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  • 1.
    Abba, S.I.
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria; Interdisciplinary Research Center for Membrane and Water Security, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.
    Abdulkadir, R.A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria.
    Sammen, Saad Sh.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Diyala, Diyala Governorate, Iraq.
    Pham, Quoc Bao
    Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, Będzińska street 60, 41-200, Sosnowiec, Poland.
    Lawan, A.A.
    Department of Computer Science, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Nigeria.
    Esmaili, Parvaneh
    Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Near East University, Nicosia, North Cyprus, Turkey.
    Malik, Anurag
    Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bathinda 151001, Punjab, India.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Integrating feature extraction approaches with hybrid emotional neural networks for water quality index modeling2022Inngår i: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 114, artikkel-id 108036Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of water quality prediction models is vital for aquatic ecosystems analysis. The traditional methods of water quality index (WQI) analysis are time-consuming and associated with a high degree of errors. These days, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) based models are trending for capturing nonlinear and complex processes. Therefore, the present study was conducted to predict the WQI in the Kinta River, Malaysia by employing the hybrid AI model i.e., GA-EANN (genetic algorithm-emotional artificial neural network). The extreme gradient boosting (XGB) and neuro-sensitivity analysis (NSA) approaches were utilized for feature extraction, and six different model combinations were derived to examine the relationship among the WQI with water quality (WQ) variables. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid GA-EANN model was evaluated against the backpropagation neural network (BPNN) and multilinear regression (MLR) models during calibration, and validation periods based on Nash–Sutcliffeefficiency (NSE), mean square error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and correlation coefficient (CC) indicators. According to results of appraisal the hybrid GA-EANN model produced better outcomes (NSE = 0.9233/ 0.9018, MSE = 10.5195/ 9.7889 mg/L, RMSE = 3.2434/ 3.1287 mg/L, MAPE = 3.8032/ 3.0348 mg/L, CC = 0.9609/ 0.9496) in calibration/ validation phases than BPNN and MLR models. In addition, the results indicate the better performance and suitability of the hybrid GA-EANN model with five input parameters in predicting the WQI for the study site.

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  • 2.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Wasimi, Saleh
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla M.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.
    Flow Variation of the Major Tributaries of Tigris River Due to Climate Change2019Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 437-442Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq relies greatly  on  the  flow of  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris Rivers  and  their tributaries. Five tributaries namely Khabour, Greater Zab, Lesser Zab, AlAd- hiam  and  Daylia,  which  are  the  major  tributaries  of  Tigris  River,  sustain Northern  Iraq  Region,  a  semi-arid,  mainly  a  pastureland.  These  tributaries contribute about 24 km3  of water annually. The discharge in the tributaries, in recent  times,  has  been  suffering  increasing  variability  contributing  to  more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. This is because there were no dams constructed outside Iraq previously. For an appropriate appreciation,  Soil  Water  Assessment Tool  (SWAT)  model  was used  to evaluate  the  impact  of  climate  change  on  their  discharge  for  a  half-centennial lead time to 2046-2064 and a centennial lead time to 2080-2100. The suitability of the model was first evaluated, and then, outputs from six GCMs were incorporated  to  evaluate  the  impacts  of  climate  change  on  water  resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed that wa-ter resources are expected to decrease with time.

