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  • 1.
    Aalipour, Mojgan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Human Factors Approach for Maintenance Improvement2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research work is to explore and describe human factors affectingmaintenance execution. To achieve the purpose of this study, the influencing factors have been identified using a literature survey. They have been categorized into four main groups namely organizational, workplace, job and individual factors. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is employed on data questionnaires to rank the priority of the factors. The interrelationships between these factors have been recognized by theInterpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) model. In the present case studies, MICMAC1analysis technique is also implemented for identifying the driving, dependent, linkage and autonomous factors. The data was collected through a questionnaire survey involving the participation of 16 and 25 maintenance staff and 10 mining experts in Swedish and Iranian mines, respectively. Within the study, it has been identified that the temperature, work layout, tools design and tools availability are the most important factors in both mines related to these categories. However, the significant factors in the organizational and individual categories are different in the selected mines. The effect of workplace factors on the maintainability of mining equipment is discussed and thereafter a methodology for maintainability management in the design and operation phases is developed. In the thirdcase study HEART2 is applied to estimate the probability of human error occurring duringmaintenance execution in an Iranian cable company. This research supports maintenance management to gain knowledge of human factors that affect maintenance execution. Further, this understanding could be useful in the development of strategies to improve the execution of maintenance.Keywords: Human Factors, Maintenance Management, Human Reliability, HumanPerformance, AHP, ISM, MICMAC, HEART

  • 2.
    Aalipour, Mojgan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Ayele, Yonas Zewdu
    Department of Engineering and Safety, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    Tromsø University, Department of Engineering and Safety, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø.
    Human reliability assessment (HRA) in maintenance of production process: a case study2016Ingår i: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 229-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human reliability makes a considerable contribution to the maintenance performance, safety, and cost-efficiency of any production process. To improve human reliability, the causes of human errors should be identified and the probability of human errors should be quantified. Analysis of human error is very case-specific; the context of the field should be taken into account. The aim of this study is to identify the causes of human errors and improve human reliability in maintenance activities in the cable manufacturing industry. The central thrust of this paper is to employ the three most common HRA techniques—human error assessment and reduction technique, standardized plant analysis risk-human reliability, and Bayesian network—for estimating human error probabilities and then to check the consistency of the results obtained. The case study results demonstrated that the main causes of human error during maintenance activities are time pressure, lack of experience, and poor procedure. Moreover, the probabilities of human error, obtained by employing the three techniques, are similar and consistent

  • 3.
    Aalipour, Mojgan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    Tromsø University, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Maintainability management of production facilities in complex and challenging operating conditions2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM): Singapore, 6-9 Dec. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 817-820, artikel-id 7385761Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As equipment becomes more complex, repair process becomes more complicated, costly and time-consuming. Maintainability principles are developed to facilitate the repair process. Maintainability principles are applied in design phase and they are characteristic that affects time, accuracy, ease and safety requirements of the repair process. Considering Maintainability principles in the design phase are critical in challenging operational conditions such as Arctic offshore. To have an effective design for maintainability a systematic management approach is required during the design phase. This paper is developed a systematic guideline for maintainability management as an engineering discipline for challenges operational condition

  • 4.
    Aalipour, Mojgan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Barabadi, Abbas
    Tromsø University, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway.
    Work place factors effect on maintainability in challenging operating conditions2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM): Singapore, 6-9 Dec. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 767-771, artikel-id 7385751Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some industries such as mining industry create complex and challenging work place for maintenance crews. For example in an underground mine, for some machines, heavy maintenance tasks must be performed on site in a limited workspace in a harsh environment, including dust and improper illumination. Such operating conditions can increase the health, safety, and environment (HSE) risk, reduce the availability of the machines and increase the life cycle cost of equipment. A review of current mining equipment design and maintenance procedure confirms that considerable reduction in HSE risk, as well as substantial cost savings, can be achieved by considering human factors. This study discusses the effect of workplace factors on the maintainability of mining equipment. It presents the results from questionnaires on the effect of work place factors on maintainability performance given to maintenance staff at two mines, one in northern Sweden and the other in Iran.

  • 5.
    Aalipour, Mojgan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Singh, Sarbjeet
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Identification of Factors affecting Human performance in Mining Maintenance tasks2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop and congress on eMaintenance: June 17-18 Luleå, Sweden : eMaintenance, Trends in technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications / [ed] Uday Kumar; Ramin Karim; Aditya Parida; Philip Tretten, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014, s. 71-76Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors affecting humanperformance in maintenance task in mining sector. Theobjective is identify various factors and to classify them asdriving (strong driving power and weak dependence) anddependent factors (weak driving power and strongdependence). The factors were identified through literaturesurvey and are ranked using mean score of data questionnaire.The reliability of measures is pretested by applyingCronbach’s alpha coefficient to responses to a questionnairegiven to maintenance personnel. The interrelationshipsbetween human factors have been recognized by interpretivestructural modeling (ISM). Further, these factors have beenclassified using matrice d'impacts croises-multiplicationappliqué à un classement (MICMAC) analysing. This casestudy will figure out the factors affecting human performancefor deriving maintenance management insights to improveproductivity in the mining sector. Further, this understandingmay be helpful in framing the policies and strategies formining industry. Temperature, lighting, documentation,communication and fitness are driving factors. Moreover,Work layout, tools availability, complex tasks, time pressure,safety, boss decisions, training, fatigue and motivation havestrong driving power as well as high dependencies and itcomes under the category of linkage factors.

