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  • 1.
    Abdel-Hameed, Amal Mohamed
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.
    Abuarab, Mohamed EL-Sayed
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mehawed, Hazem Sayed
    Irrigation and Drainage Department, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Giza 12613, Egypt.
    Kassem, Mohamed Abdelwahab
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.
    He, Hongming
    School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 210062, China.
    Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah
    School of Engineering and Built Environment, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia.
    Mokhtar, Ali
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt; School of Geographic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 210062, China.
    Winter Potato Water Footprint Response to Climate Change in Egypt2022In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The limited amount of freshwater is the most important challenge facing Egypt due to increasing population and climate change. The objective of this study was to investigate how climatic change affects the winter potato water footprint at the Nile Delta covering 10 governorates from 1990 to 2016. Winter potato evapotranspiration (ETC) was calculated based on daily climate variables of minimum temperature, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity during the growing season (October–February). The Mann–Kendall test was applied to determine the trend of climatic variables, crop evapotranspiration and water footprint. The results showed that the highest precipitation values were registered in the northwest governorates (Alexandria followed by Kafr El-Sheikh). The potato water footprint decreased from 170 m3 ton−1 in 1990 to 120 m3 ton−1 in 2016. The blue-water footprint contributed more than 75% of the total; the remainder came from the green-water footprint. The findings from this research can help government and policy makers better understand the impact of climate change on potato crop yield and to enhance sustainable water management in Egypt’s major crop-producing regions to alleviate water scarcity.

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  • 2.
    Al Bayaty, Majd
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al Mousawi, Eman
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Jahad, Udai A.
    Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Chabuk, Ali
    Department of Environment Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Babylon, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Majdi, Ali
    Department of Building and Construction Techniques Engineering, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Riparian Management and Nutrients Distribution in Different Zones of Euphrates Riverbanks2023In: International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, ISSN 1755-7437, E-ISSN 1755-7445, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic of nutrient cycling is a critical factor in riparian regions. It is essential to understand the behaviour of riparian areas in the maintenance and management river ecosystem. Sediment load, nutrients, and pathogens are transported to water bodies through land drainage and riverside flow. The classification of environmental agencies was poor for them. In this study, a qualitative investigation was implemented to determine the relationship between these practices and variations in nutrient retention for several types of riverbank soil. Also, the riverbank soils were including soil covered by wild reed plants. All the field works were along the Euphrates River in three locations. Moreover, study the variation in the content of vegetation riverbank soils from nitrogen, organic matter (OM), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), and PH. The results presented that riverbanks consider important locations for nutrient retention. Whilst agricultural activities have minimized the content of soil of OM (30%), N (49%), and K (3%), in subsurface soil but not so great lowering in surface layers. In contrast, management practices and human activities such as burning caused an apparent increase of OM (4%), N (77%), and a clear reduction in P (12%) content at both surface and subsurface layers of soil. Under all circumstances, riverbank soils showed a relative increase of nutrients at wet toe-slopes. Furthermore, it is noted that riparian vegetation and aquatic plants played a significant role by causing critical changes in riparian sides or even contrary effects on riverbank management practices and destruction of natural soil nutrient conditions. Thus, it should be carefully considered when evaluating the ecological impacts of riparian disturbances.

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  • 3.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7070, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bärenbold, Rebekka
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7070, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Riemer, Olivia
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7070, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deriving a Benefit Transfer Function for Threatened and Endangered Species in Interaction with Their Level of Charisma2018In: Environments, E-ISSN 2076-3298, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity and species conservation are among the most urgent global issues. Both are under serious threat because of human intrusion and as a result, it is likely that present and future projects will affect threatened and endangered species. Thus, it is important to account for these impacts when evaluating and conducting cost and benefit analyses of projects. Due to their public good character and non-tradability, the total economic value of threatened and endangered species cannot be reflected by a market price and therefore, alternative approaches (stated preference method) are needed to determine their monetary value. This paper reviews and compares the valuation literature on threatened and endangered animals and conducts a meta-analysis regression to identify explanatory variables for the variation in willingness to pay for threatened and endangered species. The main findings of the meta-analysis show that the interaction of the level of threat and charisma have a positive effect on willingness to pay. Furthermore, developed countries have a higher willingness to pay compared to developing countries. Similarly, visitors of conservation sites have higher willingness to pay than residents. The provided example of a benefit transfer of the estimated function shows the practicability of our results.

  • 4.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    SLU.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Örebro.
    Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger
    Östman, Anders
    Lazdinis, Marius
    SLU.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    SLU.
    Arnberg, W.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro.
    Two-dimensional Gap Analysis: A Tool for Efficient Conservation Planning and Biodiversity Policy Implementation2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 527-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sciences can be used for assessing the success in the implementation of biodiversity policies in real landscapes by identifying institutional obstacles while implementing policies. We argue that this interdisciplinary approach could be applied in a whole range of other environments including other terrestrial biota and aquatic ecosystems where functional habitat connectivity, nonlinear response to habitat loss and a multitude of economic and social interests co-occur in the same landscape.

  • 5.
    Brown, Ludovick
    et al.
    Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Fuchs, Boris
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Koppang, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Scandinavia AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Zedrosser, Andreas
    Department of Natural Sciences and Environmental Health, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø in Telemark, Norway; Institute for Wildlife Biology and Game Management, University for Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Pelletier, Fanie
    Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.
    Lead exposure in brown bears is linked to environmental levels and the distribution of moose kills2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 873, article id 162099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead (Pb) is heterogeneously distributed in the environment and multiple sources like Pb ammunition and fossil fuel combustion can increase the risk of exposure in wildlife. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden have higher blood Pb levels compared to bears from other populations, but the sources and routes of exposure are unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of two potential sources of Pb exposure in female brown bears (n = 34 individuals; n = 61 samples). We used multiple linear regressions to determine the contribution of both environmental Pb levels estimated from plant roots and moose (Alces alces) kills to blood Pb concentrations in female brown bears. We found positive relationships between blood Pb concentrations in bears and both the distribution of moose kills by hunters and environmental Pb levels around capture locations. Our results suggest that the consumption of slaughter remains discarded by moose hunters is a likely significant pathway of Pb exposure and this exposure is additive to environmental Pb exposure in female brown bears in Sweden. We suggest that spatially explicit models, incorporating habitat selection analyses of harvest data, may prove useful in predicting Pb exposure in scavengers.

  • 6.
    Burman, Anton J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Numerical Modelling as a Predictive Tool on Hydropeakings’ Influence on Downstream Ecosystems2022In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2022 / [ed] Pär Jonsén; Lars-Göran Westerberg; Simon Larsson; Erik Olsson, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 7.
    Burman, Anton J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hedger, Richard D.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research – NINA, NO-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Andersson, Anders G.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sundt-Hansen, Line E.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research – NINA, NO-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Modelling the downstream longitudinal effects of frequent hydropeaking on the spawning potential and stranding susceptibility of salmonids2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 796, article id 148999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower plant operating conditions are expected to change to be more in tandem with intermittent power production so as to meet the requirements of the Paris Agreement, which in turn may negatively impact ecological conditions downstream of the hydropower plants. The current study investigates how highly flexible hydropower operating conditions may impact several salmonid species (European grayling, Atlantic salmon and brown trout) in the River Umeälven, a major river in northern Sweden; specifically, how changes in hydropeaking frequency may affect the area of the downstream watercourse that is hydraulically suitable for spawning (potential spawning area) and how changes in spill gate closing time may affect the propensity to stranding. River hydrodynamics were modeled using the open-source solver Delft3D, with a range of hydropeaking frequencies (from 10 to 60 starts and stops per day) and a range of spill gate closing times from (1–30 min). Increasing the hydropeaking frequency caused a reduction in potential spawning area, but also a reduction in dewatering of potential spawning area at low flows. Increasing spill gate closing time caused a decrease in propensity to stranding. Effects were dependent on both species and life-stage, and declined longitudinally with distance downstream from the spillway outlet. The modelling approach used here provides an effective method for predicting likely outcomes of flexible hydropower operating conditions, taking into account fish species and life-stages present and watercourse characteristics.

  • 8.
    Chlot, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Siergieiev, Dmytro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Husson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Modelling nitrogen transformations in waters receiving mine effluents2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 21, p. 4585-4595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a biogeochemical model developed for a clarification pond receiving ammonium nitrogen rich discharge water from the Boliden concentration plant located in northern Sweden. Present knowledge about nitrogen (N) transformations in lakes is compiled in a dynamic model that calculates concentrations of the six N species (state variables) ammonium-N (Nam), nitrate-N (Nox), dissolved organic N in water (Norg), N in phytoplankton (Npp), in macrophytes (Nmp) and in sediment (Nsed). It also simulates the rate of 16 N transformation processes occurring in the water column and sediment as well as water–sediment and water–atmosphere interactions. The model was programmed in the software Powersim using 2008 data, whilst validation was performed using data from 2006 to 2007. The sensitivity analysis showed that the state variables are most sensitive to changes in the coefficients related to the temperature dependence of the transformation processes. A six-year simulation of Nam showed stable behaviour over time. The calibrated model rendered coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.93, 0.79 and 0.86 for Nam, Nox and Norg, respectively. Performance measures quantitatively expressing the deviation between modelled and measured data resulted in values close to zero, indicating a stable model structure. The simulated denitrification rate was on average five times higher than the ammonia volatilisation rate and about three times higher than the permanent burial of Nsed and, hence, the most important process for the permanent removal of N. The model can be used to simulate possible measures to reduce the nitrogen load and, after some modification and recalibration, it can be applied at other mine sites affected by N rich effluents.