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  • 3.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Greater Zab River, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, nr 12, s. 1384-1402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Greater Zab is the largest tributary of the Tigris River in Iraq where the catchment area is currently being plagued by water scarcity and pollution problems. Contemporary studies have revealed that blue and green waters of the basin have been manifesting increasing variability contributing to more severe droughts and floods apparently due to climate change. In order to gain greater appreciation of the impacts of climate change on water resources in the study area in near and distant future, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) has been used. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics, and then, orecasts from six GCMs (general circulation models) with about half-a-century lead time to 2046~2064 and one-century lead time to 2080~2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources under three emission scenarios: A1B, A2 and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of Greater
  • 4.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Model-Based Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Isaac River Catchment, Queensland2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 8, nr 7, s. 460-470Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Isaac River catchment, which is located within Fitzroy basin in Central Queensland, Australia is mostly a semi-arid region, sparsely populated, but rife with economic activities such as mining, grazing, cropping and production forestry. Hydro-meteorological data over the past several decades reveal that the catchment is experiencing increasing variability in precipitation and streamflow contributing to more severe droughts and floods supposedly due to climate change. The exposure of the economic activities in the catchment to the vagaries of nature and the possible impacts of climate change on the stream flow regime are to be analyzed. For the purpose, SWAT model was adopted to capture the dynamics of the catchment. During calibration of the model 12parameters were found to be significant which yielded a R2 value of 0.73 for calibration and 0.66 for validation. In the next stage, six GCMs from CMIP3 namely, CGCM3.1/T47, CNRM-CM3, GFDLCM2.1, IPSLCM4, MIROC3.2 (medres) and MRI CGCM2.3.2 were selected for climate change projections in the Fitzroy basin under a very high emissions scenario (A2), a medium emissions scenario(A1B) and a low emissions scenario (B1) for two future periods (2046-2064) and (2080-2100). All GCMs showed consistent increases in temperature, and as expected, highest rate for A2 and lowest rate for B1. Precipitation predictions were mixed-reductions in A2 and increases in A1B and B1, and more variations in distant future compared to near future. When the projected temperaturesand precipitation were inputted into the SWAT model, and the model outputs were compared with the baseline period (1980-2010), the picture that emerged depicted worsening water resources variability.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne.
    Bhattarai, Surya
    School of Medical and Applied Sciences, Centra l Queensland University, Melbourne .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    The Impacts of Climate Change on Fitzroy River Basin, Queensland, Australia2017Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 38-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of historical data of Fitzroy River, which lies in the east coast of Australia, reveals that there is an increasing trend in extreme floods and droughts apparently attributable to increased variability of blue and green waters which could be due to climate change. In order to get a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on the water resources of the study area for near future as well as distant future, SWAT (soil and water assessment tool) model was applied. The model is first tested for its suitability in capturing the basin characteristics with available data, and then, forecasts from six GCMs (general circulation model) with about half-a-century lead time to 2046~2064 and about one-century lead time to 2080~2100 are incorporated to evaluate the impacts of climate change under three marker emission scenarios: A2, A1B and B1. The results showed worsening water resources regime into the future.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Abbas, Nahla
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sultana, Nasrin
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Water resources problems of Iraq: Climate change adaptation and mitigation2018Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 26, artikkel-id 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is suffering from water scarcity, and future predictions indicate that it could get worse due to changing climate. Arguably, climate change is one of the greatest challenges onfronting this region it could have significant adverse effects on water resources and hence the environment and economy, particularly in the agricultural sector. This study considers possible adaptation and mitigation measures that could be undertaken in response to climate change. To overcome this problem,adaptation measures at farm and government level were conferred. Farm-level adaptation comprises adopting crop modification, soil conservation, irrigation, changing crop calendar and planting of trees. The government role is to ensure success of these adaptation measures. The government should get involved and support the farmers financially and technologically.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Nasrin, Sultana
    RMIT, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Sabah H.
    Remote Sensing Center, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.
    The Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Basrah City,Iraq: The Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Basrah City,Iraq2020Inngår i: Open Journal of Geology, ISSN 2161-7570, E-ISSN 2161-7589, Open Journal of Geology, ISSN 2161-7570, Vol. 10, nr 12, s. 1189-1197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) above the Mean Sea Level (MSL) is more likely to cause a significant risk to the coastal regions. This research explores the potential impact of sea level rise, due to climate change, on coastal areas. It examines the impact of sea level rise on Basrah city and adjacent cities in Iraq. A digital elevation model (DEM) was used to create a model of Potentially Inundated Areas, manipulated and processed in Geographical Information System version 10.7 (ArcGIS 10.7). Through this model, the impact of sea level rise was assessed on the surface area. After the susceptible areas were delineated, it was estimated that at worst case scenario of 5 m sea level rise will impact Basrah city by losing 38 percent of its total surface area.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    The school of engineering & technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    The school of engineering & technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources of Greater Zab and Lesser Zab Basins, Iraq, Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model2017Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, ISSN 2010-376X, Vol. 11, nr 10, s. 823-829Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Zab and Lesser Zab are the major tributaries of Tigris River contributing the largest flow volumes into the river. The impacts of climate change on water resources in these basins have not been well addressed. To gain a better understanding of the effects of climate change on water resources of the study area in near future (2049-2069) as well as in distant future (2080-2099), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied. The model was first calibrated for the period from 1979 to 2004 to test its suitability in describing the hydrological processes in the basins. The SWAT model showed a good performance in simulating streamflow. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. Six general circulation models (GCMs) from phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 for periods of 2049-2069 and 2080-2099 were used to project the climate change impacts on these basins. The results demonstrated a significant decline in water resources availability in the future.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Abbas, Nahlah
    et al.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Wasimi, Saleh A.
    School of Engineering & Technology, Central Queensland University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Baby, Sultana Nasrin
    Department of Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Recent Trends and Long-Range Forecasts of Water Resources of Northeast Iraq and Climate Change Adaptation Measures2018Inngår i: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 11, s. 1-19, artikkel-id 1562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has been experiencing water resources scarcity, and is vulnerable to climate change. Analysis of historical data revealed that the region is experiencing climate change to a degree higher than generally reported elsewhere. The relationship between climate change and its effect on water resources of a region has been sparsely addressed in published literature. To fill that gap this research work first investigates if there has been a significant change in climate in the region, which has been found to be true. In the next stage, the research projects future climatic scenarios of the region based on six oft-used General CirculationModel (GCM) ensembles, namely CCSM4, CSIRO-Mk3.6.0, GFDL-ESM2M, MEROC5, HadGEM2-ES, and IPSL-CM5A-LR. The relationship between climate change and its impact on water resources is explored through the application of the popular, widely used SWAT model. The model depicts the availability of water resources, classified separately as blue and green waters, for near and distant futures for the region. Some of the findings are foreboding and warrants urgent attention of planners and decision makers. According to model outputs, the region may experience precipitation reduction of about 12.6% and 21% in near (2049–2069) and distant (2080–2099) futures, respectively under RCP8.5. Those figures under RCP4.5 are 15% and 23.4%, respectively and under RCP2.6 are 12.2% and 18.4%, respectively. As a consequence, the blue water may experience decreases of about 22.6% and 40% under RCP8.5, 25.8% and 46% under RCP4.5, and 34.4% and 31% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. Green water, by contrast, may reduce by about 10.6% and 19.6% under RCP8.5, by about 14.8% and 19.4% under RCP4.5, and by about 15.8% and 14.2% under RCP2.6 during the periods 2049–2069 and 2080–2099, respectively. The research further investigates how the population are adapting to already changed climates and how they are expected to cope in the future when the shift in climate is expected to be much greater.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Abbas, Zainab Dekan
    et al.
    Environmental Department, Urban Planning College, Kufa University, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Jassim, Osama
    Environmental Department, Urban Planning College, Kufa University, Iraq.
    Locating Dam Sites For Water Harvesting: Case Study Of Najaf Province, Iraq2019Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, Vol. 27, s. 1-8, artikkel-id 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Middle East is considered as an arid area. Iraq was an exception due to the presence of the Tigris  and  Euphrates  Rivers. After  1970,  the  flow  of  these  rivers  started  to  decrease  due  to  climate change  and  building  of  dams  in  the  upper  parts  of  the  catchments  of  the  rivers.  Now,  Iraq  is experiencing  water  shortage  problems.  Rain  water  harvesting  will  definitely  minimize  the  effect  of water shortage problems. In this research an arid area was selected (al Najaf) to find out the best sites for water harvesting using GIS techniques. The good agreement between the results from a simple GIS model  and  observations  in  cases  such  as  al  Najaf  Sea  is  indicating  a  promising  future  for  GIS application  in  hydrological  modeling.  The  present  study  proposed  a  function  formula  of  estimating suitable dam site using existing geographic information map such as the digital elevation maps. It is expected that it will save time, cost and work force. Finally, through the contour map of the study area, the lowest three elevation values at the governorate level were observed (20, 40, 60m). Based on these values, three possibilities were suggested to select the dam sites.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Abdeldjouad, Lokmane
    et al.
    EVRNZA Laboratory, University of Ouargla, Ouargla, Algeria; Department of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Ouargla, Ouargla, Algeria.
    Dheyab, Wisam
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Asadi, Afshin
    EnvoGéotechnique Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar
    Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Research Group, School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027, Australia.
    Thermal curing effects on alkali-activated treated soils with palm oil fuel ash2023Inngår i: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 19, artikkel-id e02455Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Regarding the significance of binder quantity, alkali activator molarities, and thermal curing, this work was utilized to geopolymerize with a potassium-based alkaline activator to strengthen soils. Five different molarities of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) in four different amounts were utilized to activate the clayey soil. POFA admixtures have been used to test soils. The results showed that for mixtures with 10 and 12.5 molarities, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) with 15 % and 20 % of POFA was stronger. Comparing the strengths of the blends with various POFA amounts and concentration molarities allowed for this determination. To increase the strength, it is crucial to consider how the geopolymerization method's temperature and curing time affect the UCS of the soil-POFA mixture with and without fibers. The UCS of the treated soil mixtures was changed by heating at 30, 50, 70, and 90 degrees C. The outcomes demonstrate that increasing the curing temperature will hasten the alkaline activation process. After seven days of heating, the treated soil specimens with and without fibers exhibit the best mechanical properties at a healing temperature of about 70 degrees C, with compressive strengths of 16.7 and 11.4 MPa. The interaction between the geo-polymeric matrix and the fiber surface, the molarities of the alkaline solution, and the heating temperature were the most important aspects, according to an investigation of the microstructures, in improving the behavior of the reinforced mixes. By offering an efficient approach for increasing the qualities of soil treated by the alkali activation of POFA through the inclusion of glass fibers with adequate molarities of reagent and cure heating temperature, the current work offers new insights into soil stabilization operations. This has advantages over conventional calcium-based binders due to their emission of carbon dioxide during manufacture, which is one of the major causes of global warming.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Abdel-Hameed, Amal Mohamed
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Abuarab, Mohamed
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sayed, Hazem
    Irrigation and Drainage Department, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Kassem, Mohamed A.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.
    Elbeltagi, Ahmed
    Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.
    Mokhtar, Ali
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt; School of Geographic Sciences Key Lab. of Geographic Information Science (Ministry of Education), East China Normal University, Zhongshan, China.
    Estimation of Potato Water Footprint Using Machine Learning Algorithm Models in Arid Regions2024Inngår i: Potato Research, ISSN 0014-3065, E-ISSN 1871-4528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise assessment of water footprint to improve the water consumption and crop yield for irrigated agricultural efficiency is required in order to achieve water management sustainability. Although Penman-Monteith is more successful than other methods and it is the most frequently used technique to calculate water footprint, however, it requires a significant number of meteorological parameters at different spatio-temporal scales, which are sometimes inaccessible in many of the developing countries such as Egypt. Machine learning models are widely used to represent complicated phenomena because of their high performance in the non-linear relations of inputs and outputs. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to (1) develop and compare four machine learning models: support vector regression (SVR), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boost (XGB), and artificial neural network (ANN) over three potato governorates (Al-Gharbia, Al-Dakahlia, and Al-Beheira) in the Nile Delta of Egypt and (2) select the best model in the best combination of climate input variables. The available variables used for this study were maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), average temperature (Tave), wind speed (WS), relative humidity (RH), precipitation (P), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation (SR), sown area (SA), and crop coefficient (Kc) to predict the potato blue water footprint (BWF) during 1990–2016. Six scenarios (Sc1–Sc6) of input variables were used to test the weight of each variable in four applied models. The results demonstrated that Sc5 with the XGB and ANN model gave the most promising results to predict BWF in this arid region based on vapor pressure deficit, precipitation, solar radiation, crop coefficient data, followed by Sc1. The created models produced comparatively superior outcomes and can contribute to the decision-making process for water management and development planners. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Abdullah, Gamil M. S.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, P.O. 1988, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Ahmad, Mahmood
    Institute of Energy Infrastructure, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000, Kajang, Malaysia; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar (Bannu Campus), Bannu, 28100, Pakistan.
    Babur, Muhammad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.
    Badshah, Muhammad Usman
    Water Wing, Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), WAPDA House Peshawar, Peshawar, 25000, Pakistan.
    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Gombak, 50728, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Fawad, Muhammad
    Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland; Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Boosting-based ensemble machine learning models for predicting unconfined compressive strength of geopolymer stabilized clayey soil2024Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikkel-id 2323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research employs new boosting-based ensemble machine learning models i.e., gradient boosting (GB) and adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) to predict the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of geopolymer stabilized clayey soil. The GB and AdaBoost models were developed and validated using 270 clayey soil samples stabilized with geopolymer, with ground-granulated blast-furnace slag and fly ash as source materials and sodium hydroxide solution as alkali activator. The database was randomly divided into training (80%) and testing (20%) sets for model development and validation. Several performance metrics, including coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean squared error (MSE), were utilized to assess the accuracy and reliability of the developed models. The statistical results of this research showed that the GB and AdaBoost are reliable models based on the obtained values of R2 (= 0.980, 0.975), MAE (= 0.585, 0.655), RMSE (= 0.969, 1.088), and MSE (= 0.940, 1.185) for the testing dataset, respectively compared to the widely used artificial neural network, random forest, extreme gradient boosting, multivariable regression, and multi-gen genetic programming based models. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis result shows that ground-granulated blast-furnace slag content was the key parameter affecting the UCS.