  • 6.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Greater Zab River, Iraq: Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Greater Zab River, Iraq2016Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, nr 12, s. 1384-1402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Greater Zab is the largest tributary of the Tigris River in Iraq where the catchment area is currently being plagued by water scarcity and pollution problems. Contemporary studies have revealed that blue and green waters of the basin have been manifesting increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. In order to gain greater appreciation of the impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area in near and distant future, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) has been used. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics, and then, orecasts from six GCMs (general circulation models) with about half-a-century lead time to 2046~2064 and one-century lead time to 2080~2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and

    B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.

  • 7.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in Diyala River Basin, Iraq2016Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, nr 9, s. 1059-1074Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diyala River is the third largest tributary of the Tigris River running 445 km length and draining an area of 32,600 km2. The river is the major source of water supply for Diyala City for municipal, domestic, agriculture and other purposes. Diyala River Basin currently is suffering from water scarcity and contamination problems. Up-to-date studies have shown that blue and green waters of a basin have been demonstrating increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods seemingly due to climate change. To obtain better understanding of the impacts of climate change on water resources in Diyala River Basin in near 2046~2064 and distant future 2080~2100, SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) was used. The model is first examined for its capability of capturing the basin characteristics, and then, projections from six GCMs (general circulation models) are incorporated  to assess the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed deteriorating water resources regime into the future.

  • 8.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Model-Based Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Isaac River Catchment, Queensland2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 460-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Isaac River catchment, which is located within Fitzroy basin in Central Queensland, Australia is mostly a semi-arid region, sparsely populated, but rife with economic activities such as mining, grazing, cropping and production forestry. Hydro-meteorological data over the past several decades reveal that the catchment is experiencing increasing variability in precipitation and streamflow contributing to more severe droughts and floods supposedly due to climate change. The exposure of the economic activities in the catchment to the vagaries of nature and the possible impacts of climate change on the stream flow regime are to be analyzed. For the purpose, SWAT model was adopted to capture the dynamics of the catchment. During calibration of the model 12parameters were found to be significant which yielded a R2 value of 0.73 for calibration and 0.66 for validation. In the next stage, six GCMs from CMIP3 namely, CGCM3.1/T47, CNRM-CM3, GFDLCM2.1, IPSLCM4, MIROC3.2 (medres) and MRI CGCM2.3.2 were selected for climate change projections in the Fitzroy basin under a very high emissions scenario (A2), a medium emissions scenario(A1B) and a low emissions scenario (B1) for two future periods (2046-2064) and (2080-2100). All GCMs showed consistent increases in temperature, and as expected, highest rate for A2 and lowest rate for B1. Precipitation predictions were mixed-reductions in A2 and increases in A1B and B1, and more variations in distant future compared to near future. When the projected temperaturesand precipitation were inputted into the SWAT model, and the model outputs were compared with the baseline period (1980-2010), the picture that emerged depicted worsening water resources variability.

  • 9.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Bhattarai, Surya
    School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Centra l Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Impacts of Climate Change on Fitzroy River Basin, Queensland, Australia: The Impacts of Climate Change on Fitzroy River Basin, Queensland, Australia2017Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 38-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of historical data of Fitzroy River, which lies in the east coast of Australia, reveals that there is an increasing

    trend in extreme floods and droughts apparently attributable to increased variability of blue and green waters which could be due to

    climate change. In order to get a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on the water resources of the study area for near

    future as well as distant future, SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model was applied. The model is first tested for its suitability in

    capturing the basin characteristics with available data, and then, forecasts from six GCMs (general circulation model) with about

    half-a-century lead time to 2046~2064 and about one-century lead time to 2080~2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of

    climate change under three marker emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the

    future.

  • 10.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sultana, Nasrin
    RMIT University, Melbourne.
    Water resources problems of Iraq: Climate change adaptation and mitigation2018Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 26, artikel-id 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is suffering from water scarcity, and future predictions indicate that it could get worse due to changing climate. Arguably, climate change is one of the greatest challenges onfronting this region it could have significant adverse effects on water resources and hence the environment and economy, particularly in the agricultural sector. This study considers possible adaptation and mitigation measures that could be undertaken in response to climate change. To overcome this problem,adaptation measures at farm and government level were conferred. Farm-level adaptation comprises adopting crop modification, soil conservation, irrigation, changing crop calendar and planting of trees. The government role is to ensure success of these adaptation measures. The government should get involved and support the farmers financially and technologically.

  • 11.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    The school of engineering & technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    The school of engineering & technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources of Greater Zab and Lesser Zab Basins, Iraq, Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model2017Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, ISSN 2010-376X, Vol. 11, nr 10, s. 823-829Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Zab and Lesser Zab are the major tributaries of Tigris River contributing the largest flow volumes into the river. The impacts of climate change on water resources in these basins have not been well addressed. To gain a better understanding of the effects of climate change on water resources of the study area in near future (2049-2069) as well as in distant future (2080-2099), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied. The model was first calibrated for the period from 1979 to 2004 to test its suitability in describing the hydrological processes in the basins. The SWAT model showed a good performance in simulating streamflow. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. Six general circulation models (GCMs) from phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 for periods of 2049-2069 and 2080-2099 were used to project the climate change impacts on these basins. The results demonstrated a significant decline in water resources availability in the future.

