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  • 1.
    Arnehed, Sebastian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Cykling och gående vid större vägar: Resultat av enkät2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en del i projektet ”Cykling och gående vid större vägar” och avser den enkät som genomförts för att studera resvanor, trygghet, säkerhet samt framkomlighet längs större vägar med fokus på gående och cyklister hos boende längs eller vid de aktuella platserna. Syftet med enkätundersökningen är att belysa hur fotgängare och cyklister upplever framkomligheten, säkerheten samt tryggheten längs de utvalda platserna i undersökningen. Syftet är även att om möjligt dra generella slutsatser om effekten av olika fysiska åtgärder som genomförts för att underlätta för gående och cyklister. Sammanlagt har tio vägsträckor och platser valts ut för enkätundersökningen. Platserna är lokaliserade från Luleå i norr till Ystad i söder. Urvalet har skett med åtanken att ge en representativ översikt över olika lösningar för att antingen färdas längs med eller korsa en större väg, till fots eller med cykel, med målet att ha en spridning över landet med olika klimat.Urvalet av respondenter har skett genom en geografisk avgränsning kopplad till de aktuella sträckorna och platserna. Till varje hushåll skickades två enkäter som två vuxna eller ungdomar i åldrarna 15 - 17 år ombads att fylla i. Enkäten skickades till 2535 hushåll och totalt svarade 1145 personer på enkäten ( svarsfrekvens 22,6 % per antaget antal respondenter, och 44,2 % per hushåll).Respondenterna utrycker generellt en oro för sin säkerhet och trygghet. De som är mest nöjda är de som bor vid och färdas längs en väg där separeringen sker med räcke, vilket var förväntat. De som är mest oroliga är de som bor vid en väg där separeringen sker genom målad kantlinje, vilket inte var förväntat. De är något mer oroliga än de som bor vid väg utan åtgärder för GC-trafik annat än bred vägren. I fortsatta arbete bör det därför undersökas hur fordonsflödet och hastigheterna påverkar respondenternas trygghet, dvs om det egentligen är de aspekterna man är orolig för och att åtgärderna inte har räckt till för att kompensera för hastigheterna. Det bör även undersökas om målningen inte efterlevs av fordonsförarna, samt hastighetsefterlevnad, vilket respondenternas svar indikerar.Vad gäller tillfällena när man korsar vägen är respondenterna som bor vid väg utan åtgärd förvånande nog mer trygg när de korsar vägen, än de som korsar vägen genom öppning i refug eller mitträcke. Även i detta fall bör fortsatta arbete därför undersöka hur fordonsflödet och hastigheterna påverkar respondenternas trygghet, dvs om det egentligen är de aspekterna man är orolig för och att åtgärderna inte har räckt till för att kompensera för hastigheterna. Det bör även undersökas hur fordonsförarna efterlever hastigheterna på platsen samt hur interaktionen mellan fordonsförare och oskyddade trafikanter går till på platserna.Det finns således anledning att fortsätta studera effekterna av de olika åtgärderna som har använts i vägmiljöer för att öka de oskyddade trafikanternas trygghet och rörlighet eftersom respondenterna tydligt uttrycker oro för trafikolycka, trots att olika åtgärder har använts för att öka tryggheten.

  • 2.
    Arnehed, Sebastian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Öberg, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Underlag till trafikstrategi för Kiruna kommun: för hållbart resande, stadsomvandling och kallt klimat2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktuellt dokument är ett första steg i att formulera och ta fram en uppdragsbeskrivning gällande en trafikstrategi för Kiruna kommun. Dokumentet beskriver de huvudsakliga delarna för såväl processen med att utarbeta en trafikstrategi som det faktiska innehållet. Kiruna kommun har hittills inte varit delaktiga i denna del av processen, men är formellt ansvariga i ett fortsatt arbete.