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  • 14.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Consultant engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Irrigation projects in Iraq2021Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 35-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has a unique irrigation system since the early history, these systems are functioning through many irrigation projects built over `Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Irrigation projects include several categories, which are dams, barrages, canals, drains, pumping stations, regulators, and reservoirs. There are six large dams inside Iraq, 5 are existing in Tigris basin, and one in Euphrates basin, these dams which were built since 1950’s are suffering from several issues, like foundation liquefaction, seismic effects, and others. Tharthar Lake, Habbaniyah Lake, Razzaza Lake, and Southern Marshes are also one of the main projects in Iraq to control flood and storing excess water in some. These lakes serve in protection of the main cities during large floods. There are also many barrages on Tigris and Euphrates, some of these barrages are part of Tharthar and Habbaniyah projects, while others serving the irrigation projects in Mesopotamia. On Euphrates, there are several irrigation projects, where the projects upstream Fallujah city are almost small or medium projects irrigated by pumping. Then, in the rest of Euphrates, there are Great Abu Ghraib project, Great Mussayab, Hilla-Kifil, some small projects, and Kifil-Shinafiyah projects. Also, Hilla branch which is the largest branch in Iraq from Euphrates, where this branch is irrigating several irrigation projects. On Tigris basin, there are Jazeera project irrigated by pumping from Mosul Dam, Kirkuk project that is irrigated from Lesser Zab River, and Diyala are projects. Inside Mesopotamia and over Tigris reach, there are Ishaqi project, Nahrawan project, Middle Tigris projects, Dujailah project, Dalmaj project, and Gharraf Canal projects. In the middle of Mesopotamian plain, Main Outfall Drain was completed in 1992, this grand drain are serving around 6 million donum of farmlands.

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  • 15.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet. Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Missing rainfall data estimation—an approach to investigate different methods: case study of Baghdad2022Inngår i: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511, E-ISSN 1866-7538, Vol. 15, artikkel-id 1740Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The missing of the meteorological data in Iraq is common due to malfunction of measuring devices, security status, and human effects. The study tested 17 missing precipitation data estimation methods in Baghdad city as a case study, where, all the surrounding stations around Baghdad experienced the missing of data for various reasons, and some of the missing data are for a full year record. The methods examined in this study are based on different approaches, some of the methods are based upon the distances to the targeted station, others are upon regression factors, and there are also methods that combine several factors. There are also other types of missing data filling methods which depend on imputation and artificial intelligence. The investigation of the most accurate method to find the missing data will assist researchers and decision makers to fill the gap in their analysis in one of the most vulnerable countries in terms of drought and climate changes impacts. Results showed that Expectation Maximization (EM) method utilization has the best results with the least errors, and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) method was ranked the second best method. In general, all of the applied methods had resulted acceptable interpolations, and it was clear that the combined methods have low significance on the results in comparison with others. All of these findings are limited to the study area meteorological and spatial conditions. 

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  • 16.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Floods and Flood Protection in Mesopotamia2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 155-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesopotamia is a land where floods have occurred very frequently. Many destructive floods had been registered by historians, who noted also the food control schemes used in those times. Over history, many structures were built and managed, but this work was taken up again by the General Directorate of Irrigation which was formed in 1917 to manage floods and reduce as much as possible losses, in addition to the development of irrigation works. Plans were made to build a sophisticated flood control and protection system. Several projects were proposed, and since the 1950s they were successfully implemented. Many multipurpose dams were built to mitigate flood conditions in addition to their other functions, such as Mosul Dam, Dokan Dam, Derbendikhan Dam and Haditha Dam. Other projects which were solely planned for flood protection include developing and using natural depressions such as Habbaniyah Lake on the Euphrates River and Tharthar Lake on the Tigris River, to protect Mesopotamia from floods. Moreover, the southern marshes in lower Mesopotamia may be utilized for flood protection. This paper deals only with these natural depressions leaving the dams at the time being.

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  • 17.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Irrigation Major Systems on Euphrates River within Mesopotamia2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 199-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates River is one of the two rivers where the civilization and irrigation had started, many major irrigation systems are still operating for centuries. The most important advancement of irrigation within this area happened after 1920s, where new structures were constructed, new canals excavated, new pumps installed, and salt affected lands were reclaimed. The major irrigation projects in along the reach of Euphrates within Mesopotamia are, Great Abu Ghraib, Great Musayab, Hilla Branch projects, Kifl-Shiniafiyah, in addition to many other medium and small size projects. Besides, some important Barrages have been built for controlling water levels of the Euphrates for proper operation, such as Fallujah and Hindiya Barrages. There is a great need for more reclamation in the lower parts of this territory, as well alternatives are needed to avoid discharging saline drainage water to the Euphrates in some projects.