  • 9.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sandström, Per
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Can landscape properties predict occurrence of grey-sided voles?2008In: Population Ecology, ISSN 1438-3896, E-ISSN 1438-390X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a long-term decline in spring and fall numbers of Clethrionomys rufocanus in boreal Sweden in 1971-2005. Previous studies on permanent sampling plots in the centre of 2.5 x 2.5 km landscapes suggested that habitat fragmentation (sensu destruction) could have contributed to the decline. Therefore, we tested these findings in a field study and compared trapping results on the central sampling plots of landscapes with a low degree of fragmentation (LDF) and of "hot spot" type with trapping results in managed forest landscapes with a high degree of fragmentation (HDF). We predicted that C. rufocanus would be more common on the LDF plots. We used our permanent plots supplemented with a new sample of plots, mainly of the rare LDF type, inside or just outside the long-term study area. Very few voles were trapped on both plot types, and no difference was found. However, a subsequent pilot study with trapping in a national park with large areas of pristine, unfragmented forest yielded more voles than in the managed, more fragmented, areas. Consequently, the initial field study data and some other recent data were also re-analysed from a "local patch quality" perspective. This alternative approach revealed the positive importance of large focal patches of forest > 60 years old and their content of old-growth (pine) forest (> 100 years). Interestingly, at the landscape level, the frequency distribution of patches of forest > 60 years old, old-growth (> 100 years), and especially of old-growth pine forest (> 100 years), relative to the properties of plots with C. rufocanus, suggested that there are few forest patches left that are suitable for C. rufocanus. Our current results suggest that habitat fragmentation cannot be excluded as a contributing cause to the long-term decline of C. rufocanus in boreal Sweden.

  • 10.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sandström, Per
    Nilsson, Mats
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Umeå universitet.
    Dependence of Clethrionomys rufocanus on focal forest patch size and quality2006In: Book of Abstracts, 2006, p. 19-20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The "local patch quality perspective" revealed the importance to C. rufocanus of a large patch of forest >60 yr old containing a lot of old-growth (pine) forest (>100 yr). In fact, at the landscape level, the frequency distribution of focal patches of forest >60 yr old and especially their content of old-growth pine forest (>100 yr), relative to the properties of plots with C. rufocanus, suggests that there are few forest patches left that are suitable for C. rufocanus in our study area. Our results strongly suggest habitat fragmentation as a contributing cause to the long-term decline of C. rufocanus.

  • 11.
    Duan, Hongtao
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Ma, Ronghua
    State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Ecosystem Dynamics and Global Ecology (EDGE) Laboratory, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Al, 36849, USA.
    Kong, Fanxiang
    State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Zhang, Shouxuan
    State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Kong, Weijuan
    Department of Geography Information Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
    Hao, Jingyan
    State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Shang, Linlin
    State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.
    Two-Decade Reconstruction of Algal Blooms in China’s Lake Taihu2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 3522-3528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The algal blooming in the inland lakes has become a critically important issue for its impacts not only on local natural and social environments, but also on global human community. However, the occurrences of blooming on larger spatial scale and longer time scale have rarely been studied. As the third largest freshwater lake in China, Lake Taihu has drawn increasing attention from both public and scientific communities concerning its degradation. Using available satellite images, we reconstructed the spatial and temporal patterns of algal blooms in Lake Taihu through the past two decades. The blooming characteristics over the past two decades were examined with the dynamic of initial blooming date being highlighted. The initial blooming dates were gradually becoming later and later from 1987 to 1997. Since 1998, however, the initial blooming date came earlier and earlier year by year, with approximately 11.42 days advancement per year. From 1987 to 2007, the annual duration of algal blooms lengthened year by year, in line with the substantial increases in the occurrences of algal blooms in spring and summer months. The algal blooms usually occur in northern bays and spread to center and south parts of Lake Taihu. The increases in previous winter’s mean daily minimum temperature partially contributed to the earlier blooming onset. However, human activities, expressed as total gross domestic product (GDP) and population, outweighed the climatic contribution on the initial blooming date and blooming duration. This study may provide insights for the policy makers who try to curb the algal blooming and improve the water quality of inland freshwater lakes.

  • 12.
    Dudley, Bernard J.
    et al.
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik.
    Dunbar, Michael
    Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxon.
    Penning, Ellis
    Deltares, Delft.
    Kolada, Agnieszka
    Institute of Environmental Protection - National Research Institute, Warsaw.
    Hellsten, Seppo K.
    Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), University of Oulu.
    Oggioni, Alessandro
    Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment CNR - IREA, Via Bassini.
    Bertin, Vincent
    Irstea, UR REBX, 50 Avenue de Verdun.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Søndergaard, Martin
    Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University.
    Measurements of uncertainty in macrophyte metrics used to assess European lake water quality2013In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 704, no 1, p. 179-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is an important factor in ecological assessment, and has important implications for the ecological classification and management of lakes. However, our knowledge of the effects of uncertainty in the assessment of different ecological indicators is limited. Here, we used data from a standardized campaign of aquatic plant surveys, in 28 lakes from 10 European countries, to assess variation in macrophyte metrics across a set of nested spatial scales: countries, lakes, sampling stations, replicate transects, and replicate samples at two depth-zones. Metrics investigated in each transect included taxa richness, maximum depth of colonisation and two indicators of trophic status: Ellenberg’s N and a metric based on phosphorus trophic status. Metrics were found to have a slightly stronger relationship to pressures when they were calculated on abundance data compared to presence/absence data. Eutrophication metrics based on helophytes were found not to be useful in assessing the effects of nutrient pressure. These metrics were also found to vary with the depth of sampling, with shallower taxa representing higher trophic status. This study demonstrates the complex spatial variability in macrophyte communities, the effect of this variability on the metrics, and theimplications to water managers, especially in relation to survey design.

  • 13.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bedömningsgrunder för makrofyter i sjöar: bakgrundsrapport2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De befintliga bedömningsgrunderna för makrofyter (BGM) i sjöar har hittills ansetts som preliminära. Dessutom motsvarade de inte kraven enligt EUs Ramdirektiv för vatten med avseende på bl.a. typanpassningen och angivna gränser mellan olika klasser av ekologisk status. I det framlagda förslaget för revideringen av BGM i enlighet med EUs Ramdirektiv för vatten, lades stor vikt vid att utöka dataunderlaget av framför allt referenssjöar. Med hjälp av olika påverkanskriterier valdes 49 referenssjöar, dvs. sjöar som ansågs vara av hög ekologisk status. Som kriterier användes markanvändning, sjösänkning, koncentrationen av näringsämnen samt pH i vattenfasen. Baserad på artsammansättningen bland makrofyterna gjordes en klusteranalys-baserad typindelning i tre grupper. Dessa tre typologigrupper kunde skiljas åt med hjälp av främst två typologivariabler, nämligen Y-koordinat och h.ö.h. De tre typologigrupperna/regionerna var sjöar S om Limes norrlandicus (LN), sjöar N om LN men under högsta kustlinjen (HK) samt sjöar N om LN och över HK. För att bestämma sjöarnas ekologiska status, beräknades indikatorvärden längs Tot-P-gradienten för alla funna makrofytarter förutom helofyter. Indikatorvärdena viktades med arternas nischbredd längs Tot-P-gradienten. För varje sjö kunde på det viset ett medianindikatorvärde, ett trofiindex, beräknas. Dessa trofiindex översattes till en femgradig skala enligt Ramdirektivets krav, dvs. de fem klasserna av ekologisk status. Denna konvertering gjordes med hjälp av Tot-P halter som prefereras av makrofytarter som ansågs karakteristiska för respektive klass av ekologisk status. På grund av bristande dataunderlag kunde gränsvärden inte beräknas mellan klasserna otillfredsställande och dålig ekologisk status. Trots ett heterogent datamaterial som är insamlat i olika syften, under olika decennier och till och med sekler och med varierande metodik mm., anses det föreslagna systemet kunna tillämpas i enlighet med EUs Ramdirektiv för vatten. Föreliggande utredning understryker dock det stora behovet av kompletterande inventeringar samt av en revidering av undersökningsmetoden för inventering av makrofyter. Det föreslagna systemet bör verifieras med datamaterial som inte användes för den här redovisade bedömningen. Därefter bör en eventuell revidering genomföras.

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  • 14.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Drainage ditching at the catchment scale affects water quality and macrophyte occurrence in Swedish lakes2009In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. We have limited knowledge of the effects of land use in general and of drainage ditching in particular on macrophyte communities in lakes. I quantified catchment land use, including drainage ditching, as well as water quality and the number of macrophyte species in 17 Swedish lakes in summer 2005.