  • 3. Backman, Haide
    et al.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Energisnålare persontransporter?1986Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4. Backman, Haide
    et al.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Reftmark, Sven-Olof
    Informationsteknologi ersätter privat resande?1986Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5. Backman, Haide
    et al.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wernelind, Åke
    Faktorer som styr drivmedelsförbrukningen för personbilar1987Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Anti-slip devices to prevent pedestrians from slipping and falling during wintertime2008In: Engineering solutions to improve traffic safety in urban areas: 21st ICTCT Workshop in Riga, Latvia, on 30-31 October 2008, ICTC , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Erfarenheter av utvecklad förekomst av arbetslivsanknytning i kursplaner2014In: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, 174- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Feasibility study for a transport flow model / database2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences from the Sustainable Transport in the Barents Region (STBR) project and other ongoing projects show the specific conditions in the northern parts of the participating Barents region countries to be not well considered in either the modelling tools or the databases. The national transport models are only somewhat useful, at present, in analysing the cross border and specific Barents region regional transport flows. There is a need for a model capable of handling specific situations in the region, such as: -Seasonal variations -Loose networks -Countries with different development and political backgrounds -Special destinations -Handling of goods A Barents transport database (BTD) should be based on such a structure so as to be integrated with the national databases in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia. The database should be basically a virtual database based on already existing databases and include traditional data as well as data found in the STBR project and other later defined important data. The establishment of the database should start with the road infrastructure and include the infrastructure for other transport modes later on. Benefits from the use of existing transport flow models in the region are mainly based on the experiences from using the models for domestic comparisons of different objects in the investment planning process. A Barents Transport Analysis Tool (BTAT) should be developed based on existing national models in Sweden, Norway and Finland. The specific modules, or adoptions of existing modules, for each existing national model of special interest in the region, should be developed in a cross-country organised project. Development of the BTAT should be made as complementary modules to the already existing tools used in each of the countries. Particular Barents functionality shall be specified jointly. Development of the complementary modules shall therefore be made for each of the national models in the Barents region. Analyzing seasonal variations, in particular, should be of importance. Opportunities to create scenarios, and analyze the consequences of such scenarios, are also vital. Cross border transport flow analyses specifically considering the conditions of the Barents region shall be included.

  • 9.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Principiella utformningar av halkskydd för fotgängare: erfarenheter av genomförda tester av halkskydd2008Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The effect of anti-slip devices on pedestrian safety during wintertime2010In: 12th World Conference on Transport Research: July 11 - 15, 2010, Lisboa, Portugal, Instituto Superior Tecnico; selected and general proceedings, Lisboa: Instituto Superior Tecnico, DeCIVIL , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every winter, more than 100,000 pedestrians in the Nordic countries receive medical treatment as a result of falls on slippery surfaces. Also, the risk of injury reduces the interest in outdoor activities during the wintertime. Pedestrians injured in single-pedestrian accidents on icy and snowy surfaces experience more serious injuries than pedestrians injured on other surfaces. Other studies also show that the cost for health care and health insurance for injuries from single-pedestrian accidents on icy and snowy surfaces is of the same magnitude as the costs for injuries from all other road transport accidents. Thus, there is a need for measures to reduce single-pedestrian injuries and improve the access to safe walking all year round. Different countermeasures can be used to prevent a person from slipping and sliding when walking outdoors during the wintertime. Countermeasures can relate to the use of individual ‗equipment,‘ services provided by the community directed towards vulnerable road-user groups or the public at large, and policy changes in winter-maintenance practices. The aim of the study is to develop knowledge regarding walking safety for pedestrians during the wintertime using one individual measure, the use of antislip devices. Methods have been developed to register different aspects of walking outdoors on slippery surfaces (in the wintertime) and the effect of using walking aids such as anti-slip devices. Laboratory test were conducted on seven occasions to develop test methods, to test anti-slip devices using the methods and to assess the test methods. Different surfaces were chosen to simulate the variation in winter maintenance standards on walkways: snow on ice, sand on ice, gravel on ice, salt on ice and pure ice. (...).

  • 11.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The effect of anti-slip devices on pedestrian safety: method development and practical test2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every winter, more than 100,000 pedestrians in the Nordic countries receive medical treatment as a result of falls on slippery surfaces. In addition, the risk of injury reduces interest in outdoor activities during the wintertime. Pedestrians injured in single-pedestrian accidents on icy and snowy surfaces also experience more serious injuries than pedestrians injured on other surfaces. Thus, there is a clear need for measures to reduce single-pedestrian injuries and improve the safety of walking, without curtailing the activity, year round. A "slip accident" occurs when a person loses his/her balance. An attempt is normally made to recover one's balance, and the person's balance is either recovered or a fall occurs. An injury may be the consequence of such a fall. The most critical phases of the human gait are the heel strike and the toe-off.Various countermeasures can be used .to reduce the risk of a person slipping and sliding when walking outdoors during the wintertime. Such countermeasures may involve the use of individual equipment, services provided by the community to assist vulnerable road-user groups or the public at large, and policy changes in winter-maintenance practices. Examples of measures targeting individuals include information on the risk of slipperiness, and encouraging the use of (or providing) winter footwear and/or anti-slip devices to be fastened to shoes. The issues considered in this thesis are related to the prevention of injuries from single-pedestrian accidents by a specific measure, the use of anti-slip devices. More specifically, the following questions have been addressed in the studies it is based upon:How can the properties of anti-slip devices be assessed?How can more effective anti-slip devices be developed?Do anti-slip devices improve walking ability and safety?In laboratory investigations, test methods were developed and applied to 33 anti-slip devices to assess the test methods against validated criteria, and to analyse the benefits of using different types of anti-slip devices. The tests were conducted by observing people making standard movements on various surfaces chosen to simulate the variations in winter maintenance standards on walkways: snow on ice, sand on ice, gravel on ice, salt on ice and pure ice. Movements were analysed from observations of video recordings, and subjective rating scales were developed to assess walking safety and walking balance. In addition, in a field study questionnaires were used to record exposure, occurrence of slips/falls, descriptions of the slips/falls that occurred and general experiences of the use of anti-slip devices.The results show that it is possible to record the performance of anti-slip devices for pedestrians in a laboratory setting, and that the method developed for doing this is satisfactory. The methods used, together with friction measurements made by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), may provide a sound basis for establishing standard methodology for testing anti-slip devices as personal protective equipment.The results from the Laboratory tests can be used to identify favourable designs of anti-slip devices, and indicate that whole-foot devices are the best type, followed by heel devices, for supporting a natural gait. The results from the Field study show that the availability and use of anti-slip devices can promote walking, which is beneficial from a health perspective, and it does not lead to an increased risk of slipping/falling even though it increases exposure. Overall, the results indicate that the use of anti-slip devices is an effective traffic safety countermeasure for reducing single-pedestrian accidents.Aspects that warrant further attention include verification of the effects of anti-slip devices on exposure and the occurrence of falls, and their effects in relation to specific groups such as elderly.