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  • 18.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Major Irrigation Systems on Tigris River within Mesopotamia2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 175-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several irrigation systems have been built at Tigris River basin within Mesopotamia plain. The upper part of Tigris at Mesopotamia is extensively exploited, and several major projects were constructed since the 1970s. These are Ishaqi, Khalis, Diyala Combined Reach, Nahrawan, Dujailya and Dalmaj. Other projects were partially developed, which are Middle-Tigris, Gharraf projects, Great Amarah and KutButaira. The important barrages in this part are Kut Barrage, as well, as the barrages in Amarah area which are of vital importance for irrigation and navigation. Shaat Al-Arab is one of the most important waterways in Iraq. This river has been suffered from water scarcity and riparian countries actions. Solutions for adaptation to adapt the situation were studied and planned carefully, but still there is need for more work to cope with the situation in Basra area.

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  • 19.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    Consultant Dam Engineer, Sweden.
    Sissakian, Varoujan K.
    University of Kurdistan Hewler. Iraq Geological Survey, Baghdad.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Soil Salinity of Mesopotamia and the Main Drains2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 221-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since early civilization and the farmers in Mesopotamia are suffering from the soil salinity. This problem had caused the transfer of power from the Sumerians to the Babylonians in ancient history. Great efforts and research have been made since the beginning of the 20th century to overcome this salinity problem. Experts have concluded that the main reason for salinity is the salt content of irrigation water and the shallow saline groundwater derived from the irrigation activities. General schemes were planned, which involve building a new system of drains in parallel to the irrigation network. The backbone of the drainage system in Mesopotamia is the Main Outfall Drain (MOD). Large works such as Musayab Main Drain, Main Outfall Drain, Great Gharraf Drain, East Euphrates Drain were implemented, but there are still large needs for much more work to be done.

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  • 20.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Harvesting in Iraq: Status and Opportunities2020Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 199-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water harvesting in Iraq is an old application with limited extent. Western Desert, Jazeera Desert and Eastern Valleys, are the zones were the water harvesting must be employed. Several water harvesting dams in Western Desert had built since 1970s, these dams are intended to provide habitat and recharge of groundwater resources. There is limited opportunity to recharge groundwater in Jazeera area due to existence of gypsum layers. Regarding Eastern Valleys, the experience of building water harvesting dams on the valleys manifested that sediments accumulation is the main obstacle to adapt this solution. Hemrin Hills considered as one of the most intensively eroded areas in Iraq, so, soil conservation and water harvesting development is important. Many small dams were built in mountainous zone in the last two decades, some are important for agriculture expansion, but there is need to evaluate the effects on large dams feeding. North-Eastern parts of Jordan, which has similar natural conditions of Northern Desert, had present a successful example of water harvesting development.  

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  • 21.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Barrages2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 153-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Barrages are the early water resources structures that were built in the modern history in Iraq. The main function of the barrages to rise the water levels to feed the main canals of irrigation projects. Further, some barrages are functioning as a diversion structures during floods. The first built barrage and still in operation is Kut Barrage which opened in 1939, while the last one is Amarah Barrage that were opened in 2004. Some of the barrages are in good conditions, some are suffering from technical issues, and others especially at the lower reaches of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers getting insufficient maintenance. Generally, the upstream approaches need dredging of the sediments and small islands, and there is a need also for bathymetric survey of the rivers sections near barrages.  

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  • 22.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Euphrates2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 169-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Euphrates River is distinguished with long existing irrigation projects, which had been developed in the 20th century after centuries of deterioration. One of the major projects a long Euphrates inside Iraq is Great Abu Ghraib Project, which is the largest reclaimed area. Also, Great Musayab Project, Kifl-Shinafiyah Project and Shinafiyah-Nasiriya Project are other major projects. The most important for which Hindiyah Barrage had been built is Hilla Branch that supply many projects on both sides of this branch. Euphrates irrigation projects need a lot of investments to develop the status of the projects and confront the continuous decrease in water quality of the river. 

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  • 23.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Tigris2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 201-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Along Tigris River reach inside Iraq, many large and small projects of irrigation were built. These projects depend on gravity flow or pumping. Starting from Jazeera project then small projects downstream Fatah, where these feed by pumping. After Samarra scheme, the important Ishaqi project, then after Baghdad, the projects of Nahrawan, Middle-Tigris and Dalmaj. The most important branch from Tigris is Gharraf Canal, which is not exploited yet, although plans were prepared decades ago. Downstream Kut Barrage, several projects are especially on the right side of Tigris. Finally, Shatt Al-Arab project which has a unique importance as it provide the solution for municipal need and save the orchards of dates in Basra.  

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  • 24.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Irrigation Projects on Tigris River Tributaries2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 231-247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are five tributaries feeding Tigris River inside Iraq, on these many large and small projects were developed. Two kinds of projects can be distinguished, first the projects of complementary irrigation or semi-rain feed area for agriculture, and example of these projects is Kirkuk, Hawija, Eski-Kalak and small projects in mountainous area. The second group is the projects that depend mainly on irrigation, examples of that are the projects in lower Diyaa. Unfortunately, there was no exploitation of lands enough comparing with the available resources in Great Zab territories.

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  • 25.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Main Drains2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 275-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq has a unique system of drainage. Soil texture, groundwater depth, water quality and other factors lead to the adaption of getting rid the drainage water away to the sea in order to control water quality. The system of drainage is not completed yet, however, the backbone of the system, which is Main Outfall Drain (MOD) was completed in 1992. Other main drains were completed and connected and others are still in progress of implementation where the most important drain after MOD is Eastern Euphrates Drain.

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  • 26.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Medium and Small Storage Dams2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 283-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many medium and small dams were built in Iraq. These dams are distributed in three major areas. First is the northern area where many dams built in the period after 2003, even there are some that built in 1980s. Second, is the dams built in the eastern valleys, but these prove to be inefficient due to high rate of sedimentation even in the live storage. Third, is the dams in the western desert. These dams were  highly exploited in 1970s and 1980s to harvest as much as possible in this large and promising area and providing the livelihood conditions to settle people. The area has no more projects due to security issues.

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  • 27.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects in Iraq: Reservoirs in The Natural Depressions2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 137-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq had suffered for centuries from devastating floods, causing heavy life and property losses and for occasions it demolished the civilizations. Since 1950s, Iraq started to develop several natural depressions to function as escape to mitigate flood waves. The projects of this kind which had developed are: Habbaniyah project, Tharthar project, Schweicha depression and Southern Marshes. The exploitation of these projects comprises building barrages, regulators, and dykes. For Tharthar and Habbaniyah, the diverted water re-used during drought season. Although, these depressions which serve as reservoirs provide invaluable role in flood protection, the construction of the existing and future dams will reduce the feasibility of these projects.