    2. Land use within 1 km of the studied lakes was analysed in a geographic information system. The following variables were included: areas of forests, mires, agricultural land and urbanization, length of drainage ditches (classified according to the use of the land they drained), and shortest distance from lake to an urban area. To extract and analyse general trends in the data sets, redundancy analysis was used.

    3. Water quality was explained mainly by three land-use related variables: the lengths of agricultural, forest and mire ditches. The length of agricultural ditches was positively correlated with lake water conductivity, total dissolved solids, Ca, N and total organic carbon (TOC). The lengths of forest and mire ditches were positively correlated with lake water characteristics, especially TOC.

    4. The number of species representing different macrophyte life forms was explained by three environmental variables: conductivity, and lengths of forest and agricultural ditches. The numbers of isoetids, nymphaeids, elodeids and total obligate hydrophytes were negatively correlated with length of forest ditches. In contrast, the number of lemnids and helophytes was positively correlated with conductivity and length of agricultural ditches. Furthermore, the number of isoetids was exponentially related (negatively) to lengths of agricultural and forest ditches, indicating a threshold response to drainage ditch length.

    5. The results suggest that effects on water quality and macrophyte communities result from drainage ditching in the lake catchments rather than from land use itself. Given the total area of drainage-ditched land worldwide (millions of ha in Scandinavia alone), drainage ditching should be considered when evaluating environmental impacts on lake water quality and macrophyte occurrence and when determining reference conditions for catchment land use.

  • 15.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effects of landscape patterns on small mammal abundance2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicate a long-term decline in the numbers of voles in northern Fennoscandia. Altered land use and forest management practices have been proposed as possible causes of the decline. This doctorial thesis aimed to identify, on different spatial scales, landscape patterns that are important for the abundance of small mammals and that might be related to the decline. General trends and aspects of spatial habitat modelling were reviewed. Trapping data from three large extent monitoring programs were related to habitat factors on different spatial scales. For these analyses, a broad range of statistical and GIS (geographic information system) related methods was applied. On the microscale (trapping station, extent <= 10 m) and mesoscale (transect, length 90 m), structural habitat factors such as coarse and fine woody debris, umbrella vegetation and structural complexity of the forest floor were identified as important factors influencing small mammal abundance. Small mammal densities were related to the percentage landcover of vegetation types on the micro-, meso-, macro- (subarea/landscape, 1 x 1, 2.5 x 2.5 and 2 x 5 km) and regional scale (overall study area, 20 x 20 - 80 x 80 km). The spatial continuity (non- fragmentation) of old-growth pine forest patches on the landscape scale was positively related to the abundance of C. rufocanus, the species that showed the most pronounced long-term decline in numbers. The results of this thesis strongly suggest that altered land use might indeed be involved in the decline in numbers of voles in managed forest areas in northern Fennoscandia. To reveal and test responses of small mammals to changes in landscape patterns in more detail, this work proposes further application of large scale approaches. These approaches, e.g. the GIS-based prediction of the areas with currently high abundance of C. rufocanus can be tested by field sampling of the type applied in this thesis. Such approaches should consider the key aspects identified in the reviews on GIS-based habitat modelling, e.g. reconciling the scale of the population dynamics of small mammals with the scale (resolution and extent) of the input data, the application of different modelling approaches and the performance of sensitivity analysis.

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  • 16.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    En botanisk vårresa genom Japan1999In: Nordrutan, ISSN 1401-3533, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Herman Svenonius: från vattenpest till borsting1998In: Nordrutan, ISSN 1401-3533, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    I Herman Svenonius fotspår1998In: Nordrutan, ISSN 1401-3533, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Population dynamics of small mammals in relation to habitat factors in natural and managed forests2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of forest age and structural habitat factors on species richness and the population dynamics of small mammals were evaluated. Small mammals were monitored both in old-growth and in immature managed forests, and habitat factors were recorded.Species richness and population dynamics of forest dwelling small mammal species were positively influenced by factors related to cover of vegetation in the field layer and to structural heterogeneity in the forest floor. In contrast, species richness and the overall abundance of Clethrionomys glareolus were negatively related to forest age. However, habitats in old forests were important refuges for the winter survival of C. glareolus and therefore may forest management practices, like clearcutting, enhance population fluctuations in this species. The contrasting effects of forest age indicate that population dynamics were primarily not related to the age of forests, but rather to habitat factors important to reproduction and survival of small mammals.

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  • 20.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Småsvalting - en doldis i Norrbotten1997In: Nordrutan, ISSN 1401-3533, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sällsynta soptippssvampar1997In: Nordrutan, ISSN 1401-3533, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Utvärdering av metoder för makrofytinventering2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vattenvegetation används nationellt och internationellt som indikator för att bedöma miljötillståndet, till exempel vattenkvalitet och naturvärden i sjöar och vattendrag. Det är av stor vikt att resultaten och analyserna från en makrofytinventering håller hög och tillförlitlig kvalitet. Den bedömning som grundar sig på kvalitetsfaktorn makrofyter kan få långtgående och kostsamma konsekvenser. Trots den stora mångfalden bland syften med makrofytinventeringar och tillgängliga inventeringsmetoder finns det i dagsläget ingen omfattande studie som har utvärderat olika inventeringsmetoder för makrofyter med avseende på en avvägning mellan syfte, karteringsmetodik, kvantifiering och resursbehov. Syftet med föreliggande utvärdering är att, baserat på en litteraturstudie och utvärdering av befintliga data, kunna rekommendera ett fåtal metoder för övervakningsinventering av sjöar för vidare fälttest. Utvärderingen bygger på en genomgång av relevant nationell och internationell litteratur, diskussioner med kollegor verksamma inom det europeiska interkalibreringsarbetet kring bedömningen av ekologisk status enligt Ramdirektivet för vatten, samt en utvärdering av tillgängliga men hittills icke utvärderade, svenska makrofytdata. Studien har avgränsats till övervakningsinventering enligt Ramdirektivet för vatten och bedömning av naturvärden. Den mest lovande metoden (enligt min bedömning) är krattning längs virtuella transekter med notering av täckningsgrad enligt en semikvantitativ skala. Metoden borde emellertid testas i minst 16 sjöar av olika biologisk och morfologisk karaktär. I ett antal sjöar (minst sex sjöar, t.ex. tre oligotrofa djupa och tre eutrofa grunda sjöar), bör krattmetoden jämföras med snorkling samt även med rutinventering med hjälp av dykning längs transekter. Dykningsmetoden är internationellt sett den mest använda övervakningsmetoden. För att undvika att de svenska data från en kommande miljöövervakningsmetod, baserad på krattmetoden, kommer att ifrågasättas, borde dykningsmetoden värderas mot krattningsmetoden. Hypotesen är att krattmetoden ger lika pålitliga resultat för bedömningen av vattenkvalitet enligt Ramdirektivet för vatten och bedömning av naturvärden som dykningsmetoden, i alla fall i de grunda sjöpartierna. Detta är dock bara ett antagande och bör verifieras med en gedigen fältstudie. Utvärderingen krävs för att kunna rekommendera krattmetoden baserat på vetenskaplig grund. Metoderna bör fälttestas under sommaren 2007, med fördel enligt faktorisk design, där hänsyn tas speciellt till sjöarnas trofistatus, bottensubstrat, sjödjup och sjöstorlek, samt med krav på att belägga effekten av antal undersökta transekter, olika typer av kratta, olika kvantifieringsmetoder, förhållandet mellan informationsvinst och resursbehov vid användning av olika karterings- och kvantifieringsmetoder.

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  • 23.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Vattenvegetation som indikator för vattenkvalitet och sjökaraktär: baserad på förändringar i vattenkemi och vegetation i svenska sjöar 1929 - 20052006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water vegetation as indicator of water quality and lake character - Based on changes in water chemistry, and vegetation in Swedish lakes 1929 - 2005In the 1930ies, Gunnar Lohammar analyzed macrophyte vegetation and biogeochemistry in 151 Swedish lakes. These data completed with data from resampling open up a unique opportunity to study the relation among macrophytes, biogeochemistry and land-use. 17 of the Lohammar-lakes were re-sampled in summer 2005 (eight in the county of Uppland and nine in Norrbotten) to understand these relations and their temporal changes. Macrophytes showed clear preferences along the biogeochemical gradients. The response of isoetids and lemnids along the gradients was consistent within respective group. In contrast, within elodeids and nymphaeids, species showed varying responses. The preferences were used to develop preliminary macrophyte-based indicator-values. These deviated from the English indicator-values that are used in Sweden at present. Macrophyte vegetation, biogeochemistry and land-use changed considerably from 1930 - 2005. Analysing the whole material, only the number of nymphaeid-speices changed 1930 - 2005. Differences in macrophyte abundance were most obvious between the two regions. Lakes in Norrbotten had more isoetid-species than Uppland whereas for lemnids the situation was the opposite in the 1930ies. The differences between the regions were more pronounced 2005 than 1930 and could be explained with increased nutrient concentrations in general and increased tot-N concentrations in specific. Nutrient concentrations (mainly tot-N, but also tot-Na and conductivity) increased in Uppland and Norrbotten and were explained by amongst others increased N-deposition and increased use of salt in traffic and households. Tot-P concentrations did not change significantly between 1930 - 2005 but showed a correlation to the land-use in respective drainage area, e.g. distance to nearest village. Macrophyte abundance and lake biogeochemistry were related to land-use within drainage areas and within 1-km buffer zones from the lakes. Remarkable is especially the positive correlation of the length of ditches as well as area of agricultural land and the number of macrophyte species that prefer nutrient rich environments. Macrophyte abundance could be explained by a combination of land-use and lake biogeochemistry. The increased area of clear-cuts during the study period resulted probably in a decreased number of species preferring nutrient poor environments and low TOC-concentrations. Correlations among macro- and trace element fractionation indicate that it might be the bioavailable fraction of the elements that might determine the abundance of lemnids. The results illustrate the effects of land-use and land-use change on macrophytes and biogeochemistry. The results should be regarded as a first step to better understand the link among land-use, macrophytes and biogeochemistry.