  • 12.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The risk of slipping and falling as a pedestrian during wintertime2009In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions: June 9-12, 2009, Luleå, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Injuries from fall accident on icy or snowy surfaces are frequently occurring in Sweden, 25-30 000 per year. This means 2-3 injuries/1000 inhabitants needing medical care are expected to occur in Sweden every year. Similar proportions exist in other northerly located countries such as Finland, Norway, Japan, Canada and so on. Outdoor activities are essential for a healthy life, therefore the prevention of slip and fall accidents are important. An intervention study has been performed during Feb-April 2008 among healthy subjects in northern Sweden. The subjects have been divided into three groups: an Intervention Group (N=25), a Control Group (N=25) and a Comparison Group (N=17) with similar distribution of gender and age. The intervention group were equipped with one of three different types of anti-slip devices for their shoes: a Heel-device, a Foot-blade device or a Whole-foot device. Four questionnaires were used: -Background, health, and earlier experiences of falling accidents during the winter 2007/2008 -Daily diary of walked distance, walking conditions, occurrence of incidences or falls reported weekly -Detailed accident or fall report used after each occurrence. -Experiences of using anti-slip devices The results show that the subjects had experienced 24 falls during the winter before the trial period. 64 incidents/accidents took place, without any injuries needing medical care, during the 10 week trial period with more than 2600 reported days. The anti-slip users walked longer compared to non users. An incident or fall among subjects wearing anti-slip devices reduced the walking distance that day. Anti-slip devices prevents from falling. The risk of slipping and falling is reduced for anti-slip users. The users of anti-slip devices will continue to use them and they will also recommend others to do so. The risk of falling as pedestrian during wintertime can thus be reduced by using anti-slip devices.

  • 13.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Towards a standard method to test anti-slip devices2004In: Ergonomics society 2004 annual conference: April 14-16 2004 Swansea UK, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2004, 557-561 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the development of a standard method for testing anti-slip devices and discusses the main results from testing the anti-slip devices on a large group of healthy individuals. Methods for evaluations of perceived walking safety and balance, video recordings of walking postures and movements, measures of time to put on and take off each anti-slip device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-slip device as well as evaluation of priority for own use according to three criteria; safety, balance and appearance are discussed. In a test on healthy individuals three different anti-slip device designs: a heel device, a foot blade device and a whole-foot device, were evaluated on different slippery surfaces: gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The results showed that the heel device was perceived to be the safest. It was perceived to fit the shoe and to be stable at heel-strike and on ice. It also had the highest rating of walking safety, walking balance and choice for own use

  • 14.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Äntligen utbildning av lantmätare på LTU2008In: Sinus, no 2, 6-7 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Berggård, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Pedestrians in wintertime: effects of using anti-slip device2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, no 4, 1199-1204 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrians slipping and falling is a major safety problem around the world, not least in countries with long winters such as Sweden. About 25 000–30 000 people need medical care every year for treatment of fall injuries in Sweden. Use of appropriate shoes and anti-slip devices are examples of individual measures that have been suggested to prevent slipping and falling.An intervention study was performed during the period February to April 2008. The study, which focused on healthy adults in northern Sweden, examined the effect of using anti-slip devices on daily walking journeys and prevention of slip and falls.The respondents were divided into three groups: an Intervention Group, a Control Group, with similar distribution of gender and age, and a Comparison Group. Four questionnaires were distributed: (1) background, (2) daily diary of distance walked and occurrence of incidents or accidents reported weekly, (3) detailed incident or fall report and (4) experiences of using anti-slip devices for those who used these devices during the trial period.Half of the respondents stated that they had previous experience of using anti-slip devices. In this study, 52% of the respondents used anti-slip devices. Anti-slip devices improve the walking capability during wintertime. Among those using appropriate anti-slip devices, the average daily walking distance was found to be statistically significantly longer compared to people not using anti-slip devices. This study indicates that an increase in daily walking distance can be made without increasing the risk of slips/falls when using anti-slip devices. The study also indicates that by using appropriate anti-slip devices and having information about when and where to use them, based on their design, people avoid having slips and falls. The respondents experienced in using anti-slip devices in this study will continue to use them and will also recommend others to use anti-slip devises.