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  • 28.
    Abdullah, Mukhalad
    et al.
    Private Engineer, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Resources Projects: Large Storage Dams2019Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 109-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several dams were built on Tigris, Euphrates, and Tigris tributaries in Iraq. The construction of dams had been done in the second half of 20th century. Of the most critical issues confronting the large storage dams in Iraq are the liquefactions in Mosul Dam foundations, land sliding and earthquake effects in Darbandikhan Dam, and the essential maintenance and rehabilitation requirements almost for all the dams. Absolutely, large storage dams made Iraq surviving from thirst in several occasions. Unfortunately, after 2003, the attention or will are not exist pertaining the building of new or partially built large dams.      

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  • 29.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment to pollution in Different Soil and Rock Materials2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The augmentation of human population regularly corresponds with change in the land cover, including expansion of urban areas, which imposes increasing the available amount of domestic and drinking water. The study area, Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, is situated in the Northeast of Iraq and is one of the major groundwater sources of the region.  As the surface water sources are not enough in the studied area, it has become necessary to use groundwater at an increasing rate. Usually, a huge amount of groundwater is plentiful in the alluvial deposits or rock outcrops where the urban areas are frequently situated. Such areas face a huge risk of pollution of groundwater due to producing different sources of a contaminant from human's activity. Keeping these aspects in view, groundwater vulnerability studies have been carried out in the current studied basin. The main objective of this work is to investigate the environmental impacts on groundwater quality and recognize the groundwater vulnerability in the area so that the groundwater can be protected from probable contaminations.

    In the current study, DRASTIC model has been applied since it is one of the most proper useful methods available for the assessment of the groundwater vulnerability. This model has been modified in different ways to achieve the obvious vulnerability condition in the area; likewise, different further methods have been applied for comparison purposes such as: weight modified VLDA and standard COP models. In addition, the applied models were validated by comparing its findings against the estimated groundwater ages and the observed water characteristic qualities within the region in two successive seasons.

    According to the spatial distribution of irrigation water quality index, groundwater at the studied basin classified into three group for both dry and wet seasons, namely, Sever Restriction (SR), High Restriction (HR) and Moderate Restriction (MR). The coverage area of all three classes are (1.4%, 52.4% and46.2%) for dry season and (0.7%, 83.3% and16%) for wet seasons, respectively. While, refer to the water quality index for drinking purpose, groundwater in this basin reveals a permissible to excellent groundwater quality of the dry season and a good to excellent groundwater quality of the wet season. The high level of a good groundwater quality in the wet season compared to the dry season might be expected to the groundwater recharge during the winter and spring periods, which lead to dilution of chemical component, in contrast high irrigation and agricultural activities and groundwater discharge in the dry season leads to increase the concentration of chemical component.

    Field and official data were collected to review several environmental impacts and were used to map standard DRASTIC vulnerability model for the study basin. Based on this model, the study area was classified into four zones of vulnerability indexes, comprises a very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability index with a coverage area of (34%, 13%, 48% and 5%) respectively.

    In the first modification step, the rate and weight value of each parameter in DRASTIC model is modified. Nitrate concentration from 39 groundwater samples was used for modifying the recommended standard rating value based on the Wilcoxon rank-sum nonparametric statistical test and then sensitivity analysis was used to modifying recommended standard weighting value of each parameter. To calibrate the modified rate, the Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to estimate the relation between DRASTIC values and nitrate concentrations in groundwater samples. For the first modified model, the correlation coefficient was 72% that was significantly higher than 43% achieved for the standard model. The modified model classified the area into five vulnerability classes, including (very low, low, moderate, high and very high) with covered area of (7%, 35%, 19%, 35% and 4%), respectively.

    The second modification of DRASTIC model was based on land use and land cover for the studied area. The land use and land cover (LULC) map prepared using ERDAS IMAGINE software from two different scenes of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The LULC map indicates that only five classes of LULC can be identified: these are: barren land, agricultural land, vegetation land, urban area and wet land or water body. The modified DRASTIC based on LULC map classified the area into five classes with different coverage area of each class: very low (1.17%), low (36.82%), moderate (17.57%), high (43.42%) and very high (1.02%).

    The third modified method of the current study is the modification of DRASTIC model based on Lineament feature of the study basin. A lineament map is extracted from Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) satellite imagery using different techniques in remote sensing and GIS. The lineament density map demonstrates that only six classes of lineament density can be identified ranged from (0-2.4). The third modified DRASTIC model classified the area into four vulnerability categories: very low (28.75%), low (14.31%), moderate (46.91%) and high (10.03%).

    The fourth effort to modify standard DRASTIC model is the application of Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) to assess the weight value of each parameter. The modified DRASTIC vulnerability index values based on AHP method ranged between (65.82–224.1) with five vulnerability classes comprises (very low to very high).

    Weight modified VLDA and standard COP models were also applied to map vulnerability system in the study basin. The vulnerability outcome based on weight modified VLDA model revealed that a total of four ranges of vulnerability indexes had been distinguished ranging from low to very high with vulnerability indexes (2.133-9.16). Subsequently, based on the standard COP model, the area is also divided into four vulnerability classes ranging from very low to high with index value ranged from (0.79) to (6.2).

    All applied models in the study basin were compared to each other and validated to clarify the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions and to show the accuracy of the modeled vulnerability system. Two methods were applied for the validation of the result, in the first approach; nitrate concentration analysis has been selected; the nitrate differences between two following seasons (dry and wet) were analyzed from (39) water wells. In the second approach, groundwater vulnerability was assessed based on estimated groundwater age from range of tritium (3H) value in the groundwater samples from different groundwater aquifers in the studied area. The results of both validation methods verify the sensibility of the gradation and distribution of vulnerability levels acquired using the modified DRASTIC model based on (rate and weight modification, weight modification based on AHP process and effect of LULC on DRASTIC model) and also applying weight modified of VLDA model.

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  • 30.
    Abdullah, Twana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Using DRASTIC model Applied to Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, IRAQ2017Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 31.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater assessment of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan region, NE of Iraq using vulnerability mapping2016Inngår i: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511, E-ISSN 1866-7538, Vol. 9, nr 3, artikkel-id 223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin is located in the northeastern part of Iraq covering an area of about 1278 km2 with a population of about 190,727. Groundwater is the principal source of water in this area. Agricultural practices within the basin are widespread and located close to groundwater wells. This poses imminent threat to these resources. DRASTIC model integrated with GIS tool has been used to evaluate the groundwater vulnerability of this area. In addition, theDRASTIC model was modified using nitrate concentrations and sensitivity analysis to modify the recommended weighting value to get accurate results. The modified rates were calculated using the relations between each parameterand the nitrate concentration in the groundwater based on the Wilcoxon rank-sum non-parametric statistical test. While, to calibrate all types of modifications, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient was applied. The standard vulnerability map of the studied basin classified the basin into four zones ofvulnerability index including very low (34 %), low(13 %), moderate (48 %), and high (5 %) vulnerability index, while the combined modification classified the area into five classes: very low (7 %), low (35 %), moderate (19 %), high (35 %),and very high (4 %). The results demonstrate that both modified DRASTIC rate and weight were dramatically superior to the standard model; therefore, the most appropriate method to apply is the combination of modified rate-weight.

