the results depicted that winter and pre-monsoon seasons were potentially most affected in terms of warming and precipitation, which has the potential to alter the cryosphere and runoff of the Jhelum River basin.

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  • 14.
    Niaz, Rizwan
    et al.
    Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Iqbal, Nouman
    Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Punjab, Pakistan; Knowledge unit of business Economics accountancy and Commerce (KUBEAC), University of management and technology Sialkot campus, Sialkot, Pakistan.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hussain, Ijaz
    Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Elsherbini Elashkar, Elsayed
    Administrative Sciences Department, Community College, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Shamshoddin Soudagar, Sadaf
    College of Business Administration, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Gani, Showkat Hussain
    Business Administration, College of Business Administration, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Mohamd Shoukry, Alaa
    Arriyadh Community College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Workers University, KSA, Nsar, Egypt.
    Sh. Sammen, Saad
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala Governorate, Iraq.
    A new spatiotemporal two-stage standardized weighted procedure for regional drought analysis2022In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 10, article id e13249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drought is a complex phenomenon that occurs due to insufficient precipitation. It does not have immediate effects, but sustained drought can affect the hydrological, agriculture, economic sectors of the country. Therefore, there is a need for efficient methods and techniques that properly determine drought and its effects. Considering the significance and importance of drought monitoring methodologies, a new drought assessment procedure is proposed in the current study, known as the Maximum Spatio-Temporal Two-Stage Standardized Weighted Index (MSTTSSWI). The proposed MSTTSSWI is based on the weighting scheme, known as the Spatio-Temporal Two-Stage Standardized Weighting Scheme (STTSSWS). The potential of the weighting scheme is based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), and the steady-state probabilities. Further, the STTSSWS computes spatiotemporal weights in two stages for various drought categories and stations. In the first stage of the STTSSWS, the SPI, SPEI, and the steady-state probabilities are calculated for each station at a 1-month time scale to assign weights for varying drought categories. However, in the second stage, these weights are further propagated based on spatiotemporal characteristics to obtain new weights for the various drought categories in the selected region. The STTSSWS is applied to the six meteorological stations of the Northern area, Pakistan. Moreover, the spatiotemporal weights obtained from STTSSWS are used to calculate MSTTSSWI for regional drought characterization. The MSTTSSWI may accurately provide regional spatiotemporal characteristics for the drought in the selected region and motivates researchers and policymakers to use the more comprehensive and accurate spatiotemporal characterization of drought in the selected region.

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  • 15.
    Nordell, Bo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gervet, Bruno
    Global energy accumulation and net heat emission2009In: International Journal of Global Warming (IJGW), ISSN 1758-2083, E-ISSN 1758-2091, Vol. 1, no 1/2/3, p. 378-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in the global air temperature is an inadequate measure of global warming, which should rather be considered in terms of energy. The ongoing global warming means that heat has been accumulating since 1880 in the air, ground and water. Before explaining this warming by external heat sources, the net heat emissions on Earth must be considered. Such emissions from, e.g., the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power, must contribute to global warming. The aim of this study is to compare globally accumulated and emitted heat. The heat accumulated in the air corresponds to 6.6% of global warming, while the remaining heat is stored in the ground (31.5%), melting of ice (33.4%) and sea water (28.5%). It was found that the net heat emissions from 1880-2000 correspond to 74% of the accumulated heat, i.e., global warming, during the same period. The missing heat (26%) must have other causes, e.g., the greenhouse effect, the natural variations in the climate and/or the underestimation of net heat emissions. Most measures that have already been taken to combat global warming are also beneficial for the current explanation, though nuclear power is not a solution to (but part of) the problem.

  • 16.
    Ouyang, Wanlu
    et al.
    School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China; Institute of Future Cities, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.
    Liu, Zhixin
    School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.
    Lau, Kevin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Shi, Yuan
    Department of Geography & Planning, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Ng, Edward
    School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China; Institute of Future Cities, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China; Institute of Environment, Energy and Sustainability, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.
    Comparing different recalibrated methods for estimating mean radiant temperature in outdoor environment2022In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 216, article id 109004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mean radiant temperature (MRT) is a significant variable for outdoor thermal comfort studies. Two measurement-based methods can estimate MRT, one is globe thermometer – cheap, easily-applied but relatively inaccurate, another is integral radiation measurement method (also known as the six-directional method) - accurate but expensive. Due to low-cost and convenience, the globe thermometer has been widely used. Previous studies have improved its estimation accuracy by recalibrating the convection coefficients in the ISO method. Thus, it is pending to cross-compare the performance of these recalibrated methods.