  • 16.
    Berggård, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rosander, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Konsumenttester av vinterskor och halkskydd2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvårdsbaserad skadestatistik från Sverige visar att singelolyckor med fotgängare på is och snö, orsakar höga skadetal. I Sverige beräknas ca 10000 män och 15000 kvinnor uppsöka sjukvård på grund av skada vid fall på snö och is. Personer skadade i fallolyckor på snö och is har svårare skador och längre konvalescenstid jämfört med fotgängare som faller på barmark. Det är därför viktigt att identifiera preventiva metoder och hjälpmedel för fallolyckor vintertid.Syftet med detta arbete har varit att genomföra konsumenttester av vinterskor och halkskydd på olika underlag med avseende på hur väl de fungerar som skydd mot att halka samt hur användarvänliga de upplevs av brukaren. I arbetet har det också varit viktigt att försöka identifiera kriterier som kan anses vara betydelsefulla för att bedöma vinterväglagsegenskaperna. Dessutom fanns ett behov av att ta fram underlag och förslag på en standardiserad metod för halkskydds-/vinterskortester och en märkning som ger konsumenterna möjlighet att bedöma och jämföra halkskyddens respektive vinterskornas egenskaper innan köp.Testmetoden som tagits fram för att undersöka halkskyddens och skornas egenskaper bygger på tidigare erfarenheter från tester av halkskydd. Metoden bygger på att försökspersoner genomför gångtester med halkskydd och skor på olika underlag samtidigt som olika mätmetoder, både objektiva och subjektiva, används för att kategorisera gång. Tester har genomförts av 9 försökspersoner, över 45 år, 4 män och 5 kvinnor, som testat 19 halkskydd och 20 olika skor. Fyra olika underlag har använts för att kategorisera egenskaperna på de undersökta halkskydden och skorna: is, is täckt med snö, packad snö, torr betong.Testmetoden har kompletterats med laboratoriemätningar av halkskyddens och skosulornas friktion på is samt hårdheten hos skornas sulor. Multipel hierarkisk multipel regressionsanalys användes för att identifiera vilka kriterier som kan ha betydelse för fotgängarnas skattade helhetsupplevelse av de testade halkskydden på olika underlag.Resultatet av förmätningarna visar att testgruppen (fem kvinnor och fyra män med medålder 47 år) motsvarar en normalpopulation, avseende variationer i de uppmätta bakgrundsparametrarna.FIOH:s friktionsmätningar på is av samtliga skor och halkskydd visar att halkskydden har genomgående högre friktionsvärden än skorna, dvs. de har bättre fäste på is än de skor som testats men resultaten visar på små skillnader mellan de sämsta halkskydden och de bästa skorna.Resultat från friktionsmätningen, som den utförs idag i fixerat utförande, ger inte överensstämmelse med försökspersonernas upplevelser av gångsäkerhet eller fallrisk. Försökspersonernas gångcykel med hälisättning, överrullning och fotavveckling bygger upp den samlade uppfattningen om egenskaperna och fångas enbart i de subjektiva mätmetoderna.Sex kriterier som bedömts viktiga att ta hänsyn till när det gäller halkfri gång med en vintersko har kunnat identifieras via analys av försökspersonernas fritextsvar avseende fördelar, nackdelar och övrig funktionalitet: gångsäkerhet, möjliggör ett naturligt gångmönster, stabilitet, förutsägbarhet, flexibilitet och passform/komfort. Gångsäkerhet är viktigast och omfattar fäste/grepp, detta är viktigast på is, is/snö vid gång samt vid start och stopp.Sju subjektiva kriterier för halkskydd har också identifierats; gångsäkerhet, tillåter naturligt gångmönster, stabilitet, förutsägbarhet, flexibilitet, passform/komfort, och ljud. Gångsäkerhet är viktigast.Den självskattade hälisättningen på underlagen ren is samt på snö på is framkom som det viktigaste kriteriet för testpersonernas helhetsupplevelse av skyddet. Även skattad fotavveckling på alla underlag med främst på främst på snö på is var av betydelse. Upplevd balans och fallrisk var mest utslagsgivande för helhetsupplevelsen av de halkskydd som inte valdes för eget bruk. Det tyder på att en lägre grad av skattad kontroll av kroppshållning och balans under gång med skyddet är en relevant indikator för att identifiera skydd med bristande funktioner.Variablerna subjektivt skattad fallrisk, balans, hälisättning och fotavveckling kan samtliga relateras till ett skydds halkegenskaper och funktion. Upplevd fallrisk samvarierar med såväl balans, hälisättning och fotavveckling vilket innebär att kriteriet upplevd fallrisk kan antas omfatta de övriga och kan väljas som en enskild variabel i fortsatta analyser.Kvalitetsnivåer i bedömningsskalor kan antas gå att knyta till de subjektiva kriterierna.En standardiserat testmetod för klassindelning av egenskaper för vinterskor respektive halkskydd bör bygga på mätmetoder med försökspersoner enligt ovan.Fortsatta studier med fler testpersoner behövs för att verifiera de resultat som indikeras ovan.