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    fulltext
  • 32.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq..
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution using two different vulnerability models in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2020Inngår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 100276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater aquifer in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin considered as one of the most important aquifers in terms of water supplying in Kurdistan Region, NE of Iraq. The growing of economics, irrigation and agricultural activities inside the basin makes it of the main essentials to the region. Therefore, pollution of groundwater is of specific worry as groundwater resources are the principal source of water for drinking, agriculture, irrigation and industrial activities. Thus, the best and practical arrangement is to keep the pollution of groundwater through. The current study aims to evaluate of the vulnerability of groundwater aquifers of the study area. Two models were applied, to be specific VLDA and COP to develop maps of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The VLDA model classified the area into four classes of vulnerability: low, moderate, high and very high with coverage area of (2%,44%,53% and 1%), respectively. While four vulnerability classes were accomplished dependent on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. To confirm the suitability of each map for assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the area, it required to be validated of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, groundwater age evaluated utilizing tritium isotopes investigation and applied it to validate the vulnerability results. Based on this validation, the outcome exhibits that the vulnerability classes acquired utilizing VLDA model are more predictable contrasted with the COP model.

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  • 33.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Classification of groundwater based on irrigation water quality index and GIS in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, NE Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 24, artikkel-id 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of groundwater for irrigation purpose is proposed using the Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) within the GIS environment. The model was applied to several aquifers in the study basin. Water samples were collected from thirty-nine sites from both water wells and springs from the dry season (September 2014) and the wet season (May 2015). Samples were tested chemically and physically for several variables: EC, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl-, Na+ and HCO3- and SAR. The accuracy and precision methods were applied to find out the uncertainty of the chemical analysis results and its validity of application for the geochemical interpretations. Based on the spatial distribution of IWQI, the groundwater quality of HSB classified into several classes of both dry and wet seasons in terms of its restrictions on irrigation purposes. The classes include, Severe Restriction (SR), High Restriction (HR) and Moderate Restriction (MR). The coverage areas of all three classes are 1.4%, 52.4% and 46.2% for the dry season and 0.7%, 83.3% and16% for wet seasons respectively. The considerable variations in all these classes have been noted from dry to wet seasons, this might be related to increasing the aquifer recharges from precipitation and decreasing the aquifer discharges by the consumers in the wet season. Then the model was validated based on the relation between the aquifer recharge and spatial distribution of IWQI, the result of this validation confirmed the outcome of this study.

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  • 34.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping Using Lineament Density on Standard DRASTIC Model: Case Study in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 10, s. 644-667Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is the most important source of water in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin. In this study, to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied. Due to the close relation between lineament density and groundwater flow and yield, the lineament density map was applied to the standard DRASTIC model in order to ensure accuracy towards the consideration of the effects of potential vulnerability to contamination. A lineament map is extracted from Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) satellite imagery using different techniques in remote sensing and GIS. The lineament density map illustrates that only six classes of lineament density can be identified ranged from (0 - 2.4). The lineament density map was rated and weighted and then converted to lineament index map. This index map is an additional parameter which was added to the standard DRASTIC model so as to map the modified DRASTIC vulnerability in HSB. The standard vulnerability map, classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the modified model classified the area into four categories as well: very low (28.75%), low (14.31%), moderate (46.91%) and high (10.04%). The results demonstrate that there is no significant variation in the rate of vulnerability. Therefore, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it confirmed that the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant because of suitability in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this verification, it could be claimed that the effect of lineament density is weak on the vulnerability system in HSB, because of its low density value.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 35.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Groundwater Vulnerability Using DRASTIC and COP Models: Case Study of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2016Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. 741-760Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid groundwater from contamination, the groundwater vulnerability tool can be examined. In this study, two methods were applied, namely: DRASTIC (Groundwater depth, Net recharge, Aquifer media, Soil map, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and Hydraulic Conductivity) and COP (Concentration of flow, Overlying layer and Precipitation) to model groundwater vulnerability to pollution. The result illustrated that four vulnerability classes were recognized based on both models including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes. The coverage areas of each class are (34%, 13%, 48% and 5%) by DRASTIC model and (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) by COP model, respectively. The notable dissimilarity between these two models was recognized. For this reason, nitrate elements were selected as a pollution indicator to validate the result. The concentrations of nitrate were recorded in two following seasons in (30) watering wells; as a result, the substantial variation was noted. This indicates that contaminants can be easily reached the groundwater due to its suitability in geological and hydrogeological conditions in terms of contaminant transportation. Based on this confirmation, the standard DRASTIC method becomes more sensible than COP method.

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    fulltext
  • 36.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaiman.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Possibility of Groundwater Pollution in Halabja Saidsadiq Hydrogeological Basin, Iraq Using Modified DRASTIC Model Based on AHP andTritium Isotopes2018Inngår i: Geosciences, E-ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, nr 7, artikkel-id 236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An anthropogenic activity is one of the most severe environmental causes for groundwatercontamination in the urban area. Groundwater thought to be one of the principal sources of water supply in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, and therefore its vulnerability evaluation to define areas that are more vulnerable to pollution is incredibly vital.  The objectives of this paper are to reveal weight modified of DRASTIC model based on the Analytical Hierarchical Process to estimate the proportional likelihood of groundwater resources pollution. Tritium isotopes analysis was chosen and applied as a pollution marker to confirm the result of this adjustment. Based on this modification, vulnerability classes that were achieved for the studied basin were alienated into five classes, including very low, low, medium, high, and very high, with vulnerability index value of (<100, >100–125, >125–150,>150–200, and >200), respectively.

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  • 37.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using three different models inHalabja Saidsadiq basin, Iraq2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 10th World Congress of European Water Resources Association ‘Panta Rhei’, 5-9 July 2017, Athens, Greece / [ed] George Tsakisis, Vassilakos A. Tsihrintzis, Harris Vangelis, Dimitris Tigkas, Athens: European Water Resources AssociationSSOCIATION , 2017, s. 1827-1834Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin (HSB) is one of a major basin of Iraq in terms of groundwater reservoirs. Intensive agricultural practices and economic revolution are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Therefore, the most effective and realistic solution is to prevent the contamination of groundwater through. The present study targets the computation of the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs of the study area. Three methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC, VLDA and COP to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). The VLDA model also classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%).Four vulnerability classes were recognized based on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. Considerable variations in nitrate concentration on dry to wet seasons had been renowned. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree

    and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Ali, Salahalddin
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using VLDA model in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq.2016Inngår i: IWA Specialist Groundwater Conference: Conference Proceedings & Book of Abstracts, 09-11 June 2016, Belgrade Serbia / [ed] Milan A. Dimkic, Belgrade: Jaroslav Cerni Institute for the Development of Water Resources , 2016, s. 72-75Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater considered being the most vital source of water in several regions in the world. Specifically in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin, groundwater plays an important role as one of the essential source of water supplies. Therefore, it needs to be taken care of. In this study, VLDA method applied to model a map of groundwater vulnerability to contamination. The VLDA models classified the area into four categories with different coverage areas: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. The nitrate concentration on two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) watering wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 39.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessing the Vulnerability of Groundwater to Pollution Using DRASTIC and VLDA Modelsin Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, NE, Iraq2016Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 10, nr 10, s. 1144-1159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater plays important roles as one of the essential source of water supplies of the studied area. Consequently, it needs to be prevented from contamination. In this study, two methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC (depth to groundwater, net recharge, aquifer media, soil map, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity) and VLDA (vadose zone lithology, land use patterns, depth to groundwater and aquifer media) to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination of the basin. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the VLDA model classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high(53%) and very high (1%). The results demonstrate that there is a significant dissimilarity in the rate of vulnerability. Validation of the constructed maps is required to confirm the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. The nitrate concentration of two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) watering wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB (Halabja Saidsadiq Basin) is capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability level acquired using VLDA model is more sensible than that attained from the standard DRASTIC method .In addition, the DRASTIC models need to be modified based on the land use pattern, which clarifies the role of human activity on the vulnerability system.