    This study aims to investigate the transferability of the recalibrated methods for estimating MRT in outdoor environment. First, field measurement was conducted in a subtropical city, Hong Kong. MRT was obtained through two methods: globe thermometer and integral radiation method. Second, the existing recalibrated convection coefficients were summarized, and the localized convection coefficient was recalibrated. Third, all recalibrated methods were compared for their performance. The impacts of measurement locations, devices, analysis time intervals were examined.

    The results showed that the newly recalibrated method achieved the lowest estimation errors (RMSE = 3.84 °C). Other recalibrated methods presented higher RMSE (3.84–17.52 °C), similar as conventional ISO method (7.91 °C). Especially for open spaces, the coefficients from other cities should be cautiously applied when the accuracy requirement is less than ±2 °C. Kestrel and Grey globe are more recommended in subtropical cities. This study shed light on the application of globe thermometer for outdoor environment, and emphasized the necessity in recalibrating the convection coefficients locally.

  • 17.
    Pascual, Didac
    et al.
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Becher, Marina
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Box 670, 751 28, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Callaghan, Terry V.
    Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK; Department of Botany, National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, Russia, 634050.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Mobergavägen 19, 373 54, Senoren, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Hanna, Edward
    School of Geography, Think Tank, Ruston Way, Lincoln, LN6 7FL, UK.
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Torgarden, P.O. Box 5685, 7485, Trondheim, Norway.
    Jin, Hongxiao
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden; Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs., Lyngby, Denmark.
    Johansson, Cecilia
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, 752 36, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Christer
    Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University, Box 513, 751 20, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundin, Erik
    Swedish Polar Research Secretariat, Luleå tekniska universitet, 971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Olefeldt, David
    Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 751 General Services Building, Edmonton, T6G 2H1, Canada.
    Persson, Andreas
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Phoenix, Gareth K.
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.
    Rączkowska, Zofia
    Department of Geoenvironmental Research, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organisation PAS, Św. Jana 22, 31-018, Kraków, Poland.
    Rinnan, Riikka
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Ström, Lena
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden.
    Tang, Jing
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Varner, Ruth K.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Morse Hall Rm 455, 8 College Rd., Durham, NH, 03824, USA.
    Wookey, Philip
    Biology and Environmental Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK.
    Johansson, Margareta
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The missing pieces for better future predictions in subarctic ecosystems: A Torneträsk case study2021In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 375-392Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic and subarctic ecosystems are experiencing substantial changes in hydrology, vegetation, permafrost conditions, and carbon cycling, in response to climatic change and other anthropogenic drivers, and these changes are likely to continue over this century. The total magnitude of these changes results from multiple interactions among these drivers. Field measurements can address the overall responses to different changing drivers, but are less capable of quantifying the interactions among them. Currently, a comprehensive assessment of the drivers of ecosystem changes, and the magnitude of their direct and indirect impacts on subarctic ecosystems, is missing. The Torneträsk area, in the Swedish subarctic, has an unrivalled history of environmental observation over 100 years, and is one of the most studied sites in the Arctic. In this study, we summarize and rank the drivers of ecosystem change in the Torneträsk area, and propose research priorities identified, by expert assessment, to improve predictions of ecosystem changes. The research priorities identified include understanding impacts on ecosystems brought on by altered frequency and intensity of winter warming events, evapotranspiration rates, rainfall, duration of snow cover and lake-ice, changed soil moisture, and droughts. This case study can help us understand the ongoing ecosystem changes occurring in the Torneträsk area, and contribute to improve predictions of future ecosystem changes at a larger scale. This understanding will provide the basis for the future mitigation and adaptation plans needed in a changing climate.