  • 12.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    Department of Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Recent Trends and Long-Range Forecasts of Water Resources of Northeast Iraq and Climate Change Adaptation Measures2018Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 11, s. 1-19, artikel-id 1562Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been experiencing water resources scarcity, and is vulnerable to climate change. Analysis of historical data revealed that the region is experiencing climate change to a degree higher than generally reported elsewhere. The relationship between climate change and its effect on water resources of a region has been sparsely addressed in published literature. To fill that gap this research work first investigates if there has been a significant change in climate in the region, which has been found to be true. In the next stage, the research projects future climatic scenarios of the region based on six oft-used General CirculationModel (GCM) ensembles, namely CCSM4, CSIRO-Mk3.6.0, GFDL-ESM2M, MEROC5, HadGEM2-ES, and IPSL-CM5A-LR. The relationship between climate change and its impact on water resources is explored through the application of the popular, widely used SWAT model. The model depicts the availability of water resources, classified separately as blue and green waters, for near and distant futures for the region. Some of the findings are foreboding and warrants urgent attention of planners and decision makers. According to model outputs, the region may experience precipitation reduction of about 12.6% and 21% in near (2049–2069) and distant (2080–2099) futures, respectively under RCP8.5. Those figures under RCP4.5 are 15% and 23.4%, respectively and under RCP2.6 are 12.2% and 18.4%, respectively. As a consequence, the blue water may experience decreases of about 22.6% and 40% under RCP8.5, 25.8% and 46% under RCP4.5, and 34.4% and 31% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. Green water, by contrast, may reduce by about 10.6% and 19.6% under RCP8.5, by about 14.8% and 19.4% under RCP4.5, and by about 15.8% and 14.2% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. The research further investigates how the population are adapting to already changed climates and how they are expected to cope in the future when the shift in climate is expected to be much greater.

  • 13.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimia, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Water Resources of Lesser Zab, Kurdistan, Iraq Using SWAT Model2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, s. 697-715Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Kurdistan in northern Iraq, a semi-arid region, predominantly a pastureland, is nourished by Lesser Zab, which is the second major tributary of Tigris River. The discharge in the tributary, in recent times, has been experiencing increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods supposedly due to climate change. For a proper appreciation, SWAT model has been used to assess the impact of climate change on its hydrological components for a half-centennial lead time to 2046-2064 and a centennial lead time to 2080-2100. The suitability of the model was first evaluated, and then, outputs from six GCMs were incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime.

  • 14.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Techno logy, Central Queensland Univ ersity, Melbourne, Australia .
    Wasimia, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Techno logy, Central Queensland Univ ersity, Melbourne, Australia .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Al-Adhaim, Iraq Using SWAT Model2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, s. 716-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    SWAT model (Sediment and Water Assessment Tool) was used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources in Al-Adhaim Basin which is located in north east of Iraq. Al-Adhaim River is the main source of fresh water to Kirkuk City, one of the largest cities of Iraq. Recent studies have shown that blue and green waters of the basin have been manifesting increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. In order to gain greater appreciation of the impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area in near and distant future, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) has been used. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics, and then, forecasts from six GCMs with about half-a-century lead time to 2046-2064 and one-century lead time to 2080-2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.

  • 15.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimia, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of climate change impacts on water resources of Khabour in Kurdistan , Iraq using SWAT model2016Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, s. 1-21, artikel-id 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Khabour River is one of five tributaries of Tigris River and the first river flows into Tigris River contributing to Tigris Flow by about 2 BCM at Zakho Station. The area of this catchment is 6,143 km2, of which 57% are located in Turkey and 43% in Iraq with a total length of 181 km. Khabour River is the main source of fresh water to Duhok City, one of the major cities of Kurdistan Region. Hydrometeorological data over the past several decades reveal that the catchment is experiencing increasing variability in precipitation and stream flow contributing to more severe droughts and floods presumably due to climate change. SWAT model was applied to capture the dynamics of the basin. The model was calibrated at Zakho station. The performance of the model was rather satisfactory; R2 and ENC were 0.5 and 0.51, respectively in calibration period. In validation process R2 and ENC were nearly consistent. In the next stage, six GCMs from CMIP3 namely, CGCM3.1/T47, CNRM-CM3, GFDL-CM2.1, IPSLCM4, MIROC3.2 (medres) and MRI CGCM2.3.2 were selected for climate change projections in the basin under a very high emissions scenario (A2), a medium emissions scenario (A1B) and a low emissions scenario (B1) for two future periods (2046-2064) and (2080-2100). All GCMs showed consistent increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation, and as expected, highest rate for A2 and lowest rate for B1. The projected temperatures and precipitation were input to the SWAT model to project water resources, and the model outputs were compared with the baseline period (1980-2010), the picture that emerged depicted deteriorating water resources variability.