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    fulltext
  • 40.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Kurdistan , Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2019Inngår i: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikkel-id 690Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

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    fulltext
  • 41.
    Abdullah, Twana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin Saeed
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Kurdistan Region, Sulaimani, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Seepage Velocity of Different Groundwater Aquifers in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin—NE of Iraq2021Inngår i: Recent Advances in Environmental Science from the Euro-Mediterranean and Surrounding Regions (2nd Edition): Proceedings of 2nd Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration (EMCEI-2), Tunisia 2019 / [ed] Mohamed Ksibi; Achraf Ghorbal; Sudip Chakraborty; Helder I. Chaminé; Maurizio Barbieri; Giulia Guerriero; Olfa Hentati; Abdelazim Negm; Anthony Lehmann; Jörg Römbke; Armando Costa Duarte; Elena Xoplaki; Nabil Khélifi; Gilles Colinet; João Miguel Dias; Imed Gargouri; Eric D. Van Hullebusch; Benigno Sánchez Cabrero; Settimio Ferlisi; Chedly Tizaoui; Amjad Kallel; Sami Rtimi; Sandeep Panda; Philippe Michaud; Jaya Narayana Sahu; Mongi Seffen; Vincenzo Naddeo, Springer, 2021, s. 1683-1687Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For understanding and prediction of transport in different groundwater aquifers media, the groundwater flow velocity (magnitude and direction) has to be considered. Halabja Saidsadiq Basin is located in the northeast part of Iraq, which covers an area of 1278 square kilometers with population of more than 200,000 inhabitants. The climate of this area is hot in the summers and cold in the winters. Groundwater aquifers in this area provide approximately 90% of whole water requirements. Therefore, it is important to understand some groundwater features in the area such as groundwater flow velocity, to prevent contaminant transport toward the groundwater aquifers. The main aim of this study was to apply geographic information system technique to estimate the magnitude and direction of the groundwater seepage velocity based on several hydrological and hydrogeological data in the region. The results revealed that the seepage velocity magnitude ranged from (0 to 51) m/d, while the flow direction is from the eastern to the western part of the study area. 

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  • 42.
    Abdullah, Twana O.
    et al.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE. Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE. Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Effect of Agricultural activities on Groundwater Vulnerability: Case Study of Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq2015Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 23, nr 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is one of the main sources of water in Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin of northeast Iraq. It covers an area of 1278 square kilometers with population of about 190,727.In this study, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin. In addition, two different scenes of landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were used with the aid of ERDAS IMAGINE software and the GIS technique to prepare digital image classification of the study basin. Supervised classification for level I of USGS was conducted with band combination RGB/742 to prepare The Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) map. The LULC map illustrates that only five classes of land use can be identified these are: barren, agricultural, vegetation, urban and wet land or water body. The LULC map converted to LULC index map. This index map has an additional parameter added to the standard DRASTIC model to map the modified DRASTIC vulnerability in the study basin. Nitrate concentration analysis was selected and added as a pollution indicator to validate this modification. In this study, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells. The standard vulnerability map of the studied basin classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the combined modification classified the area into five classes: very low (1.17%), low (36.82%), moderate (17.57%), high (43.42%) and very high (1.02%). The results s that the modified DRASTIC model was dramatically superior to the standard model; therefore, the most appropriate method to apply is the combination of standard DRASTIC model with LULC index map. This conclusion is based on the results of nitrate content, as its concentration in the dry season is much lower than in the wet season.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Abdullah, Twana O.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE..
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Vulnerability of groundwater to pollution using three different models in Halabja Saidsadiq basin, Iraq2017Inngår i: European Water, ISSN 1105-7580, Vol. 57, s. 353-359Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Halabja Saidsadiq Basin (HSB) is one of a major basin of Iraq in terms of groundwater reservoirs. Intensive agricultural practices and economic revolution are widespread and located close to groundwater wells, which pose imminent threats to these resources. Therefore, the most effective and realistic solution is to prevent the contamination of groundwater through. The present study targets the computation of the vulnerability of groundwater reservoirs of the study area. Three methods have been examined, namely DRASTIC, VLDA and COP to model a map of groundwater vulnerability for contamination. The standard DRASTIC vulnerability maps classified the basin of four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). The VLDA model also classified the area into four categories as well: low (2%), moderate (44%), high (53%) and very high (1%). Four vulnerability classes were recognized based on COP model including very low, low, moderate and high vulnerability classes with coverage areas of (1%, 37%, 2% and 60%) respectively. After constructing every vulnerability map, it required to be confirmed in order to estimate the validity of the theoretical sympathetic of current hydrogeological conditions. In this study, nitrate concentration analysis was selected as a contamination indicator to validate the result. Considerable variations in nitrate concentration on dry to wet seasons had been renowned. Consequently, it points toward that groundwater in the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant due to suitability of overlies strata in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this confirmation, the result exemplifies that the degree and distribution of vulnerability classes acquired using VLDA model is more sensible.

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  • 44.
    Abdullah, Twana O.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin S.
    Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Magnitude and Direction of Groundwater Seepage Velocity in Different Soil and Rock Materials2020Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 242-253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand and anticipate flow in various groundwater media, the magnitude and direction of groundwater flow velocity must be deemed. The studied area which is called Halabja-Sadiq Basin is in the northeastern part of Iraq and covers an area of approximately 128,000 square hectometers. There are several groundwater aquifers in this region that supply nearly over 90% of all water needs. Subsequently, it is of highly requirement to identify various groundwater behaviors in the area. The objective of this study is to estimate the magnitude and direction of the groundwater seepage velocity with the aid of groundwater tool in Geographic Information System technology. Refer to the results of this analysis, the magnitude value of groundwater flow velocity ranged from 0 to 51 m/d, whilst the general flow movement is from the eastern part to the western part of the study area. The factor governing the direction of flow and velocity magnitude indicates the direction of dipping of the geological formation strata, the high head of groundwater in the eastern part, and the low transmissivity properties of aquifer materials in the western part.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Abdulrazzaq, Zaidoon Taha
    et al.
    Directorate of Space and Communications, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, 10070, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Aziz, Nadia Ahmed
    Directorate of Space and Communications, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, 10070, Iraq.
    Agbasi, Okechukwu Ebuka
    Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Department of Physics, Umudike, Nigeria.
    Etuk, Sunday Edet
    University of Uyo, Department of Physics, Uyo, Nigeria.
    Estimation of main aquifer parameters using geoelectric measurements to select the suitable wells locations in Bahr Al-Najaf depression, Iraq2020Inngår i: Groundwater for Sustainable Development, ISSN 2352-801X, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 100437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aquifer parameters like hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity are extremely important for the management and development of groundwater resources. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) techniques were adopted for geophysical investigation in Fadaq plantation area within Bahr Al-Najaf depression, Iraq. A total of 22 VES point distributed as a grid along six profiles in the plantation with half-current electrode spacing (AB/2) is 400 m are used to evaluate the aquifer geoelectric and hydraulic parameters, where six 2D ERI profiles were conducted and concatenated as one 2D ERI profile with a total length of 4525 m to verify the results of VES. The average formation factor of the aquifer is 22.33 with porosity and water saturation average of 22.62% and 0.59% respectively. Geoelectric and hydraulic parameters estimated values are; apparent resistivity 2.17–2.92 Ω, formation factor 6.23–31.18, porosity 17.91–40.06%, water saturation 0.18–0.85, longitudinal conductance 1.60–10.06 Ω-1, transverse resistance 3258–27200 Ωm2, hydraulic conductivity 0.62–0.68 m2/day and transmissivity 70.68–198.05 m2/day. The thickness and bulk resistivity vary between 112 and 320 m and 18–85 Ωm respectively. About 26% of the aquifer in the study area has an intermediate designation, while 73.91% of the aquifer has high designation. There is a linear relationship between transmissivity and water saturation. Based on designation, protective capacity, and groundwater supply potential VES 6C, VES 7A, VES 4C and VES 2E were recommended for new drilling sites.