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  • 24.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Identification of suitable spatial scales for analyzing landscape responses of grey-sided voles2005In: Abstracts, IX International Mammalogical Congress, 2005, p. 149-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Rentz, Ralf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Do landscape properties matter for densities of the grey-sided vole?: a comparison among managed and pristine forest landscapes2007In: 5. European Congress of Mammology, 2007, Vol. 2, p. 467-467Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 26.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Rentz, Ralf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Sandström, Per
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Landscape structure and the long-term decline of cyclic grey-sided voles in Fennoscandia2010In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 551-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in forest landscape structure have been suggested as a likely contributing factor behind the long-term decline in the numbers of cyclic grey-sided voles (Clethrionomys rufocanus) in northern Fennoscandian lowland regions in contrast to mountain regions due to the absence of forest management in the mountains. This study, for the first time, formally explored landscape structure in 29 lowland (LF) and 14 mountain forest (MF) landscapes (each 2.5 × 2.5 km) in northern Sweden, and related the results to the cumulated spring trapping index of the grey-sided vole in 2002-2006. The grey-sided vole showed striking contrasts in dynamics close in space and time. The MF landscapes were characterized by larger patches and less fragmentation of preferred forest types. The grey-sided vole was trapped in all of 14 analyzed MF landscapes but only in three out of 29 of the LF landscapes. MF and LF landscapes with grey-sided vole occurrence were characterized by similar focal forest patch size (mean 357 ha, minimum 82 ha and mean 360 ha, minimum 79 ha, respectively). In contrast, these MF compared to the LF landscapes were characterized by larger patches of preferred forest types and less fragmented preferred forest types and by a lower proportion of clear-cut areas. The present results suggest that landscape structure is important for the abundance of grey-sided voles in both regions. However, in the mountains the change from more or less seasonal dynamics to high-amplitude cycles between the mid 1990s and 2000s cannot be explained by changes in landscape structure.

  • 27.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Sandström, Per
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Identification of landscape elements related to local declines of a boreal grey-sided vole population2006In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 485-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies indicate a long-term decline in numbers of different species of voles in northern Fennoscandia. In boreal Sweden, the long-term decline is most pronounced in the grey-sided vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus). Altered forest landscape structure has been suggested as a possible cause of the decline. However, habitat responses of grey-sided voles at the landscape scale have never been studied. We analyzed such responses of this species in lowland forests in Västerbotten, northern Sweden. Cumulated spring densities representing 22 local time series from 1980-1999 were obtained by a landscape sampling design and were related to the surrounding landscape structure of 2.5×2.5 km plots centred on each of the 22 1-ha trapping plots. In accordance with general knowledge on local habitat preferences of grey-sided voles, our study supported the importance of habitat variables such as boulder fields and old-growth pine forest at the landscape scale. Densities were negatively related to clear cuts. Habitat associations were primarily those of landscape structure related to habitat fragmentation, distance between habitat patches and patch interspersion rather than habitat patch type quantity. Local densities of the grey-sided vole were positively and exponentially correlated with spatial contiguity (measured with the fragmentation index) of old-growth pine forest, indicating critical forest fragmentation thresholds. Our results indicate that altered land use might be involved in the long-term decline of the grey-sided vole in managed forest areas of Fennoscandia. We propose two further approaches to reveal and test responses of this species to changes in landscape structure.

  • 28.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Per
    SLU.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Umeå universitet.
    Decline of grey-sided voles in managed boreal forests tracks long-term habitat fragmentation2006In: Book of Abstracts, 2006, p. 24-25Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a long-term decline, causing frequent local extinctions, of cyclic grey-sided voles (Clethrionomys rufocanus) in northern Fennoscandia since 1971. Previous studies supported the hypothesis that altered landscape structure, especially in terms of forest patch area and fragmentation of oldgrowth forest, has contributed to the decline. Since those studies were based on cumulated vole time series data and static landscape structure, we now tested whether the long-term decline was related to a gradual change. We digitized landcover types (>0.25 ha) from aerial photographs within 6.25 km2 squares centred on each of the 27 sampling sites with 5 year intervals, starting in 1970. Because of clear-cutting, mean area of the patches of >35 year old forest that intersected the sampling sites decreased from 126 ha in 1970 to 44 ha in 2004. The main decrease in focal forest patch area occurred in 198085, coinciding with the major drop in vole numbers. Our results strongly suggest that long-term habitat fragmentation is involved in the current decline of grey-sided voles. However, climate change leading to warmer winters with a less stable snow cover is also thought to be of major importance, as indicated by a decrease in vole wintering success.

  • 29.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Sandström, Per
    Nilsson, Mats
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Is the long-term decline of the grey-sided vole in boreal Sweden caused by gradual habitat destruction at the landscape scale?2007In: 5. European Congress of Mammology, 2007, Vol. 2, p. 468-468Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 30.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Sandström, Per
    Nilsson, Mats
    Department of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Kan gråsidingens populationsnedgång förklaras med tidsserier av vegetationsdata?2006In: För en ekologiskt hållbar samhällsplanering: Abstract- sammanställning, 31 oktober 2006 Stockholm, 2006, p. 11-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Sandström, Per
    Nilsson, Mats
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Spatio-temporal patterns in landscape structure cause limiting thresholds for the abundance of declining grey-sided voles2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The grey-sided vole (Myodes rufocanus) is one of the keystone vole species for ecosystem functioning in boreal forests. In 1970-2008 there has been a long-term decline in the numbers of grey-sided voles within a 100×100 km2 study area in northern Sweden. Habitat destruction is regarded as a contributing factor to the decline. However, we have so far lacked knowledge on any spatiotemporal thresholds in landscape structure related to the decline. Here, we studied such thresholds in 16 5×5 km landscapes, systematically distributed within the study area. Local declines were most pronounced in the western (inland) part of the study area in 1980-85. At that time, the species already had gone extinct in the eastern (coastal) area. We related changes in landscape structure to the timing of the grey-sided vole declines. Landcover types (>0.25 ha) were digitized from aerial photographs within the 5×5 km landscapes with 5-yr intervals. The most pronounced changes in landscape structure were related to changes in forest age structure due to clear-cutting. Within the study area, there were significant geographical differences in the size distribution of clearcuts and forest patches. In 1970, the coastal in contrast to the inland study area, was characterized by more clear-cuts (766  versus 182) that were smaller (mean 5 ± 18 ha versus 13 ± 34 ha) but covered larger areas (sum 4077 ha versus 2325 ha). Spatio-temporal comparisons showed that the coastal landscape in 1970, when the vole was rarely found there, resembled the inland landscape in 1985. The main decrease in focal forest patch size in the inland occurred in 1980-85, coinciding with the major drop in vole numbers there. Our results suggest that spatio-temporal changes in landscape structure are important and contributing to declines in greysided vole abundance.

  • 32.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Engström, Emma
    Rentz, Ralf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Husson, Eva
    Sediment and water interactions with macrophyte element concentrations and community structure2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Littoral interactions among sediment, water and macrophytes are poorly understood. In particular there is a gap in knowledge concerning the importance of macrophytes as sinks and sources of trace elements. Such knowledge is however central for, amongst others, explaining potential mechanisms behind the community structure of macrophytes and for the development of macrophyte-based indicator values. We studied the interactions between the three matrices (sediment, water and macrophytes) at 19 sampling sites in Storträsket, a 1.7 km2 boreal lake at the land uplift coast of Northern Sweden in summer 2008. The catchment of Storträsket was dominated  by coniferous forest of mainly the dwarf-shrub type and open wet mires. The upper sediment layers (0-6 cm) were dominated by fine detritus. Fine detritus dominated also the lower layers (>6 cm but ≤10 cm) at all but four of the studied localities where fine sediments (particle diameter <0.2 mm) dominated. Sediment and water element concentrations were related to element concentrations in the dominating macrophyte species, viz. Nuphar lutea (roots and leaves), Potamogeton natans (leaves) and Sparganium angustifolium (leaves) and to chlorophyll concentrations using uni- and multivariate statistics. We studied 27 major and trace elements. Estimations of abundance and biomass of N. lutea in eight bays was based on the evaluation of high resolution (2 cm) aerial photographs. The total biomass of N. lutea and standardized biomass (biomass per unit of area) differed significantly among bays. Also concentrations in all matrices as well as in chlorophyll showed significant spatial variation in the lake. N. lutea showed for several elements significant partitioning of elements between roots and leaves (e.g. Ca, K, Na, Fe, Pb, Zn). Correlations between element concentrations in sediment/water and in macrophytes were in general weak but significant for amongst others Si in water and leaves of P. natans and Co, Cu and Fe in water and roots of N. lutea. Interpreting correlations of elements between the sediment and macrophytes might in our study be impeded by potential incorporation of lithogenic material in extracellular macrophyte tissue. Our study identified especially N. lutea as a major sink (during vegetation period) and source (during autumn and winter) of several major and trace elements. Interactions between the matrices, chlorophyll concentrations and macrophyte community structure are further discussed as well as the implications of our results for the development of macrophyte-based indicator values.