  • 18.
    Sam, Lydia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, SBSR, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Climate and Remotely Sensed Markers of Glacier Changes in the Himalaya2019In: Environmental Change in the Himalayan Region / [ed] Anup Saikia, Pankaj Thapa, Springer, 2019, p. 65-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of past and future climatic variations in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan (HKH) region is a well-documented topic of scientific research. Recent studies have highlighted the significantly higher rates of warming in the HKH region compared to the global average. The HKH region has the largest reserves of glacial ice outside the poles. These glaciers are predominantly known to be sensitive indicators of changing regional and global climate. The large geographical extent, high elevation and perennial inclemency in weather conditions project remote sensing as the only viable option to study glacial characteristics periodically on a regional scale. The present chapter starts with a review of significant studies to assess the extent of climate change in the HKH. Climate-sensitive glacial markers which can be studied using remote sensing are identified. The chapter focuses on the key markers such as changes in glacier extents, glacier facies and supraglacial debris, and mass balance and thickness. The chapter examines these markers separately with respect to changing climate through recent remote sensing-based studies. It provides an overview of recent studies which deal with regional scale glaciological monitoring and assessment. The conclusive section of the chapter suggests the future role of remote sensing applications in studying these markers of climate change. The chapter uses recent studies to highlight key aspects that should be kept in perspective while undertaking remotely sensed glacial assessments.

  • 19.
    Sharma, Vipasha
    et al.
    Amity Institute of Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing (AIGIRS), Amity University, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Ghosh, Swagata
    Amity Institute of Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing (AIGIRS), Amity University, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Singh, Sultan
    Haryana Space Applications Centre, Gurugram 122001, Haryana, India.
    Vishwakarma, Dinesh Kumar
    Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263145, Uttarakhand, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ravindra Kumar
    Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144001, Punjab, India.
    Kuriqi, Alban
    CERIS, Instituto Superior T’ecnico, University of Lisbon, 1649-004 Lisbon, Portugal; Civil Engineering Department, University for Business and Technology, 10000 Pristina, Kosovo.
    Spatial Variation and Relation of Aerosol Optical Depth with LULC and Spectral Indices2022In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 1992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study area (Faridabad, Gurugram, Ghaziabad, and Gautam Buddha Nagar), the aerosol concentration is very high, adversely affecting the environmental conditions and air quality. Investigating the impact of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) on Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) helps us to develop effective solutions for improving air quality. Hence, the spectral indices derived from LULC ((Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), Soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), Enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and Normalized difference build-up index (NDBI)) with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) high spatial resolution (1 km) AOD from the years 2010-2019 (less to high urbanized period) has been correlated. The current study used remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to examine changes in LULC in the current study region over the ten years (2010-2019) and the relationship between LULC and AOD. A significant increase in built-up areas (12.18%) and grasslands (51.29%) was observed during 2010-2019, while cropland decreased by 4.42%. A positive correlation between NDBI and SAVI (0.35, 0.27) indicates that built-up soils play an important role in accumulating AOD in a semi-arid region. At the same time, a negative correlation between NDVI and EVI (-0.24, -0.15) indicates the removal of aerosols due to an increase in vegetation. The results indicate that SAVI can play an important role in PM2.5 modeling in semi-arid regions. Based on these findings, urban planners can improve land use management, air quality, and urban planning.

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  • 20.
    Shiquan, Dou
    et al.
    School of Economics and Management, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Environment for Development Initiative, University of Gothenburg, Box 645, Gothenburg SE 405 30, Sweden.
    Deyi, Xu
    School of Economics and Management, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China.
    Yue, Chen
    School of Economics and Management, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China.
    Yue, Cheng
    School of Public policy and management, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.
    The impact of mineral resource extraction on communities: How the vulnerable are harmed2022In: The Extractive Industries and Society, ISSN 2214-790X, E-ISSN 2214-7918, Vol. 10, article id 101090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining projects across the globe face controversy over the loss of community welfare, particularly to the detriment of vulnerable groups. However, few studies have analyzed how extractive activities affect community and individual welfare from a national micro-scale perspective. Using data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), this study examines how mining activities impact the well-being of surrounding communities and the loss of livelihoods and health experienced by vulnerable groups within communities. The results showed that mining caused 18.5% of income loss and 13.6% of health loss among community residents. Vulnerable groups suffer more than the average community member. For example, women lost 28.1% more personal income than men. Differences in the ability of different groups in the community to resist adverse shocks from mining also exacerbate the level of inequality within the community. Mining has led to a 1.7% increase in community inequality. Communities close to mining activities have a higher poverty incidence than others (33.9% increase). However, the impact of extractive industries is spatially heterogeneous due to geographic, cultural and economic differences. In some areas resource extraction has contributed to community well-being (i.e., mountainous areas). These findings encourage decision makers to adopt more flexible resource management mechanisms.