  • 16.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Barrages2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 153-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Barrages are the early water resources structures that were built in the modern history in Iraq. The main function of the barrages to rise the water levels to feed the main canals of irrigation projects. Further, some barrages are functioning as a diversion structures during floods. The first built barrage and still in operation is Kut Barrage which opened in 1939, while the last one is Amarah Barrage that were opened in 2004. Some of the barrages are in good conditions, some are suffering from technical issues, and others especially at the lower reaches of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers getting insufficient maintenance. Generally, the upstream approaches need dredging of the sediments and small islands, and there is a need also for bathymetric survey of the rivers sections near barrages.  

  • 17.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Euphrates2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 169-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates River is distinguished with long existing irrigation projects, which had been developed in the 20th century after centuries of deterioration. One of the major projects a long Euphrates inside Iraq is Great Abu Ghraib Project, which is the largest reclaimed area. Also, Great Musayab Project, Kifl-Shinafiyah Project and Shinafiyah-Nasiriya Project are other major projects. The most important for which Hindiyah Barrage had been built is Hilla Branch that supply many projects on both sides of this branch. Euphrates irrigation projects need a lot of investments to develop the status of the projects and confront the continuous decrease in water quality of the river. 

  • 18.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Tigris2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 201-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Along Tigris River reach inside Iraq, many large and small projects of irrigation were built. These projects depend on gravity flow or pumping. Starting from Jazeera project then small projects downstream Fatah, where these feed by pumping. After Samarra scheme, the important Ishaqi project, then after Baghdad, the projects of Nahrawan, Middle-Tigris and Dalmaj. The most important branch from Tigris is Gharraf Canal, which is not exploited yet, although plans were prepared decades ago. Downstream Kut Barrage, several projects are especially on the right side of Tigris. Finally, Shatt Al-Arab project which has a unique importance as it provide the solution for municipal need and save the orchards of dates in Basra.  

  • 19.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Tigris River Tributaries2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 231-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are five tributaries feeding Tigris River inside Iraq, on these many large and small projects were developed. Two kinds of projects can be distinguished, first the projects of complementary irrigation or semi-rain feed area for agriculture, and example of these projects is Kirkuk, Hawija, Eski-Kalak and small projects in mountainous area. The second group is the projects that depend mainly on irrigation, examples of that are the projects in lower Diyaa. Unfortunately, there was no exploitation of lands enough comparing with the available resources in Great Zab territories.

  • 20.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Main Drains2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 275-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has a unique system of drainage. Soil texture, groundwater depth, water quality and other factors lead to the adaption of getting rid the drainage water away to the sea in order to control water quality. The system of drainage is not completed yet, however, the backbone of the system, which is Main Outfall Drain (MOD) was completed in 1992. Other main drains were completed and connected and others are still in progress of implementation where the most important drain after MOD is Eastern Euphrates Drain.

  • 21.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Medium and Small Storage Dams2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 283-289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many medium and small dams were built in Iraq. These dams are distributed in three major areas. First is the northern area where many dams built in the period after 2003, even there are some that built in 1980s. Second, is the dams built in the eastern valleys, but these prove to be inefficient due to high rate of sedimentation even in the live storage. Third, is the dams in the western desert. These dams were  highly exploited in 1970s and 1980s to harvest as much as possible in this large and promising area and providing the livelihood conditions to settle people. The area has no more projects due to security issues.

  • 22.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Reservoirs in The Natural Depressions2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 137-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq had suffered for centuries from devastating floods, causing heavy life and property losses and for occasions it demolished the civilizations. Since 1950s, Iraq started to develop several natural depressions to function as escape to mitigate flood waves. The projects of this kind which had developed are: Habbaniyah project, Tharthar project, Schweicha depression and Southern Marshes. The exploitation of these projects comprises building barrages, regulators, and dykes. For Tharthar and Habbaniyah, the diverted water re-used during drought season. Although, these depressions which serve as reservoirs provide invaluable role in flood protection, the construction of the existing and future dams will reduce the feasibility of these projects.

  • 23.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects: Large Storage Dams2019Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 109-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several dams were built on Tigris, Euphrates, and Tigris tributaries in Iraq. The construction of dams had been done in the second half of 20th century. Of the most critical issues confronting the large storage dams in Iraq are the liquefactions in Mosul Dam foundations, land sliding and earthquake effects in Darbandikhan Dam, and the essential maintenance and rehabilitation requirements almost for all the dams. Absolutely, large storage dams made Iraq surviving from thirst in several occasions. Unfortunately, after 2003, the attention or will are not exist pertaining the building of new or partially built large dams.      

  • 24.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Using DRASTIC model Applied to Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, IRAQ2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater assessment of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan region, NE of Iraq using vulnerability mapping2016Ingår i: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511, E-ISSN 1866-7538, Vol. 9, nr 3, artikel-id 223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin is located in the northeastern part of Iraq covering an area of about 1278 km2 with a population of about 190,727. Groundwater is the principal source of water in this area. Agricultural practices within the basin are widespread and located close to groundwater wells. This poses imminent threat to these resources. DRASTIC model integrated with GIS tool has been used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability of this area. In addition, theDRASTIC model was modified using nitrate concentrations and sensitivity analysis to modify the recommended weighting value to get accurate results. The modified rates were calculated using the relations between each parameterand the nitrate concentration in the groundwater based on the Wilcoxon rank-sum non-parametric statistical test. While, to calibrate all types of modifications, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied. The standard vulnerability map of the studied basin classified the basin into four zones ofvulnerability index including very low (34 %), low(13 %), moderate (48 %), and high (5 %) vulnerability index, while the combined modification classified the area into five classes: very low (7 %), low (35 %), moderate (19 %), high (35 %),and very high (4 %). The results demonstrate that both modified DRASTIC rate and weight were dramatically superior to the standard model; therefore, the most appropriate method to apply is the combination of modified rate-weight.