  • 33.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7050, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellsten, Seppo
    Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), University of Oulu, P.O. Box 413, 90014, Oulu, Finland.
    Mjelde, Marit
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, 0349, Oslo, Norway.
    Kuoppala, Minna
    Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), University of Oulu, P.O. Box 413, 90014, Oulu, Finland.
    Schlacke, Sabine
    Research Centre for European Environmental Law, Faculty of Law, University of Bremen, Universitätsallee GW1, 28353, Bremen, Germany.
    Potential conflicts between environmental legislation and conservation exemplified by aquatic macrophytes2010In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 656, no 1, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important that legislation on water quality issues of freshwaters is not in conflict with nature conservation purposes. So far, it is however unknown how the assessment of ecological status according to for example the Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Community relates to the status of lakes according to the Habitat Directive (HD) or to national environmental objectives including, e.g., the protection of important wetland areas and red-listed species. We used lake macrophyte classification schemes of Norway, Sweden, and Finland and a total of 1,014 lakes to evaluate the possible conflict between these directives and national legislation. The classification schemes represent mainly trophic indices penalizing lakes with elevated phosphorous concentrations. In general, high ecological status according to the WFD did not mean high number of red-listed species or high status according to the HD or other national environmental objectives. In Sweden 78%, in Norway 47%, and in Finland 29% of lakes with red-listed species were classified as lakes of moderate or worse ecological status based on the macrophyte classification scheme. These lakes thus did not fulfill the demands of the WFD. Restoration of surface water toward fulfilling the demands requires in practice a reduction of the trophic status. This might potentially result in for example the loss of red-listed species. To avoid such potential conflicts, we primarily suggest revising the national quality assessment systems toward implicitly incorporating nature conservation aspects, e.g., the number of red-listed species in a multi-metric assessment system.

  • 34.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hellsten, Seppo
    Mjelde, Marit
    Schlacke, Sabine
    Does macrophyte-based lake status assessment according to the EU Water Framework Directive conflict with the EU Habitat Directive in Fennoscandia?2009In: Aquatic Weeds 2009: Proceedings of the 12th European Weed Research Society Symposium, August 24-28 2009 / [ed] Arnold Pieterse; Anne-Marie Rytkönen; Seppo Hellsten, Edita Publishing Oy, 2009, Vol. 15, p. 65-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, many member states of the European Union (EU) have finalised and implemented national systems for water quality assessment in lakes according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). It is however unknown how the assessment of ecological status, according to the WFD, relates to the status of lakes according to the EU Habitat Directive (HD). High ecological status according to the WFD should mean high status according to the HD. To avoid any conflicts between different EU directives and national environmental objectives, surface waters protected as for example Natura 2000 sites should ideally show high ecological status according to the WFD. Also, high ecological status according to the WFD should imply the presence or potential for presence of red-listed species. Here, we studied the ecological status of 1014 Fennoscandian lakes (224 Norwegian, 491 Swedish and 299 Finnish lakes) according to the WFD and related it to the number of red-listed species per lake and to the status of the lakes as Natura 2000 areas. High ecological status according to the WFD did not mean high status according to the HD or according to national environmental objectives. In general, the number of red-listed species decreased with increased ecological quality ratios. In Norway 47%, in Sweden 78%, and in Finland 29% of lakes with red-listed species were classified as lakes of moderate or worse ecological status according to the WFD. In Sweden 39 of 68 studied Natura 2000 lakes had a moderate or poor ecological status according to the WFD. In Sweden and Norway, in contrast to Finland, macrophyte-based assessment systems are primarily a trophic index, i.e. penalising lakes with elevated phosphorous concentrations. The multimetric nature of the Finnish index probably contributes to the better agreement between the WFD assessment and the number of red-listed species in Finland compared to Sweden and Norway. In Sweden six of eight red-listed species occur in lakes with phosphorous concentrations considerably above reference conditions. Generally, it is assumed that biodiversity is favoured by intermediate nutrient concentrations. In addition, instead of phosphorous, Ca concentrations appear important for the occurrence of many redlisted species, especially for Charophytes. Rapid revision of the national indices is needed to increase compatibility between the two EU directives and to increase the agreement between the WFD and national environmental objectives.

  • 35.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Löfgren, Ola
    Sörkin, Dieke
    ALS Analytica AB, Luleå.
    Population dynamics of small mammals in relation to forest age and structural habitat factors in northern Sweden2002In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 781-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern Scandinavia there are indications of a long-term decline in the abundance of the three dominant vole species, Clethrionomys glareolus, Clethrionomys rufocanus and Microtus agrestis, since the 1970s. One explanation proposes that intensified clear-cutting has created even-aged and homogeneous forest stands with poor overall conditions for survival and reproduction of the voles. 2. We investigated the relationship between forest age and structural habitat factors and its implications for the species richness and abundance of small mammals. In particular, we assessed the population dynamics of C. glareolus, a forest-dwelling species with rather general habitat requirements. 3. Extensive snap-trapping of small mammals was conducted during 1998-2000 on 24 study sites in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Trapping was carried out along transects running from immature forests of six age classes (0-50 years) into adjacent reference sites (> 100 years). At each trapping station we recorded 14 habitat variables that were reduced to three principal components (PCs). The PCs were related to late successional traits, such as forest age and cover of tree layers (PC1), cover of tall vegetation in the field layer (PC2) and structural heterogeneity in the forest floor (PC3). 4. The species richness of small mammals, as well as the total abundance of C. glareolus, was positively influenced by tall vegetation (PC2) and structural heterogeneity (PC3) but not by late successional traits (PC1). The youngest forests had higher scores for both PC2 and PC3 compared with older forests. 5. The youngest forests also had the highest species richness and total abundance of C. glareolus. This was associated with a generally higher rate of change in numbers of C. glareolus during summer in the youngest forests compared with adjacent reference sites. In contrast, survival during winter was lower in the youngest forests. We found this result to be consistent with a source-sink scenario where young individuals, primarily born in old forest stands in early summer, migrate into younger forests to breed, but where the probabilities for winter survival are poor. 6. Our study demonstrates that both the species richness of small mammals and the population dynamics of C. glareolus are influenced to a great extent by structural habitat factors that are altered by common forest management practices in northern Sweden. In order to conserve species richness of small mammals and to minimize population fluctuations of C. glareolus in northern Scandinavia, we outline forest management practices that will provide heterogeneous environments, such as leaving logging residues on site after forest harvesting.

  • 36.
    Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Succession on a land uplift coast in relation to plant strategy theory2000In: Annales Botanici Fennici, ISSN 0003-3847, E-ISSN 1797-2442, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant strategies under succession were evaluated for communities on rising seashores of the northern Gulf of Bothnia, Sweden, representing sites of primary succession. The succession could not be explained by Grime's CSR model. Early successional stages were neither characterized by high incidence of ruderals as proposed for secondary successions, nor by the dominance of stress tolerators, as proposed for primary successions. Short-lived species were almost totally absent. Instead, the shore habitat was characterized by species with an ability to tolerate and vegetatively recover from disturbance. The way in which different species experience one and the same form of stress or disturbance is an important reason why the classification on the basis of stress and disturbance seems to be insufficient to explain the course of this succession. Dominants of early and late successional stages differed with respect to root system, breeding system, leaf longevity and growth form (graminioid, herb).