  • 17. Berlinson, Leif
    et al.
    Leden, Lars
    Espoonlahden liikenneturvallisuus1985Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18. Berlinson, Leif
    et al.
    Leden, Lars
    Espoonlahden liikenneturvallisuus1988Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Brännström, Hugo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Systemutredning: flöden och miljöeffekter : Luleå gymnasieby1998Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bäckström, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gedda, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Persson, Anders J
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Prellwitz, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Weber, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Det uppkopplade samhället och högre utbildning2014In: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, 123- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Candappa, Nimmi
    et al.
    Monash University Accident Research Center.
    Fotheringham, Nicola
    Monash University Accident Research Center.
    Lenné, Michael
    Monash University Accident Research Center.
    Corben, Bruce
    Monash University Accident Research Center.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Smith, Paul
    City of Port Philip.
    Evaluation of an alternative pedestrian treatment at a roundabout2005In: Australasian Road Safety Research Policing Education Conference: Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, New Zealand, 14-16 November 2005 : peer-reviewed papers., Wellington: Ministry of Transport , 2005, 65-69 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Energiprisscenarier och energistrategier1984Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ett svenskt sjöinformationssystem för 1990-talet: redovisning av ett demonstrationsprojekt1985Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nya krav på ekonomisk uppföljning av kollektivtrafiken1997Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Samhällsekonomisk kalkylteknik: en kritisk granskning av tillämpningar i Sverige1997Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Svensk järnvägspolitik i realekonomisk belysning: några reflektioner1997Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Svensk trafikpolitik: några synpunkter på mål och konflikter1997Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Cordi, Ilja
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Transporter och kommunikation1994Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Cordi, Ilja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Erixon, Peter
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Förstudie om behov av miljökonsekvensbeskrivning i nya sammanhang inom vägsektorn1999Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Cordi, Ilja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ewertz, Johan
    Wernelind, Åke
    Industrins energianvändning: en uppdatering avseende perioden 1984-871989Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Cordi, Ilja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hageback, Charlotte
    Varudistribution i glesbygd2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet "Varudistribution i glesbygd" utgör en förstudie om samdistribution i glesbygd. Ämnesområdet har analyserats med avseende på olika för- och nackdelar med syfte att peka ut viktiga och principiellt intressanta forskningsuppgifter inom området. Verksamheten i tre kommuner har studerats; Piteå, Luleå och Skellefteå. Tyngdpunkten låg på Piteå kommun. I Piteå genomfördes ett EU-finansierat pilotprojekt avseende samdistribution av varor inom Piteå kommun för kommunala verksamheter under tidsperioden 1999-09-06 och 1999-11-26. Detta pilotprojekt har utvärderats med avseende på hur det praktiskt fungerat respektive omdömen från inblöandade parter, det vill säga varuköpare, distributör och berörd personal i den kommunala verksamheten. I Skellefteå respektive Luleå kommun har datasimuleringar gjorts för att erhålla underlag för fortsatta studier. Dataprogrammen Arc View och TransCAD har använts för simuleringarna. Erfarenheterna visar sammantaget att man kan uppnå fördelar med samdistribution avseende trafiksäkerhet, lokal miljö, tidsanvändning och kostnader. I fråga om trafiksäkerhet och lokal miljö är de positiva effekterna tydligast, främst beroende på färre trafikrörelser och angörningar. Vissa preliminära siffervärden redovisas i kapitel 4. En fullständig rättvisande kvantitativ värdering av tids- och kostnadsbesparingar skulle dock förutsätta att man även kunde skatta förlusterna för distributörerna till följd av att den kommunala verksamhetens distribution bryts ut. Detta har ej gjorts. Förstudien tyder på att samdistribution, organiserad utifrån varuköparnas behov, är ett område som borde studeras djupare.