  • 26.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq..
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2020Ingår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, artikel-id 100276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

  • 27.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Classification of groundwater based on irrigation water quality index and GIS in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, NE Iraq2016Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, artikel-id 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of groundwater for irrigation purpose is proposed using the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) within the GIS environment. The model was applied to several aquifers in the study basin. Water samples were collected from thirty-nine sites from both water wells and springs from the dry season (September 2014) and the wet season (May 2015). Samples were tested chemically and physically for several variables: EC, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, Na+ and HCO3- and SAR. The accuracy and precision methods were applied to find out the uncertainty of the chemical analysis results and its validity of application for the geochemical interpretations. Based on the spatial distribution of IWQI, the groundwater quality of HSB classified into several classes of both dry and wet seasons in terms of its restrictions on irrigation purposes. The classes include, Severe Restriction (SR), High Restriction (HR) and Moderate Restriction (MR). The coverage areas of all three classes are 1.4%, 52.4% and 46.2% for the dry season and 0.7%, 83.3% and16% for wet seasons respectively. The considerable variations in all these classes have been noted from dry to wet seasons, this might be related to increasing the aquifer recharges from precipitation and decreasing the aquifer discharges by the consumers in the wet season. Then the model was validated based on the relation between the aquifer recharge and spatial distribution of IWQI, the result of this validation confirmed the outcome of this study.

  • 28.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping Using Lineament Density on Standard DRASTIC Model: Case Study in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2015Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 644-667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is the most important source of water in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin. In this study, to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied. Due to the close relation between lineament density and groundwater flow and yield, the lineament density map was applied to the standard DRASTIC model in order to ensure accuracy towards the consideration of the effects of potential vulnerability to contamination. A lineament map is extracted from Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) satellite imagery using different techniques in remote sensing and GIS. The lineament density map illustrates that only six classes of lineament density can be identified ranged from (0 - 2.4). The lineament density map was rated and weighted and then converted to lineament index map. This index map is an additional parameter which was added to the standard DRASTIC model so as to map the modified DRASTIC vulnerability in HSB. The standard vulnerability map, classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the modified model classified the area into four categories as well: very low (28.75%), low (14.31%), moderate (46.91%) and high (10.04%). The results demonstrate that there is no significant variation in the rate of vulnerability. Therefore, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it confirmed that the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant because of suitability in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this verification, it could be claimed that the effect of lineament density is weak on the vulnerability system in HSB, because of its low density value.

  • 29.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Using DRASTIC and COP Models: Case Study of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2016Ingår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. 741-760Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid groundwater from contamination, the groundwater vulnerability tool can be examined. In this study, two methods were applied, namely: DRASTIC (Groundwater depth, Net recharge, Aquifer media, Soil map, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and Hydraulic Conductivity) and COP (Concentration of flow, Overlying layer and Precipitation) to model groundwater vulnerability to pollution. The result illustrated that four vulnerability classes were recognized based on both models including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes. The coverage areas of each class are (34%, 13%, 48% and 5%) by DRASTIC model and (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) by COP model, respectively. The notable dissimilarity between these two models was recognized. For this reason, nitrate elements were selected as a pollution indicator to validate the result. The concentrations of nitrate were recorded in two following seasons in (30) watering wells; as a result, the substantial variation was noted. This indicates that contaminants can be easily reached the groundwater due to its suitability in geological and hydrogeological conditions in terms of contaminant transportation. Based on this confirmation, the standard DRASTIC method becomes more sensible than COP method.

  • 30.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaiman.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Possibility of Groundwater Pollution in Halabja Saidsadiq Hydrogeological Basin, Iraq Using Modified DRASTIC Model Based on AHP andTritium Isotopes2018Ingår i: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, nr 7, artikel-id 236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An anthropogenic activity is one of the most severe environmental causes for groundwatercontamination in the urban area. Groundwater thought to be one of the principal sources of water supply in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, and therefore its vulnerability evaluation to define areas that are more vulnerable to pollution is incredibly vital.  The objectives of this paper are to reveal weight modified of DRASTIC model based on the Analytical Hierarchical Process to estimate the proportional likelihood of groundwater resources pollution. Tritium isotopes analysis was chosen and applied as a pollution marker to confirm the result of this adjustment. Based on this modification, vulnerability classes that were achieved for the studied basin were alienated into five classes, including very low, low, medium, high, and very high, with vulnerability index value of (<100, >100–125, >125–150,>150–200, and >200), respectively.