  • 21.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, India; Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, India.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Kumar, Ramesh
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, India.
    Singh, Atar
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, India.
    Changing climate and glacio-hydrology: a case study of Shaune Garang basin, Himachal Pradesh2018In: International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology, ISSN 2042-7808, E-ISSN 2042-7816, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 258-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise in temperature is already evident in Himalaya with rate of increase varying seasonally and spatially. Changes in precipitation are also evident with no clear trend. Several studies in different parts of Himalayas suggest that the glaciers are retreating in general with few exceptions as response to changes in temperature and precipitation. The stream flow in river basins in Indian Himalayan region (IHR) is already showing changes in studies undertaken in the last few decades. Use of glacio-hydrological models gives opportunity to estimate stream flow in glaciated river basins and understand the changes. The present study deals with estimation of discharge in Shaune Garang Basin, Himachal Pradesh using a glacio-hydrological model based on degree day factors. The model was used to estimate long term average of melt season discharge (1985-2007) in the basin. The modelled discharge shows good correlation with measured discharge for simulation period except for first year of comparison.

  • 22.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Natural Resources Engineering and Management Department, University of Kurdistan Hewler, Erbil, KRG, Iraq.
    Jassim, Hamed M.
    Department of Petroleum and Mining Eng., Tishik International University, Erbil, KRG, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Private Dams’ Engineer, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Consequences of the Climate Change in Iraq2022In: Global Journal of Human-Social Science, ISSN 0975-587X, E-ISSN 2249-460X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 13-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Climate change is a global issue affecting different parts of our planet where we are living. However, the reasons of climate change and consequences differ at different parts too. In Iraq, including the Kurdistan Region, the reasons for the climate change are due to man-made and natural effects, where the rates of CO2 emission and those of other greenhouse gasses are increasing drastically, besides the global warming, decrease in the amount of water income in rivers and streams from Turkey and Iran, decrease of rain and snow fall, increase of population. All these have direct impact on the climate and accordingly the consequences are coming harsher and seriously effective on the daily life of the people. In this research, different man-made and natural effects, which directly affect the climate change are presented and described. Moreover, predictions and recommendations are given to decrease the consequences of the climate change in Iraq among them the status of awareness is one of the main reasons to climate change, besides the global warming.

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  • 23.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    et al.
    Department of Petroleum Engineering, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Private Consultant Engineer, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The Severe Consequences of Climate Change in Iraq: A Case Study2023In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 242-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq, like most Middle Eastern countries, is suffering from the effects of Climate Change. The effects are in form of deterioration and degradation of lands, including agricultural lands, an increase in dust storms, an increase in daily temperatures, decreasing annual rainfall, decreasing annual snowfall, decreasing annual water income in the main rivers, streams and ephemeral wadis, increasing of desertification, increasing of areas covered by sand dunes, decreasing of green areas, decreasing of wetlands. According to regional studies, the living conditions and environment after 3 - 4 decades in Iraq and some neighboring countries will be very difficult, especially due to increasing daily temperatures and decreasing annual rainfall. To conduct the current study, we have reviewed tens of published articles, and scientific reports followed by relevant interviews on TV, and daily observations of events caused by climate change. One of the most common reasons for climate change is the emission of CO2, and the most common reason contributing to the increase of the effects of climate change is the absence of awareness in the community and the deficient official preparedness. The preparedness, however, to avoid and/ or mitigate the effects of climate change is very low, not only on the governmental level but also on popular scales. Therefore, the harsh effect of climate change increasing in severity and causing great damage to infrastructure, and personal properties, and is leading to more causalities. Recommendations to mitigate the consequences of climate change are given in two scales, governmental and popular.