  • 32.
    Cordi, Ilja
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Hageback, Charlotte
    Varudistribution i glesbygd: [förstudie]2000Report (Other academic)
  • 33. Cordi, Ilja
    et al.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ranhagen, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    FoU-plan trafikteknik: inriktningsplan för FoU inom integrerad fysisk samhällsplanering och trafiksäkerhet1999Report (Other academic)
  • 34. Cordi, Ilja
    et al.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Infrastruktursatsningar och de tekniska högskolorna1994In: V-byggaren : väg- och vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0283-5363, no 4, 61-62 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35. Cordi, Ilja
    et al.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Trafikutbildningen vid Högskolan i Luleå1994In: V-byggaren : väg- och vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0283-5363, no 4, 61-62 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    David, Carlsson
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Björn, Nilsson
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Efficient internal material flow of boxes to gain a well-organized supply of components: A case study at Scania engine assembly2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within manufacturing organizations, the material flow is a promoted part of the supply chain to evaluate, since it often stands for a significant part of the costs. The evaluation refers to the analysis and optimization of the material flow that arise during manufacturing of products. It can focus on very different levels, such as the material flow in a region or within a company’s internal processes. However, the material flow is concerned with the transportations, operations and storages of materials. A well-organized material flow enables organizations to cutting costs and increase competitiveness, via increased effectiveness and efficiency of operating practices.

    Scania operates in the automotive industry and they are constantly striving to improve their supply chain in terms of productivity and lower costs, to meet the needs of the market and gain increased competitiveness. Today, Scania engine assembly in Södertälje has operations in two main buildings, approximately one km in-between. One building is the material warehouse, and the other building is the actual assembly. In the future, the two building will be joint together. Consequently, the project logistics department of Scania engine assembly has recognized a possibility to re-organize and improve the material flows. The upcoming merge between the two buildings enables a possibility to investigate how the current material flows could be more efficient, before they are applied in the future state.

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and improve a material flow, box flow, within an automotive environment. A box flow is concerned with smaller components that use plastic boxes as packaging material. The objective is to derive a more efficient process for the flow of supplying boxes to the assembly building. By efficiency, it is defined as shorter total lead time, higher capacity, lower time/cost per box delivered, and a maintained or improved ergonomics during manual handling operations within the box flow.

    To fulfil the purpose of this research interviews, observations and data collections have been used to gain an understanding of how the current situation is managed at Scania engine assembly. Conducted benchmarking and literature research have been used to gain an understanding of how other companies in the industry, as well as departments at Scania, are managing their box flows. The findings have been analysed, where the different flow of boxes have been compared with the theoretical frame of reference as well as against each other.

    The conclusions of the analysis are different key factors, for better logistics efficiency, when managing a box flow. These key factors are providing an increased theoretical understanding, when the aim is to make a material flow of boxes more efficient, in an assembly environment. In this research, they are utilized as guidelines, to derive a more efficient process for the flow of supplying boxes. That is, implementing the findings theoretically into a practical context.

    To derive a more efficient process, a Business Case have been conducted. Its outcome provides a concept of how the process of boxes should be organized. That is, how the different material handling operations and equipment should be utilized to achieve an overall increased efficiency. How the box flow should be organized are presented as recommendations, which works as guidelines and insights for Scania engine assembly. They are jointly fulfilling the purpose of this research, together with the other achieved research questions. 

  • 37.
    Ebrahimabadi, Saeed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Principer för Utformning av Utemiljö i Kallt Klimat med Hänsyn till Sol- och Vindförhållanden2014Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Ebrahimabadi, Saeed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Travel patterns in subarctic climate: evidence from the north of Sweden2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Ebrahimabadi, Saeed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rizzo, Agatino
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Microclimate assessment method for urban design: A case study in subarctic climate2016In: Urban Design International, ISSN 1357-5317, E-ISSN 1468-4519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in climate-sensitive urban design has grown in recent decades. Nevertheless, there are various difficulties associated with such an approach. One of these is the lack of simple comfort assessment tools. This paper presents a method for microclimate assessment that is composed of a wind comfort analysis and a microclimate assessment based on measuring a combination of solar access and wind velocity. The study includes analysis of a proposed urban project situated in Kiruna, a Swedish town located in the subarctic region of the country. The results from the simulations were then overlaid to produce combined microclimate maps for three specific dates: winter solstice, spring equinox and summer solstice. The maps illustrate relative microclimate differences between areas in the proposed project based on combinations of wind/lee and sun/shadow conditions. The outcomes showed that only a small proportion of the area studied had favourable microclimate conditions at the winter solstice and spring equinox. The thermal comfort Index OUT_SET* was calculated for the summer solstice in the study area. Comparisons between the spatial distribution of OUT_SET* values and the microclimate assessment map showed a large degree of correlation. The method is intended to be a simple and representative evaluation of microclimate

  • 40.
    Ebrahimabadi, Saeed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Öberg, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Winter climate and non motorised travel modes – a case study in Kiruna Sweden: Results from a travel survey in North of Sweden2011In: Resilience in urban design: conference proceedings : 4th International Urban Design Conference 21st to 23rd September 2011, Nerang: AST Management , 2011, 259-265 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Ebrahimabadi, Saeed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The problems of addressing microclimate factors in urban planning of the subarctic regions2015In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, Vol. 42, no 3, 415-430 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban life in the towns of the subarctic regions is affected by the severity of the local climate, which must be taken into account in urban planning. Previous studies show that the use of climate knowledge in urban planning is hindered by different constraints. In this study we focus specifically on the problems of incorporating microclimate factors into the urban planning practices in northern Sweden. We rely on a literature study and focus on interviews as our study methods. Some of the major problems identified are the lack of design knowledge relevant to a cold climate, lack of user-friendly tools to analyze microclimate, overlooking the potential uses of local climate, and lack of support from politicians. The problems related to knowledge development and the lack of tools for microclimate analysis are discussed further. In terms of knowledge issues, the planners’ awareness of climate objectives achievable at different planning scales needs to be improved. There should be further research into the effect of urban form on the use of snow and on snow-removal activities. Tools for microclimate analysis should become more user friendly for planners. More importantly, planners need methods that combine different microclimate analyses and offer a complete assessment of a given design scheme.