  • 31.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using three different models inHalabja Saidsadiq basin, Iraq2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of European Water Resources Association ‘Panta Rhei’, 5-9 July 2017, Athens, Greece / [ed] George Tsakisis, Vassilakos A. Tsihrintzis, Harris Vangelis, Dimitris Tigkas, Athens: European Water Resources AssociationSSOCIATION , 2017, s. 1827-1834Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin (HSB) is one of a major basin of Iraq in terms of groundwater reservoirs. Intensive agricultural practices and economic revolution are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Therefore, the most effective and realistic solution is to prevent the contamination of groundwater through. The present study targets the computation of the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs of the study area. Three methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC, VLDA and COP to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). The VLDA model also classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%).Four vulnerability classes were recognized based on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. Considerable variations in nitrate concentration on dry to wet seasons had been renowned. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree

    and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

  • 32.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using VLDA model in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq.2016Ingår i: IWA Specialist Groundwater Conference: Conference Proceedings & Book of Abstracts, 09-11 June 2016, Belgrade Serbia / [ed] Milan A. Dimkic, Belgrade: Jaroslav Cerni Institute for the Development of Water Resources , 2016, s. 72-75Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater considered being the most vital source of water in several regions in the world. Specifically in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, groundwater plays an important role as one of the essential source of water supplies. Therefore, it needs to be taken care of. In this study, VLDA method applied to model a map of groundwater vulnerability to contamination. The VLDA models classified the area into four categories with different coverage areas: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. The nitrate concentration on two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) watering wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

  • 33.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessing the Vulnerability of Groundwater to Pollution Using DRASTIC and VLDA Modelsin Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, NE, Iraq2016Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 1144-1159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater plays important roles as one of the essential source of water supplies of the studied area. Consequently, it needs to be prevented from contamination. In this study, two methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC (depth to groundwater, net recharge, aquifer media, soil map, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity) and VLDA (vadose zone lithology, land use patterns, depth to groundwater and aquifer media) to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination of the basin. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the VLDA model classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high(53%) and very high (1%). The results demonstrate that there is a significant dissimilarity in the rate of vulnerability. Validation of the constructed maps is required to confirm the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. The nitrate concentration of two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) watering wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB (Halabja Saidsadiq Basin) is capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability level acquired using VLDA model is more sensible than that attained from the standard DRASTIC method .In addition, the DRASTIC models need to be modified based on the land use pattern, which clarifies the role of human activity on the vulnerability system.

  • 34.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Kurdistan , Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2019Ingår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

  • 35.
    Abdullah, Twana O.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE..
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using three different models in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, Iraq2017Ingår i: European Water, ISSN 1105-7580, Vol. 57, s. 353-359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin (HSB) is one of a major basin of Iraq in terms of groundwater reservoirs. Intensive agricultural practices and economic revolution are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Therefore, the most effective and realistic solution is to prevent the contamination of groundwater through. The present study targets the computation of the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs of the study area. Three methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC, VLDA and COP to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). The VLDA model also classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). Four vulnerability classes were recognized based on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. Considerable variations in nitrate concentration on dry to wet seasons had been renowned. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

  • 36.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Salahalddin, Ali
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of Agricultural activities on Groundwater Vulnerability: Case Study of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2015Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 23, nr 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is one of the main sources of water in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin of northeast Iraq. It covers an area of 1278 square kilometers with population of about 190,727.In this study, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin. In addition, two different scenes of landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were used with the aid of ERDAS IMAGINE software and the GIS technique to prepare digital image classification of the study basin. Supervised classification for level I of USGS was conducted with band combination RGB/742 to prepare The Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) map. The LULC map illustrates that only five classes of land use can be identified these are: barren, agricultural, vegetation, urban and wet land or water body. The LULC map converted to LULC index map. This index map has an additional parameter added to the standard DRASTIC model to map the modified DRASTIC vulnerability in the study basin. Nitrate concentration analysis was selected and added as a pollution indicator to validate this modification. In this study, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells. The standard vulnerability map of the studied basin classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the combined modification classified the area into five classes: very low (1.17%), low (36.82%), moderate (17.57%), high (43.42%) and very high (1.02%). The results s that the modified DRASTIC model was dramatically superior to the standard model; therefore, the most appropriate method to apply is the combination of standard DRASTIC model with LULC index map. This conclusion is based on the results of nitrate content, as its concentration in the dry season is much lower than in the wet season.

  • 37.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    et al.
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Water quality in the Tigris River within Baghdad, Iraq using Multivariate Statistical Techniques2019Ingår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 1294, artikel-id 072025Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concentrated on the Tigris River water quality monitoring information. Some multivariate statistical techniques were applied like basic Ingredient (PC) test, discriminant analysis (DA), multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) to evaluate important parameters affecting water quality during year 2017-2018. The study included 25 water quality parameters, viz., Temperature (T), Potential of Hydrogen (pH), Turbidity (Tur), Total Alkaline (TA), Full rigidity (TH), Calcium (Ca+2), Chloride (Cl-1), Magnesium (Mg+2), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Sulfate (SO4-2), Total Solids (TS), Suspended Solids (SS), Iron (Fe+2), Fluoride (F-1), Aluminum (Al+3), Nitrite (NO2-1), Nitrate (NO3-1), Silica (SiO2), Phosphate (PO4-3), Ammonia (NH3), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Sodium (Na+1), and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). Generally, all the parameters were within the standards except Tur, TA, Ca+2, EC, SO4-2. The levels of Tur and EC are of critical factors influence upon the Tigris water quality. The PCA identified six principal components responsible for 78.12% of the variation caused by the industrial, domestic, municipal and agricultural runoff pollution sources. DA results produced the eight parameters; T, BOD5, EC, Mg+2, DO, Tur, Na+1, and COD as the most significant parameters differentiating the two parts of the year (the cold and warm seasons). The result of MLRA showed that BOD5, Na+1, T, DO, and PO4-3 are the important dependable factors for predicting the COD value as an indicator of organic and nonorganic pollution. This research demonstrated success importance utilizing Multivariate statistical methods like valuable instrument of administration, control, and preserve the water of the river.