  • 37.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ingri, Johan
    Baxter, Douglas
    Ecke, Frauke
    Österlund, Helene
    Öhlander, Björn
    Temporal isotopic variations of dissolved silicon in a pristine boreal river2010In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 271, no 3-4, p. 142-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has previously been concluded that the stable Si isotopes are fractionated during geochemical and biogeochemical elemental transfers, such as weathering and precipitation of clays and biogenic Si, which has opened up the possibility of using Si as a tracer in natural terrestrial ecosystems. Furthermore, quantification of the biogenic impact on the biogeochemical Si cycle has attracted significant scientific interest since biological control has been suggested. Previous observations of seasonal variations in the dissolved Si isotopic pattern further imply that high-frequency riverine sampling during main hydrological events might provide important information about natural processes governing the fluvial biogeochemical Si cycle.Therefore, temporal variations in the isotopic composition of riverine dissolved Si were investigated for the Kalix River, Northern Sweden, the largest pristine river system in Europe, based on high-frequency sampling during a period of 25 weeks from early April to early October 2006. Temporal variations spanning 0.4‰ for δ29Si and 0.8‰ for δ30Si of dissolved Si in the Kalix River were observed during the period, suggesting that the riverine dissolved Si input to the oceans cannot be considered to have a constant Si isotopic composition even on a short time scale.The results implicate biogeochemical Si-cycling via formation and dissolution of biogenic silica as processes significantly affecting the dissolved Si transport in boreal systems during April to early October. The Si budget in the river system appeared to be controlled by relative Si enrichment during high discharge events and relative Si depletions in the subarctic mountainous and lake dominated areas. The Si enrichments and depletions were accompanied by decreasing and increasing riverine δ29Si and δ30Si, respectively. These isotope variations can be explained by release of plant derived silica, depleted in heavier Si isotopes, during the spring snowmelt. Further, increased volumetric contribution from the headwater and losses of dissolved Si due to biogenic silica formation by diatoms in the subarctic lakes at a later period are expected to be responsible for the preferential losses of lighter isotopes, as further verified by land cover analysis

  • 38.
    Engström, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Scandinavis AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Rodushkin, Ilya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Scandinavis AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Baxter, Douglas
    ALS Scandinavis AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Scandinavis AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Temporal isotopic variations of dissolved silicon in a pristine boreal river2009In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 73, no 13, Suppl. S, p. A333-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in quantifying the biogenic impact on the terrestrial biogeochemical Si cycle has increased significantly since biological control has been suggested. Previous observations of isotopic fractionation of Si during biogeochemical and geochemical processes imply that seasonal dissolved Si isotopic patterns in rivers have the potential for use in extracting information about the riverineand terrestrial biogeochemical Si cycles.Therefore, variations in the isotopic composition of dissolved riverine Si were investigated for the Kalix River, Northern Sweden, one of the largest pristine rivers in Europe, based on high-frequency sampling during a period of 25 weeks from early April to early October 2006. Temporal variations spanning 0.4. for δ29Si and 0.8. for δ30Si of dissolved Si in the Kalix River were observed during the period, suggesting that the riverine Si input to the oceans cannot be considered to have a constant Si isotopic composition even on a short time scale. The results implicate biogeochemical Si-cycling via formation and dissolution of biogenic silica as major processes controlling the Si transport in boreal systems. The Si budget in the river system appeared to be controlled by relative Si accretions during high discharge events and relative Si depletions in the subarctic mountainous and lake dominated areas. There were also temporal variations in Si isotopic composition with accretion (relative Si contribution), accompanied by depletion of the heavier Si isotopes, while the opposite trend was observed during periods of riverine Si depletion. These isotope variations can be explained by release of plant derived silica, depleted in heavier Si isotopes, during the spring snowmelt. Further, increased volumetric contribution from the headwater and losses of Si due to biogenic silica formation by diatoms in the subarctic lakes at a later period are expected to be responsible for the preferential losses of lighter isotopes. These conclusions are further verified by land cover analysis.

  • 39.
    Fuchs, Boris
    et al.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, 2480 Koppang, Norway.
    Joly, Kyle
    National Park Service, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, 99709 Fairbanks, Alaska, USA.
    Hilderbrand, Grant V.
    National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office, 99501 Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
    Evans, Alina L.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, 2480 Koppang, Norway.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Scandinavia AB, 97187, Luleå, Sweden.
    Mangipane, Lindsey S.
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Marine Mammals Management, 99503 Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
    Mangipane, Buck A.
    Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, National Park Service, 99501 Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
    Gustine, David D.
    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Marine Mammals Management, 99503 Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
    Zedrosser, Andreas
    Department of Natural Science and Environmental Health, University of South-Eastern Norway, 3800 Boe in Telemark, Norway; Institute for Wildlife Biology and Game Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Brown, Ludovick
    Departement de biologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, 2480 Koppang, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Toxic elements in arctic and sub-arctic brown bears: Blood concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in relation to diet, age, and human footprint2023In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 229, article id 115952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contamination with arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) is a global concern impairing resilience of organisms and ecosystems. Proximity to emission sources increases exposure risk but remoteness does not alleviate it. These toxic elements are transported in atmospheric and oceanic pathways and accumulate in organisms. Mercury accumulates in higher trophic levels. Brown bears (Ursus arctos), which often live in remote areas, are long-lived omnivores, feeding on salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and berries (Vaccinium spp.), resources also consumed by humans.

    We measured blood concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in bears (n = 72) four years and older in Scandinavia and three national parks in Alaska, USA (Lake Clark, Katmai and Gates of the Arctic) using high-resolution, inductively-coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry. Age and sex of the bears, as well as the typical population level diet was associated with blood element concentrations using generalized linear regression models.

    Alaskan bears consuming salmon had higher Hg blood concentrations compared to Scandinavian bears feeding on berries, ants (Formica spp.) and moose (Alces). Cadmium and Pb blood concentrations were higher in Scandinavian bears than in Alaskan bears. Bears using marine food sources, in addition to salmon in Katmai, had higher As blood concentrations than bears in Scandinavia. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb, as well as for As in female bears increased with age. Arsenic in males and Hg concentrations decreased with age.

    We detected elevated levels of toxic elements in bears from landscapes that are among the most pristine on the planet. Sources are unknown but anthropogenic emissions are most likely involved. All study areas face upcoming change: Increasing tourism and mining in Alaska and more intensive forestry in Scandinavia, combined with global climate change in both regions. Baseline contaminant concentrations as presented here are important knowledge in our changing world.

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  • 40.
    Fuchs, Boris
    et al.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, 2418, Elverum, Norway.
    Thiel, Alexandra
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, 2418, Elverum, Norway.
    Zedrosser, Andreas
    Department of Natural Science and Environmental Health, University of South-Eastern Norway, 3800, Bø in Telemark, Norway; Institute for Wildlife Biology and Game Management, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, 1180, Vienna, Austria.
    Brown, Ludovick
    Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1, Québec, Canada.
    Hydeskov, Helle B.
    School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Southwell, NG25 0QF, United Kingdom.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. ALS Scandinavia AB, 97187, Luleå, Sweden.
    Evans, Alina L.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, 2418, Elverum, Norway.
    Boesen, Amanda H.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, 2418, Elverum, Norway.
    Græsli, Anne Randi
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, 2418, Elverum, Norway.
    Kindberg, Jonas
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), 7485, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Campus Evenstad, 2418, Elverum, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    High concentrations of lead (Pb) in blood and milk of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Scandinavia2021In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 287, article id 117595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to lead (Pb) is a global health problem for both humans and wildlife. Despite a dramatic decline in human Pb exposure following restrictions of leaded gasoline and industry and thereby an overall reduction of Pb entering the environment, Pb exposure continues to be a problem for wildlife species. Literature on scavenging terrestrial mammals, including interactions between Pb exposure and life history, is however limited.

    We quantified Pb concentration in 153 blood samples from 110 free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos), 1–25 years old, using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry. We used generalized linear models to test effects of age, body mass, reproduction status and spatial distribution on the blood Pb concentrations of 56 female bears. We sampled 28 females together with 56 dependent cubs and paired their blood Pb concentrations. From 20 lactating females, we measured the Pb concentration in milk.

    The mean blood Pb concentration was 96.6 μg/L (range: 38.7.0–220.5 μg/L). Both the mean and range are well above established threshold concentrations for developmental neurotoxicity (12 μg/L), increased systolic blood pressure (36 μg/L) and prevalence of kidney disease in humans (15 μg/L). Lactating females had higher Pb blood concentrations compared to younger, non-lactating females. Blood Pb concentrations of dependent cubs were correlated with their mother's blood Pb concentration, which in turn was correlated with the Pb concentration in the milk.

    Life-long Pb exposure in Scandinavian brown bears may have adverse effects both on individual and population levels. The high blood Pb concentrations found in brown bears contrast the general reduction in environmental Pb contamination over the past decades in Scandinavia and more research is needed to identify the sources and pathways of Pb exposure in the brown bears.