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  • 46.
    Abdulwahd, Abdulrazaq K.
    et al.
    Technical Institute of Haweeja, Northern Technical University, Kirkuk, Iraq.
    Liejy, Mohammed Ch.
    Technical Institute of Haweeja, Northern Technical University, Kirkuk, Iraq.
    Sulaiman, Mohanad A.
    General Commission for Running/Irrigation and Drainage, Kirkuk Province, Ministry of Water Resources, Kirkuk, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Water Runoff Estimation Using Geographical Information System (GIS) for Alrakhmah Basin Valley Northeast of Iraq2020Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 315-324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of water resources in many regions is the main challenge for the human being and to extended investigations. Water resources controlling and management is essential in the areas depending on the seasonal rainfall. This research aims to estimate the surface water runoff for Basin of Alrakhmah Valley located in the southwestern part of Kirkuk Province in northeastern of Iraq. Analyzing of Spatial data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data has been conducted using Geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate the hydrological properties for the watershed valley with 158.5 km2 surface area. The results showed that watershed valley type is from the fifth rank with a longitudinal shape and topography percentage of 0.568. The watershed textures found to be 3.24 and the drain density 1.5 at 3.49 river branching. Finally, the annual estimated surface water retreat according to the morpho-hydro climatic elements found to be 0.01286233 milliard cubic meter.

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    fulltext
  • 47.
    Abed Hussain, Tariq
    et al.
    Civil Engineering Department, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Ismail, Mueyad M.
    Civil Engineering Department, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Simulation of the ground water flow in Karbala Governorate, Iraq2021Inngår i: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 80, s. 1-6, artikkel-id 182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation region is found in the central part of Iraq within the of Karbala Governorate, where it is located in thewestern part of the Governorate and Lake Razaza in the north of the region, while in the western and southern part of theregion is Anbar Governorate and geographically (43° 10′ 25.7″, 43° 39″ 0.3″) longitude and (32° 10′ 25.7″, 32° 36′ 25.7″)latitude. The area of study is about 2400 Km2.The groundwater modeling system (GMS) v10.3 program was used for themodeling of ground water in the area containing about 22 wells distributed throughout the study area and the discharge ofthese wells ranges from 7 to 100 l/s and the rate of discharge of these wells up to 36 l/s. The model was initially operatedwithin a steady state and after obtaining a match between the models results with the initial values of groundwater levels,the results of this case were adopted as inputs to run the model within the unsteady state. The model was worked within thesight of the above wells for 3 years and the results of the operation indicate a decrease in groundwater levels ranging from2 to 21 m distributed uniformly throughout the study area.

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    fulltext
  • 48.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    et al.
    Department of Environment, College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation of Water quality in the Tigris River within Baghdad, Iraq using Multivariate Statistical Techniques2019Inngår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 1294, artikkel-id 072025Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concentrated on the Tigris River water quality monitoring information. Some multivariate statistical techniques were applied like basic Ingredient (PC) test, discriminant analysis (DA), multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) to evaluate important parameters affecting water quality during year 2017-2018. The study included 25 water quality parameters, viz., Temperature (T), Potential of Hydrogen (pH), Turbidity (Tur), Total Alkaline (TA), Full rigidity (TH), Calcium (Ca+2), Chloride (Cl-1), Magnesium (Mg+2), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Sulfate (SO4-2), Total Solids (TS), Suspended Solids (SS), Iron (Fe+2), Fluoride (F-1), Aluminum (Al+3), Nitrite (NO2-1), Nitrate (NO3-1), Silica (SiO2), Phosphate (PO4-3), Ammonia (NH3), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Sodium (Na+1), and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). Generally, all the parameters were within the standards except Tur, TA, Ca+2, EC, SO4-2. The levels of Tur and EC are of critical factors influence upon the Tigris water quality. The PCA identified six principal components responsible for 78.12% of the variation caused by the industrial, domestic, municipal and agricultural runoff pollution sources. DA results produced the eight parameters; T, BOD5, EC, Mg+2, DO, Tur, Na+1, and COD as the most significant parameters differentiating the two parts of the year (the cold and warm seasons). The result of MLRA showed that BOD5, Na+1, T, DO, and PO4-3 are the important dependable factors for predicting the COD value as an indicator of organic and nonorganic pollution. This research demonstrated success importance utilizing Multivariate statistical methods like valuable instrument of administration, control, and preserve the water of the river.

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  • 49.
    Abed, Salwan Ali
    et al.
    College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq.
    Kadhum, Safaa A
    College of Science, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq .
    Ewaid, Salam Hussein
    Technical Institute of Shatra, Southern Technical University, Iraq .
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Bioaccumulation and health risk assessment of severe metal pollution of street dust from various urban regions in Baghdad, Iraq2020Inngår i: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 158, nr 1, s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study sought to define the metals bioaccumulation from street dust in Baghdad, Iraq for the first time. The samples were collected that research the levels, sources, and health hazard model Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu. The geo accumulation Index (Igeo) found that the contamination level for Cd was moderately to strongly polluted in Karada, Jihad and Kinidi streets. Hence, it is important to measure the level of cadmium in the local environment. The relative bioaccumulation of chromium was high in Jadriyah Street (87.2%). The PCA showed two major sources of these minerals in Baghdad road dust that Cd, Zn are likely to originate from tire wear, brake wear and vehicular emissions as well as the fact that Cr and Cu originate from metal-processing industries. Assessing hazard to human health utilized measure population show suggested both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic hazards minerals Baghdad road dust harmless to human environment.

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  • 50. Abitew, Aymiro
    et al.
    Zeinali, Amin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hydraulic conductivity of tailings deposit used as dam construction material at Aitik mine in Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity and their correlation to geotechnical parameters affecting the hydraulic conductivity of tailings deposit at Aitik mine have been determined. The investigation was carried out along three sections which cover approximately 3km2 of area and 4-5meters of thickness. 3-5 test pits have been excavated in each section and samples are collected from various levels. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity has been found to have a good relation with fraction of fine particles in the deposit and void ratio. However, similar to the results of Jantzer et al (2008) from the same mine, the vertical hydraulic conductivity did not correspond to void ratio. According to evaluation of existing empirical relations to estimate hydraulic conductivity from particle size analysis, Hazen formula (1911) gives 25 and 45 times the measured values of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity respectively. On the other hand, Chapuis et al (2003) has not been succeeded for prediction of hydraulic conductivity of undisturbed samples from the investigated area. However, it gives comparatively good prediction of hydraulic conductivity for disturbed samples which are compacted to their field dry density.

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