  • 38.
    Abeysekera, John
    et al.
    ndustrial Ergonomics, Work Science Academy (WSA), Linköping.
    Illankoon, Prasanna
    Work Science Academy (WSA), Kandana, Sri Lanka.
    The demands and benefits of ergonomics in Sri Lankan apparel industry2016Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 255-261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Apparel exports bring in sizeable foreign income to Sri Lanka. To protect and promote this industry is a paramount need. This can be carried out by applying Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) which has proved to control negative effects at work places. This paper reports a case study which describes the demands and benefits of HFE in MAS Holdings which owns a large share of the apparel industry in Sri Lanka.The study consisted of walk through observation survey, a questionnaire survey and ergonomic work place analysis followed by a training programme to selected employees in three companies.Positive responses to questionnaires revealed good ergonomic practices in the work places surveyed. Ergonomically unfit chairs and potential hazards e.g. exposure to noise and hot environment were detected. It is seen that MAS have introduced strategies originated by Toyota Production System viz. 5S, Kaizen, six sigma etc., which are in fact ergonomic methods. A progressive project MAS boast of viz. ‘MAS Operating System’ (MOS) empowers training and development to employees.MAS Holdings has adequately realized the benefits of applying HFE as evident by the number of awards received. Relevant companies were advised to take appropriate corrective measures to control the potential hazards.

  • 39. Abitew, Aymiro
    et al.
    Zeinali, Amin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic conductivity of tailings deposit used as dam construction material at Aitik mine in Sweden2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity and their correlation to geotechnical parameters affecting the hydraulic conductivity of tailings deposit at Aitik mine have been determined. The investigation was carried out along three sections which cover approximately 3km2 of area and 4-5meters of thickness. 3-5 test pits have been excavated in each section and samples are collected from various levels. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity has been found to have a good relation with fraction of fine particles in the deposit and void ratio. However, similar to the results of Jantzer et al (2008) from the same mine, the vertical hydraulic conductivity did not correspond to void ratio. According to evaluation of existing empirical relations to estimate hydraulic conductivity from particle size analysis, Hazen formula (1911) gives 25 and 45 times the measured values of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity respectively. On the other hand, Chapuis et al (2003) has not been succeeded for prediction of hydraulic conductivity of undisturbed samples from the investigated area. However, it gives comparatively good prediction of hydraulic conductivity for disturbed samples which are compacted to their field dry density.

  • 40. Abitew, Aymiro
    et al.
    Zeinali, Amin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic conductivity of tailings sand used for dam construction at Aitik mine in Sweden2012Ingår i: SWEMP 2012: International symposium on Environmental Issues and Waste Management in Energy and Mineral Production, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity and their correlation to geotechnical parameters affecting the hydraulic conductivity of tailings deposit at Aitik mine have been determined. The investigation was carried out along three sections which cover approximately 3km2 of area and 4-5meters of thickness. 3-5 test pits have been excavated in each section and samples are collected from various levels. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity has been found to have a good relation with fraction of fine particles in the deposit and void ratio. However, similar to the results of Jantzer et al (2008) from the same mine, the vertical hydraulic conductivity did not correspond to void ratio. According to evaluation of existing empirical relations to estimate hydraulic conductivity from particle size analysis, Hazen formula (1911) gives 25 and 45 times the measured values of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity respectively. On the other hand, Chapuis et al (2003) has not been succeeded for prediction of hydraulic conductivity of undisturbed samples from the investigated area. However, it gives comparatively good prediction of hydraulic conductivity for disturbed samples which are compacted to their field dry density.

  • 41.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Enander, Mats
    Olsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Fallstudierapport: Iggesunds bruk. Efterbehandlingen. Arbetsrapport1993Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Enander, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Olsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Förstudie av massabalshanteringen vid Iggesunds kartongbruk: arbetsrapport1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Rask, Kjell
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Projekt: LUPO - globala länkar2010Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 44.
    Achleitner, Stefan
    et al.
    Unit of Hydraulic Engineering, University of Innsbruck.
    Schröber, Johannes
    AlpS - Centre for Climate Change Adaptation Technologies, Innsbruck.
    Rinderer, Michael
    Hydrology and Climate Unit, Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck.
    Schöberl, Friedrich
    Institute of Geography, University of Innsbruck.
    Kirnbauer, Robert
    Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, Vienna University of Technology.
    Schönlaub, Helmut
    TIWAG - Tiroler Wasserkraft AG.
    Analyzing the operational performance of the hydrological models in an alpine flood forecasting system2012Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 412-413, s. 90-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years a hybrid model has been set up for the operational forecasting of flood discharges in the 6750km 2 Tyrolean part of the River Inn catchment in Austria. The catchment can be characterized as a typical alpine area with large variations in altitude. The paper is focused on the error analysis of discharge forecasts of four main tributary catchments simulated with hydrological water balance models. The selected catchments cover an area of 2230km 2, where the non-glaciated and glaciated parts are modeled using the semi-distributed HQsim and the distributed model SES, respectively.The forecast errors are evaluated as a function of forecast lead time and forecasted discharge magnitude using 14 events from 2007 to 2010. The observed and forecasted precipitation inputs were obtained under operational conditions. The mean relative bias of the forecasted discharges revealed to be constant with regard to the forecast lead time, varying between 0.2 and 0.25 for the different catchments. The errors as a function of the forecasted discharge magnitude showed large errors at lower values of the forecast hydrographs, where errors decreased significantly at larger discharges being relevant in flood forecasting