  • 42.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Discussion of “Failure Load Test of a CFRP Strengthened Railway Bridge in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden” by Marcus Bergström, Björn Täljsten, and Anders Carolin2011In: Journal of Bridge Engineering, ISSN 1084-0702, E-ISSN 1943-5592, Vol. 16, no 3, 490- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have written an interesting paper on the test to failure of a strengthened railway bridge. However, the failure mode analysis of the bridge as built is not correct. The failure mode is the same for the bridge as built as for the strengthened bridge, i.e., crushing of the compression concrete with yielding of the steel in tension. For the strengthened bridge, bond failure of the carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP)reinforcement also played an important part in the initiation of the final collapse. Eq. (1) in the original paper underestimates the bending moment capacity M1 of the bridge as built almost by a factor of 2 as loading up to crushing of the concrete was not considered. Instead, Eq. (8) should have been used with a zero contribution from strengthening. In Eq. (8) there is also a printing error as the coefficient β2 is left out in the last parentheses (it should read “h - β2x2” instead of “h - 2”). The underestimation of the capacity of the bridge as built gives erroneous results in Table 2 and in Fig. 5. In Table 2 the height x1 of the compression zone for the bridge as built should be about half the given value of 291 mm. The value M1 corresponding to the bridge as built should be about twice the given value of 4.5 MN. The given flexural capacities M1 and M2, of the as built and strengthened bridges, respectively, refer to the corresponding applied vertical load P causing the flexural moments and not to the moments themselves. This explains why the unit MN is used instead of MN·m. Furthermore, the shear capacity V also refers to the corresponding applied vertical load P causing the shear and not to the shear capacity itself (which is about half the value of the applied load P). Furthermore, in Table 2 the comment to the shear capacity V should be referring to Eq. (11) instead of to Eq. (6). In Fig. 5, all the load values refer to the values of the applied load P causing the shear and flexure;  not to the moments M1 and M2 or to the shear force T. After the corrections mentioned previously, the values corresponding to the two moments M1 and M2 will be located much closer to each other. 

    The corrections do not change the main conclusions of the paper, and the discusser agrees with the authors that the tested bridge gives a good example of the complex interaction of bending and shear in concrete bridges. Additional information about the test and the different analysis of it and the European Research Project, which it was a part of, can be found in Elfgren et al. (2008), Puurula et al. (2008), Feltrin et al. (2008), Helmerich et al. (2008), Jensen et al. (2008), Täljsten et al. (2008), and Sustainable Bridges (2008).

  • 43.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Linneberg, Poul
    COWI A/S, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Valur
    Vegagerdin - The Icelandic Road and coastal Administration.
    Leivo, Markku
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Köhler, Jochen
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Quality Control Plans for European Concrete Road Bridges: Experiences from Cooperation within COST Action TU 14062017In: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Concrete Research Symposium, Oslo, Norway, Oslo: Nordic Concrete Federation , 2017, 249-252 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the COST Action TU1406 is to develop a guideline for the establishment of Quality Control plans for roadway bridges by integrating the most recent knowledge on performance assessment procedures. 36 European countries are working together in this endeavor during 2015-2019.