  • 41.
    Grmasha, Ruqayah Ali
    et al.
    Limnology Research Group, Center for Natural Science, University of Pannonia, Egyetem Utca 10, 8200, Veszprém, Hungary; Environmental Research and Studies Center, University of Babylon, Al-Hillah, 51001, Iraq; Sustainability Solutions Research Lab, Faculty of Engineering, University of Pannonia, Egyetem Str. 10, 8200, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Stenger-Kovács, Csilla
    Limnology Research Group, Center for Natural Science, University of Pannonia, Egyetem Utca 10, 8200, Veszprém, Hungary; HUN-REN–PE Limnoecology Research Group, Egyetem Utca 10, 8200, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Al-sareji, Osamah J.
    Environmental Research and Studies Center, University of Babylon, Al-Hillah, 51001, Iraq; Sustainability Solutions Research Lab, Faculty of Engineering, University of Pannonia, Egyetem Str. 10, 8200, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Al-Juboori, Raed A.
    NYUAD Water Research Center, New York University-Abu Dhabi Campus, Abu Dhabi, PO Box 129188, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Water and Environmental Engineering Research Group, Department of Built Environment, Aalto University, Aalto, PO Box 15200, 00076, Espoo, Finland.
    Meiczinger, Mónika
    Sustainability Solutions Research Lab, Faculty of Engineering, University of Pannonia, Egyetem Str. 10, 8200, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Andredaki, Manolia
    School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.
    Idowu, Ibijoke A.
    School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.
    Majdi, Hasan Sh.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Industries, Al‐Mustaqbal University College, Hillah, Iraq.
    Hashim, Khalid
    Environmental Research and Studies Center, University of Babylon, Al-Hillah, 51001, Iraq; School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK; Dijlah University College, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Temporal and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Danube River in Hungary2024In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, article id 8318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danube is a significant transboundary river on a global scale, with several tributaries. The effluents from industrial operations and wastewater treatment plants have an impact on the river&apos;s aquatic ecosystem. These discharges provide a significant threat to aquatic life by deteriorating the quality of water and sediment. Hence, a total of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds were analyzed at six locations along the river, covering a period of 12 months. The objective was to explore the temporal and spatial fluctuations of these chemicals in both water and sediment. The study revealed a significant fluctuation in the concentration of PAHs in water throughout the year, with levels ranging from 224.8 ng/L during the summer to 365.8 ng/L during the winter. Similarly, the concentration of PAHs in sediment samples varied from 316.7 ng/g in dry weight during the summer to 422.9 ng/g in dry weight during the winter. According to the Europe Drinking Water Directive, the levels of PAHs exceeded the permitted limit of 100 ng/L, resulting in a 124.8% rise in summer and a 265.8% increase in winter. The results suggest that the potential human-caused sources of PAHs were mostly derived from pyrolytic and pyrogenic processes, with pyrogenic sources being more dominant. Assessment of sediment quality standards (SQGs) showed that the levels of PAHs in sediments were below the Effect Range Low (ERL), except for acenaphthylene (Acy) and fluorene (Fl) concentrations. This suggests that there could be occasional biological consequences. The cumulative Individual Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) exceeds 1/104 for both adults and children in all sites.

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  • 42.
    Hannah, David
    et al.
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada.
    Ferreira, Caitlin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Beedie School of Business, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada.
    From warrior to guardian: An autoethnographic study of how consumers think about and interact with the natural world2023In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1344-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers are increasingly concerned about how their interactions with the natural world affect both the health of that environment, and their own well-being and enjoyment of life. More aware consumers seek to make sense of the natural world around them and consider how their consumer behavior impacts this environment. How actors notice and bracket ecologically material cues from a stream of experience and build connections and causal networks between these has been referred to as ecological sensemaking. This research examines ecological sensemaking in a specific context, that being in the experience of catch-and-release fishing. Data were gathered through a process of autoethnographic inquiry obtained over the course of four fishing trips. The results reflect the process of ecological sensemaking pertaining to the experience. Through the findings, we propose a new concept, ecological reasoning, which seeks to provide a critical link between ecological sensemaking and ecological embeddedness. Using this new concept, the research contributes to extant understanding of how consumers think about and interact with the natural world. Apart from constructing an overarching narrative of the experience, four subnarratives are also identified, in a chronological sequence that comprises the entire experience of catch-and-release fishing. The findings have implications for the broader management and marketing disciplines seeking to establish better ways of interacting with the natural world, both for themselves and their consumers.

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  • 43.
    Husson, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The potential of an unmanned aircraft system for surveying lake and river vegetation2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation in and along aquatic systems has important regulatory and ecological functions. Aquatic vegetation is also frequently used as an indicator of environmental conditions. To enhance our knowledge of the complex natural processes in the littoral zone, i.e., the zone from the high water mark to the lower limit of aquatic vegetation, it is critical to assess plant occurrence and abundance at the species level. This assessment is traditionally performed with labour-intensive field methods. Recently developed remote sensing systems with unmanned aircrafts that take aerial images at low flying height, offer new possibilities for surveying aquatic and riparian vegetation. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) produce aerial images with sub-decimetre spatial resolution and high spatial accuracy at low cost and are highly flexible in time and space. The goal of this thesis was to evaluate the potential of an UAS for surveying non-submerged aquatic and riparian vegetation, including the identification of plants at the species level and vegetation mapping. Based on produced vegetation maps and field sampling, we also assessed the total biomass of entire riparian zones (320-m river stretches) and the biomass and trace metal content of dominant species along a pollution gradient. In total, the UAS was tested in four aquatic systems, two lakes and two rivers, in boreal northern Sweden. Generated orthoimages were interpreted visually. The spatial resolution varied from 5–5.6 cm. At two test sites we identified plant species with high accuracy (94.6 and 80.4% for aquatic and riparian vegetation, respectively). Prior knowledge on locally occurring species was necessary for correct species identification. The time needed for manual vegetation mapping increased with increasing vegetation complexity. At the test site for biomass assessment, biomass and trace element (Cu, Cd, and Zn) contents varied considerably between species. Salix sp. (willows) comprised only 3% of the total dominant-species biomass but contained 73% of all Cd and 24% of all Zn. In contrast, Carex rostrata/vesicaria (bottle and blister sedge) comprised 80% of the total biomass and contained 85% of all Cu and 66% of all Zn. This result emphasizes the need for species-specific assessment, for example, in planning of phytoremediation measures. The tested UAS facilitates species-level surveying and mapping of non-submerged aquatic and riparian vegetation and can be used in combination with field sampling to accurately assess biomass and the amount of accumulated contaminants at the scale of entire riparian zones. The main future challenge will be to identify/develop automated methods for vegetation mapping which successfully cope with the inherent complexity of the orthoimages generated with the presented UAS.

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  • 44.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Per
    SLU, Umeå.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Long-term decline and local extinction of Clethrionomys rufocanus in boreal Sweden2006In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1135-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past three decades in boreal Sweden, there has been a long-term decline of cyclic sympatric voles, leading to local extinctions of the most affected species, the grey-sided vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus). We monitored this decline by snap-trapping on 58 permanent plots spread over 100 km2 in spring and fall from fall 1971-2003. The reason for the decline is largely unknown, although a common major factor is likely to be involved in the decline of C. rufocanus and of the coexisting voles. However, here we deal with the reasonability of one complementary hypothesis, the habitat fragmentation hypothesis, which assumes that part of the decline of C. rufocanus is caused by habitat (forest) destruction. There was considerable local variation in the decline among the 58 1-ha sampling plots, with respect to both density and timing of the decline; however, all declines ended up with local extinction almost without exception. Local declines were not associated with habitat destruction by clear-cutting within sampling-plots, as declines started about equally often before as after clear-cutting, which suggested that habitat destruction outside sampling plots could be involved. In a multiple regression analysis, local habitat preference (LHP; expressed as a ratio of observed to expected number of voles trapped per habitat) together with two habitat variables in the surrounding (2.5×2.5 km2) landscape matrix explained 56% of the variation among local cumulated densities of C. rufocanus and hence of local time-series. LHP was positively correlated and explained 31% of the variation, while connectivity among clear-cuts was negatively correlated and proximity among xeric-mesic mires was positively correlated and explained additional 16% and 9%, respectively. Even if the overall decline cannot be connected to local clear-cutting on sampling-plots, clear-cutting and hence habitat fragmentation/destruction in the surrounding landscapes potentially influenced grey-sided vole numbers negatively.

  • 45.
    Jagadesh, M.
    et al.
    Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, 641003, India.
    Selvi, Duraisamy
    Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, 641003, India.
    Thiyageshwari, Subramanium
    Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, 641003, India.
    Srinivasarao, Cherukumalli
    ICAR-National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM), Hyderabad, 500030, India.
    Raja, Pushpanathan
    ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil & Water Conservation (IISWC), Research Centre, Ooty, 643004, India; ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil & Water Conservation (IISWC), Research Centre, Koraput, 763002, India.
    Surendran, Udayar Pillai
    Land and Water Management Research Group, Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Kozhikode, 673571, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mattar, Mohamed A.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
    Altering Natural Ecosystems Causes Negative Consequences on the Soil Physical Qualities: An Evidence-Based Study from Nilgiri Hill Region of Western Ghats, India2023In: Land, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 1869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use change (LUC) has direct and indirect consequences on soil quality. To gain insight into how LUC influences the physical properties of soil, it can be advantageous to compare undisturbed ecosystems with those that have naturally evolved over time, as well as to use soil quality indices to pinpoint the sensitivity of each ecosystem and land use change (LUC). A soil survey was carried out in the six major ecosystems of the Nilgiri Hill Region: cropland (CL), deciduous forest (DF), evergreen forest (EF), forest plantation (FP), scrubland (SL), and tea plantation (TP), with those having an establishment for over 50 years being selected and analyzed for soil physical parameters. In addition, soil quality indices were also derived to pinpoint the vulnerability of each ecosystem to LUC. The results reveal that the changes in land use significantly altered the soil physical properties. The content of clay was higher in EF and DF and increased with the soil profile’s depth, whereas the sand content was higher in CL and TP and decreased with the depth increment. BD and PD were significantly lower in EF, DF, SL, and FP, whereas they were higher in CL and TP. PS and ASM followed a similar trend to BD and PD. Owing to undisturbed natural settings, an abundance of litter input, and higher carbon concentrations, the HC was higher in EF, DF, SL, and FP, whereas, in the case of anthropogenic-influenced ecosystems such as CL and TP, it was lower. We discovered that LUC has altered Ag S, WSA, and MWD. Due to tillage and other cultural practices, Ag S, WSA, and MWD were significantly lower in CL and TP. However, the results confirm that native ecosystems (EF and DF) with a higher carbon content prevent such degradation, thereby resulting in good Ag S, WSA, and MWD.