  • 45.
    Ackermann, N.L.
    et al.
    Clarkson University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Potsdam, NY.
    Shen, Hung Tao
    Clarkson University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Potsdam, NY.
    Olsson, P.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Local scour around circular piers under ice covers2002Ingår i: Ice in the environment: proceedings 16th International Symposium on Ice, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2 - 6 December 2002 / [ed] Vernon A. Squire, Dunedin: Dep. of Physic, Univ. of Otago , 2002, s. 149-155Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a laboratory investigation on the effect of ice cover on local scour around circular bridge piers. Experiments were performed in a 12-meter flume with recirculating sediment discharge. Both smooth and rough artificial covers were used. The bed material consisted of uniform ripple-forming sand. The tests were run for both clear water as well as live bed conditions. The results showed that for equivalent averaged flow velocities the existence of an ice cover could increase the local scour depth scour by 25 to 35 % from the free surface condition. The largest difference occurs at a live bed condition when the flow velocity, U, is in the rage of 1.5 to 2 times of the critical velocity for bed movement, U (sub c) . A rough cover gives slightly larger scour depth than a smooth cover. The movement of bed forms led to variations of scour depth with time.

  • 46.
    Acosta, April Anne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Behaviour of the Cold-formedTrapezoidal Sheet Overlap Jointin a Gerber Lapped Connection2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 47.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mosul Dam Full Story: Safety Evaluations of Mosul Dam2016Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 185-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is the second biggest dam in the Middle East due to the capacity of its reservoir. Since the operation of this dam in 1986, it is suffering from seepage problems in the foundation of the dam due to the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite layers under the foundation. This phenomenon has raised concern about the safety of the dam. Studies done during the recent years showed that grouting works can only be considered as a temporary solution at its best. It is clear now that while grouting must be continued search for long term solution must be sought if dam failure consequences are to be avoided. This must be done as soon as possible as the dam is showing more and more signs of weakness. It is further considered that the suggestions and recommendations forwarded by the team of Lulea University of Technology and the Panel of Experts in the Stockholm Workshop 24-25 May, 2016 give the most practical and suitable solutions for this problem.

  • 48.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mosul Dam Full Story: What If The Dam Fails?2016Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 245-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dams are very important infrastructure to any country where they serve for different purposes. Unfortunately, they represent risks to life and property due to their potential to fail and cause catastrophic flooding. Recent studies indicate the possibility of Mosul Dam failure. For this reason different failure models were used to estimate the consequences of such failure. Almost all models applied gave similar results. It is assumed that in case the water level in Mosul Dam reservoir is at its maximum operational level the effected population will reach 6,248,000 (about one million will lose their life) and the inundated area will be 7202 square kilometer. This catastrophe requires prudent emergency evacuation planning to minimize loses.

  • 49.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mosul Dam the Full Story: Engineering Problems2016Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 213-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of building of Mosul Dam project started in 1950 and it was referred to as Aski Mosul Dam. Since that time, number of companies worked on the site selection and design of the dam. All the above companies suggested that the dam should be Earth-fill type with compressed clay core but there were different views about the exact location of the dam, spillway and electricity generating station. Grouting was suggested to be performed under the dam, spillway and the electricity generating station. In addition, they suggested that detailed geological investigation should be performed before any construction activities. In 1978, the Swiss Consultants Consortium was asked to be the consultants for Mosul Dam project. The consultants suggested that the operational water level at the dam to be 330 m (a.s.l.) while the flood and normal water levels to be 338 and 335 m (a.s.l.), respectively. The work started on 25th January, 1981 and finished 24th July, 1986. The foundation of the dam is built on alternating beds of limestone and gysum. Seepages due to the dissolution of gypsum were noticed and after impounding in 1986, new seepage locations were recognized. Grouting operations continued and various studies were conducted to find suitable grout or technique to overcome this problem. The seepage due to the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite beds raised a big concern about the safety of the dam and its possible failure. It is believed that grouting will not solve this problem permanently

  • 50.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Experts Proposals and Ideas on Mosul Dam2015Ingår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 79-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During and after the construction of Mosul Dam, in Iraq, all the studies expressed a clear concern on the fact that the region of the dam suffers from extensive presence of soluble rock formations that might undermine the safety of the dam with its large reservoir. Most of the studies dealt with foundation treatment and safety hazards due to the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite. To overcome the problem, grouting operations were performed. The seepage of water continued and this highlighted the possibility of the dam failure. Different grouting techniques and methods were suggested but the results were the same. Finally, it was decided to limit the maximum operation water level to EL. 319 m (a.s.l.) instead of EL.330 m (a.s.l.). This recommendation has remained in force up to now with the loss of sizable storage of irrigation water and power potential

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