  • 44. Faugert, Sven
    et al.
    Dovelius, J.
    Johannesson, C.
    Kempinsky, P.
    Leden, Lars
    Salujärvi, M.
    Hur FUD-baserat är det nationella trafiksäkerhetsprogrammet (NTP)?: en utvärdering från nyttoperspektiv av KFBs forskningsprogram inom trafiksäkerhet1998Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Fjellström, Caroline
    et al.
    Vägverket Region Norr.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lundberg, Stellan
    ÅF Infraplan AB.
    Kommunal utvecklingsplan för lokal kollektivtrafik och bebyggelse1990Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Francki, Kristina Björling
    Luleå kommun.
    Gilla snölegan2014Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Füssl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Oberlader, Manuel
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Lenné, Michael G.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Beanland, Vanessa
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Pereira, Marta
    Chemnitz University of Technology.
    Simões, Ana V.C.
    Humanist Network.
    Turetschek, Ch.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Kaufmann, C.
    Factum Chaloupka and Risser OG, Danhausergasse 6/4, 1040 Wien.
    Joshi, Somya
    Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, Athens.
    Rößger, Lars
    Technische Universität Dresden.
    Leden, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    Ethniko Metsovio Polytechnico, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Athens.
    Roebroeck, Hugo
    Federation of European Motorcyclists' Associations (FEMA), Brussels.
    Carvalhais, José
    University of Tecnology Lisboa, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana.
    Underwood, J.
    Nottingham Trent University.
    Riders acceptance of advanced rider assistance systems2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of assistive systems and intelligent transport systems (ITS) plays an important role for improving the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTWs). Assistive systems for cars are well known and increasingly popular but for PTW riders the development of Advanced Rider Assistance Systems (ARAS) and On-Bike Information Systems (OBIS) has not progressed far enough yet. Estimates suggest that population-wide deployment of ARAS could reduce crashes by up to 40% (Lenné et al., 2011). Within the 2BESAFE project the factors that affect the acceptance of ARAS and OBIS of PTW riders and the obstacles that may hold PTW riders off from the use of assistive systems have been identified. A literature review, focus group interviews and an online survey have been conducted. The results show that the acceptability of systems depends on their function. The acceptability is higher for systems that were perceived to be more useful in emergencies. Survey respondents raised several concerns regarding the acceptance of assistive systems for PTWs. Respondents of the on-line survey felt that there was too much focus on assistive systems as a means of improving PTW rider safety, and less on the dangers that motorcyclists face actually from the actions of other road users.

  • 48.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Assessment of anti-slip devices from healthy individuals in different ages walking on slippery surfaces2006In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 37, no 2, 177-86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Using an appropriate anti-slip device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best anti-slip devices of different designs in the Swedish market on a larger group of healthy individuals in different ages on five different slippery surfaces as a way to develop a standard method to test anti-slip devices. Three different designs of anti-slip devices: heel device, foot-blade device and whole-foot device were evaluated on ice surfaces uncovered or covered with gravel, sand, salt or snow. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-slip device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-slip device and a list of priorities for own use according to three criteria: safety, balance and appearance. The heel device was perceived to be the most safe on all five surfaces, followed by the toe device and the whole-foot device. The heel device was also perceived to be the one with the best walking balance on uncovered ice and on snow covered ice. There were some significant differences due to gender and age. Most subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee when walking with or without an anti-slip device on all surfaces. The heel device was perceived as the most rapid one to take on and the toe device as the most rapid one to take off. All three devices were perceived as having a good foothold. The heel device was perceived to fit the shoe and to be stable at heel-strike. The toe device was easily portable and stable on uncovered ice. The whole-foot device was comfortable to walk with and safe on snow covered ice. The heel device had the highest priority according to walking safety, walking balance and choice for own use

  • 49.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Pedestrians on slippery surfaces during winter: methods to describe the problems and practical tests of anti-skid devices2000In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 32, no 3, 455-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year there are thousands of pedestrians in Sweden who are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on ice and snow. Methods to describe functional problems in walking on different slippery surfaces during winter have been developed as rating scales for evaluating walking safety and walking balance and an observation method to observe posture and movements during walking. Practical tests of all 25 anti-skid devices on the market in Sweden were carried out on different slippery surfaces; gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The anti-skid devices were described according to the subjects' perception of walking safety, walking balance and priority for own use. The postures and movements during walking were analysed by an expert physical therapist. The wholefoot device 'studs' was perceived as the best according to walking safety and walking balance and had the highest priority for own use.

  • 50.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Lundborg, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Test of Swedish anti-skid devices on five different slippery surfaces2001In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 33, no 1, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AB - The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Some pedestrians are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate new anti-skid devices on the Swedish market representing three different designs of anti-skid devices; heel device, fore-foot device and whole-foot device on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-skid device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-skid device and a list of priority for own use according to three criteria; safety, balance and appearance. Practical tests were carried out on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The subject's were randomly selected from the registered population over 55 years in a city in northern Sweden. The results showed that eight or more of the ten subjects perceived all four anti-skid devices as fairly good or good regarding walking safety and balance when walking on gravel, sand, and salt. Anti-skid device 3, a whole-foot device was perceived as having none or bad walking safety and balance on snow by seven subjects and anti-skid device 4, a heel device, as having none or bad walking balance on ice by all ten subjects. Eight subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee with all anti-skid devices on all surfaces. Small deviations in walking posture and movements were noted in one to two subjects when walking on different surfaces, but no systematic difference between the devices. Anti-skid device 1 'Rewa', a fixed heel device, was perceived as the most rapid one to take on. All four devices were perceived as easy to use and as giving good foothold. Anti-skid device 1 'Rewa' and 4 'Thulin-spike', both heel devices, had the highest priority according to walking safety. 'Rewa' also had the highest priority according to walking balance as well as own use. When combining the criterias 'Rewa' had the highest priority according to walking safety and balance, priority for own use, time to take on and easiness to use.

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