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  • 24.
    Tehreem, Zara
    et al.
    Department of Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Ali, Zulfiqar
    College of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Niaz, Rizwan
    Department of Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Hussain, Ijaz
    Department of Statistics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Sammen, Saad Sh.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Baqubah, Diyala Governorate, Iraq.
    A Novel Appraisal Protocol for Spatiotemporal Patterns of Rainfall by Reconnaissance the Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) with Global Warming Context2022In: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, Vol. 2022, article id 3012100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In global warming contexts, continuous increment in temperature triggers several environmental, economic, and ecological challenges. Its impacts have severe effects on energy, agriculture, and socioeconomic structure. Moreover, the strong correlation between temperature and dynamic changing of rainfall patterns greatly influences the natural cycles of water resources. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the spatiotemporal variation of precipitation to improve precipitation monitoring systems. Thereby, it helps to make future planning for flood control and water resource management. Considering the importance of the spatiotemporal assessment of precipitation, the current study provides a new method: regional contextual precipitation concentration index (RCPCI) to analyze spatial-temporal patterns of annual rainfall intensities by reconnaissance the precipitation concentration index (PCI) in the global warming context. The current study modifies the existing version of PCI by propagating the role of temperature as auxiliary information. Further, based on spatial and nonspatial correlation analysis, the current study compares the performance of RCPCI and PCI for 45 meteorological stations of Pakistan. Tjøstheim’s coefficient and the modified t-test are used for testing and estimating the spatial correlation between both indices. In addition, the Poisson log-normal spatial model is used to assess the spatial distribution of each rainfall pattern. Outcomes associated with the current analysis show that the proposed method is a good and efficient substitute for PCI in the global warming scenario in the presence of temperature data. Therefore, to make accurate and precise climate and precipitation mitigation policies, the proposed method may incorporate uncovering the yearly pattern of rainfall.

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  • 25.
    Varamesh, Saeid
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil 5619911367, Iran.
    Mohtaram Anbaran, Sohrab
    Department of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil 5619911367, Iran.
    Shirmohammadi, Bagher
    Department of Reclamation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, University of Tehran, Tehran 3158777871, Iran.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shabani, Saeid
    Research Department of Natural Resources, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Gorgan 4915677555, Iran.
    Jaafari, Abolfazl
    Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran 1496813111, Iran.
    How Do Different Land Uses/Covers Contribute to Land Surface Temperature and Albedo?2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 24, article id 16963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land surface temperature (LST) and land surface albedo (LSA) are the two key regional and global climate-controlling parameters; assessing their behavior would likely result in a better understanding of the appropriate adaptation strategies to mitigate the consequences of climate change. This study was conducted to explore the spatiotemporal variability in LST and LSA across different land use/cover (LULC) classes in northwest Iran. To do so, we first applied an object-oriented algorithm to the 10 m resolution Sentinel-2 images of summer 2019 to generate a LULC map of a 3284 km2 region in northwest Iran. Then, we computed the LST and LSA of each LULC class using the SEBAL algorithm, which was applied to the Landsat-8 images from the summer of 2019 and winter of 2020. The results showed that during the summer season, the maximum and minimum LSA values were associated with barren land (0.33) and water bodies (0.11), respectively; during the winter season, the maximum LSA value was observed for farmland and snow cover, and the minimum value was observed in forest areas (0.21). The maximum and minimum LST values in summer were acquired from rangeland (37 °C) and water bodies (24 °C), respectively; the maximum and minimum values of winter values were detected in forests (4.14 °C) and snow cover (−21.36 °C), respectively. Our results revealed that barren land and residential areas, having the maximum LSA in summer, were able to reduce the heating effects to some extent. Forest areas, due to their low LSA and high LST, particularly in winter, had a greater effect on regional warming compared with other LULC classes. Our study suggests that forests might not always mitigate the effects of global warming as much as we expect.

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