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  • 46.
    Janta, Rungruang
    et al.
    School of Languages and General Education, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.
    Khwanchum, Laksanara
    School of Languages and General Education, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.
    Ditthakit, Pakorn
    Center of Excellence in Sustainable Disaster Management, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand; School of Engineering and Technology, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160, Thailand.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Linh, Nguyen Thi Thuy
    Institute of Applied Technology, Thu Dau Mot University, Thu Dau Mot 75000, Vietnam.
    Water Yield Alteration in Thailand’s Pak Phanang Basin Due to Impacts of Climate and Land-Use Changes2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 15, article id 9106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and land-use change are important factors in the hydrological process. Climatic and anthropic changes have played a crucial role in surface runoff changes. The objective of this research was to apply land-use change and future climate change to predict runoff change in the Pak Phanang River Basin. The Cellular Automata (CA)-Markov model was used to predict the land-use change, while the climate data from 2025 to 2085 under RPC2.6, RPC4.5, and RPC8.5 were generated using the MarkSim model. Additionally, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) combined land-use change and the generated meteorological data to predict the runoff change in the study area. The results showed that the annual runoff in the area would increase in the upcoming year, which would affect the production of field crops in the lowland area. Therefore, a good water drainage system is required for the coming years. Since the runoff would be about 50% reduced in the middle and late 21st century, an agroforestry system is also suggested for water capturing and reducing soil evaporation. Moreover, the runoff change’s overall impact was related to GHG emissions. This finding will be useful for the authorities to determine policies and plans for climate change adaptation in the Malay Peninsula.

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  • 47.
    Johansson, Therese
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies.
    Andersson, Jon
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University.
    Ecke, Frauke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Short-term responses of beetle assemblages to wildfire in a region with more than 100 years of fire suppression2011In: Insect Conservation and Diversity, ISSN 1752-458X, E-ISSN 1752-4598, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 142-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Suppression of wildfires in boreal landscapes has become widespread and has seriously affected many fire favoured species. However, little is known about the response of organism assemblages to large wildfires in regions with a long history of effective fire suppression, such as Scandinavia.2. We studied the short-term effects of a >1600 ha wildfire on beetle assemblages in northern Sweden. The first summer after fire, beetles were sampled in 12 sites using 36 large window traps, half in old pine forest stands in the burned area and half in similar, but unburned control stands. The entire beetle assemblage and eight subgroups were analysed: saproxylics, non-saproxylics, moderately fire favoured, strongly fire favoured, fungivores, predators, cambium consumers and red-listed species.3. Species composition differed markedly between burned and unburned forests in all nine groups. Furthermore, beetle abundance was higher in the burned area for the entire assemblage and for saproxylics, both groups of fire favoured species, predators and cambium consumers. Species number was higher only for non-saproxylics, strongly fire favoured species and cambium consumers.4. Our results show that wildfire has rapid and strong effects on a wide range of beetles. However, we only trapped two individuals of fire-dependent beetles, which may suggest a lack of such species in the region, possibly due to >100 years of fire suppression. At the regional scale, the studied wildfire may potentially increase the abundance of these beetles after a longer period of reproduction in the burned area.

  • 48.
    Karageorgou, Dimitra
    et al.
    Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, 45100 Ioannina, Greece.
    Patel, Alok
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Katapodis, Petros
    Laboratory of Biotechnology, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, 45100 Ioannina, Greece.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Heterotrophic Cultivation of the Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena sp. on Forest Biomass Hydrolysates toward Sustainable Biodiesel Production2022In: Microorganisms, E-ISSN 2076-2607, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, depletion of fossil fuels, and a growing population have sparked a search for new and renewable energy sources such as biodiesel. The use of waste or residues as substrates for microbial growth can favor the implementation of a biorefinery concept with reduced environmental footprint. Cyanobacteria constitute microorganisms with enhanced ability to use industrial effluents, wastewaters, forest residues for growth, and concomitant production of added-value compounds. In this study, a recently isolated cyanobacterium strain of Pseudanabaena sp. was cultivated on hydrolysates from pretreated forest biomass (silver birch and Norway spruce), and the production of biodiesel-grade lipids was assessed. Optimizing carbon source concentration and the (C/N) carbon-to-nitrogen ratio resulted in 66.45% w/w lipid content when microalgae were grown on glucose, compared to 62.95% and 63.79% w/w when grown on spruce and birch hydrolysate, respectively. Importantly, the lipid profile was suitable for the production of high-quality biodiesel. The present study demonstrates how this new cyanobacterial strain could be used as a biofactory, converting residual resources into green biofuel.

  • 49.
    Kibira, Gerald
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Ntuli, Herbert
    Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    The optimal combination of pastoral activities and wildlife conservation in the Serengeti ecosystem2024In: Natural Resource Modeling, ISSN 0890-8575, E-ISSN 1939-7445, Vol. 37, no 2, article id e12391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is competition for land between Maasai pastoralists and the park agency in the Serengeti ecosystem. The park agency wants to use the land for wildlife conservation while the pastoralist community wants to use it for livestock grazing. Predatory wildlife kills livestock while herbivorous wildlife competes with livestock for water and grazing. In retaliation, the Maasai hunt predators and grazers to protect their livestock and also to supply the black market for wildlife products. With both the Maasai and animal populations growing, increased conflicts are inevitable. This paper develops a bioeconomic model with three animal species to analyse the optimal combination of pastoral activities and wildlife conservation in the Serengeti ecosystem. Using Pontryagin&apos;s maximum principle, the market problem for each agent is optimized and compared to the social planner&apos;s outcome. Results show that the market solutions are suboptimal because of negative externalities affecting both agents and inadequate regard to biodiversity conservation values. Mathematical simulations of the bioeconomic model are used to generate a solution in which the Maasai pastoralists and park agency can optimally share the land for their mutual benefit. The policy implication is that the government should establish an independent regulatory institution with a primary mandate of balancing the contested socioeconomic and ecological needs of stakeholders in prime ecosystems such as the Serengeti.

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  • 50.
    Kucher, Larisa
    et al.
    National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Geroiv Oboroni 15, 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Krasnoshtan, Igor
    Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, Sadova 2, 20300, Uman, Ukraine.
    Nedilska, Uliana
    Higher Educational Institution “Podillia State University”, Shevchenko 13, 31302, Kamenets-Podolsky, Ukraine.
    Muliarchuk, Oksana
    Higher Educational Institution “Podillia State University”, Shevchenko 13, 31302, Kamenets-Podolsky, Ukraine.
    Manzii, Olena
    Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, Sadova 2, 20300, Uman, Ukraine.
    Menderetsky, Vadim
    Kamianets-Podilskyi National University named after Ivan Ohienko, Ogienka 61, 31302, Kamenets-Podolsky, Ukraine.
    Boroday, Vira
    National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Geroiv Oboroni 15, 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Beregniak, Evgeniy
    National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Geroiv Oboroni 15, 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Voitsekhivskyi, Volodymyr
    National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Geroiv Oboroni 15, 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Heavy Metals in Soil and Plants During Revegetation of Coal Mine Spoil Tips and Surrounded Territories2023In: Journal of Ecological Engineering, E-ISSN 2299-8993, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 234-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coal mining in Donbas is a global problem as it causes the destabilization of ecological landscapes. Spoil tips, covering almost 52% of the territory, alter the topography of the land, affect the ecosystem, and decrease soil fertility. The soils become degraded and are unsuitable for agricultural use. The occupation of the Donetsk region by the Russian Federation has suspended the observation and research of man-made influence on this territory, which is a major concern for the scientific community. To reduce the negative impact of spoil tips, it is necessary to slow down the process of pyrite oxidation and the formation of toxic substances, as well as the migration of heavy metals due to erosion. Biological reclamation with grass and woody plants can help in achieving this goal. Another urgent issue is the constant supervision and assessment of the suitability of the bedrock of coal mines for agricultural use. The study investigated the total and mobile content of heavy metals in the rock samples from the “South Donbaska-1” mine, ordinary chernozem (background soil), and vegetation growing on the spoil tip. The results showed that the content of Co, Cr, Cu, and Fe in the rock of the spoil tip is higher than in the background soils. The content of heavy metals gradually decreases as the distance from the spoil tip increases. The content of Pb in ordinary chernozem and rock is practically the same, indicating its active migration. An analysis of the biomass of plant samples growing on the spoil tip showed that the content of Co, Cu, and Zn was within the limits of the threshold limiting values. However, the content of other studied elements exceeded the permissible norms.The research results provide information on the ecological state of the spoil tip and can be used for recreational as well as reclamation works in these areas.

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