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  • 1.
    Bergman, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Livscykelanalys för grundläggning av byggnader: Användningen idag och hur metoden kan tillämpas i praktiken2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the building sector accounts for a large part of greenhouse gas emissions during the production ofbuilding materials and the use of construction machinery during the construction phase. The national goalis that Sweden, as a country, will be carbon neutral country in 2045. Based on this goal, Fossilfri Sverige,together with a large number of companies from the building and civil engineering sector, has developeda plan of action for the industry's climate neutrality. Foundations account for a significant part of the totalcarbon footprint of building and in order to reach the goal of a climate neutral Sweden in 2045, it isimportant that disciplines working with ground foundations, begin to develop and optimize foundationconstructions to reduce the carbon footprint.

    In this master thesis, an interview study has been conducted to map which aspects affect the choice offoundation methods today, based on the contractor and the consultant's perspective, and map how theseactors use life cycle assessment (LCA) in foundations of buildings. A case study has been conducted toinvestigate how life cycle assessment can be used to calculate and compare carbon footprint and primaryenergy use from two foundation methods, by using and evaluating two digital LCA tools.

    A literature study has been conducted to find knowledge about foundation of buildings and to create anunderstanding of the climate impact from the building sector and the climate requirements in the buildingindustry. The choice of the two digital LCA tools used in the case study and the creation of the interviewguide is based on the literature study. The interviews have been conducted with employers fromconsultant and contractors who have varied experience and knowledge about life cycle assessment offoundations. In addition, a case study has been conducted in which a comparative life cycle assessment isexecuted for two foundation methods, pile foundation and compensated foundation, by using two digitalLCA tools, Klimatkalkyl 6.0 and BM 1.0. The LCA study is based on the limitations of the tools, consideringonly the first part of the life cycle; the construction phase (module A1-A5). Klimatkalkyl 6.0 calculatescarbon footprint and the primary energy use, and BM 1.0 calculates carbon footprint.

    The results of the interviews indicate that founding methods are often selected based on economicaspects, but also on personal experience, geographical location and tradition. The respondents mentionthat when climate and environmental requirements occur in projects, they are often unclear and difficultto understand. The interview study indicates that the use of LCA is limited. According to the respondents,the use of LCA would increase by improved knowledge about the method, by simplifying the LCA modelbut above all if their clients clarified the climate requirements.

    In the case study, the two tools show different climate impacts for the respective foundation method anddiverse differences in the comparison of the two foundations. Both tools show that foundation with pilefoundation gives a lower climatic impact than compensated foundation, during the construction phase.The difference between the foundation methods is 2 or 5 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents dependingon the tools, which corresponds to approximately 13 and 23 percent, respectively. Both tools also showthat concrete, styrofoam and steel are the building components that carry the largest part of the totalclimate impact for each foundation method.

    None of the tools, Klimatkalkyl 6.0 or BM 1.0, are developed specifically for the foundation of buildings,and in both tools there are building components missing that are included in the foundation methodswhich are studied in the case study. The result report from the respective tools is also difficult to interpretand should be developed. In spite of this, the conclusion is that both tools can be used as an aid tocalculate and show which foundation option will generates the lowest carbon footprint.

    As the economic factors today affects the choice of foundation method, this parameter can be used as ameans of increasing work on climate-adapted solutions. Proposals for further studies are to establish arelationship between costs and climate impacts for foundations and to investigate how to implement andincrease the use of life cycle assessment on a design level.

  • 2.
    Fritiofsson, Louise
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Hållbar lösning för kortare typer av vägbroar: En analys av vanliga träkonstruktioner och befintliga broar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Jassim, Hassanean
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Determining the environmental impact of material hauling with wheel loaders during earthmoving operations2019In: Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, ISSN 1096-2247, E-ISSN 2162-2906, Vol. 69, no 10, p. 1195-1214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method has been developed to estimate the environmental impact of wheel loaders used in earthmoving operations. The impact is evaluated in terms of energy use and emissions of air pollutants (CO2, CO, NOx, CH4, VOC, and PM) based on the fuel consumption per cubic meter of hauled material. In addition, the effects of selected operational factors on emissions during earthmoving activities were investigated to provide better guidance for practitioners during the early planning stage of construction projects. The relationships between six independent parameters relating to wheel loaders and jobsite conditions (namely loader utilization rates, loading time, bucket payload, horsepower, load factor, and server capacity) were analyzed using artificial neural networks, machine performance data from manufacturer’s handbooks, and discrete event simulations of selected earthmoving scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that the load factor is the largest contributor to air pollutant emissions, and that the best way to minimize environmental impact is to maximize the wheel loaders’ effective utilization rates. The new method will enable planners and contractors to accurately assess the environmental impact of wheel loaders and/or hauling activities during earthmoving operations in the early stages of construction projects.

    Implications: There is an urgent need for effective ways of benchmarking and mitigating emissions due to construction operations, and particularly those due to construction equipment, during the pre-construction phase of construction projects. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are shown to be powerful tools for analyzing the complex relationships that determine the environmental impact of construction operations and for developing simple models that can be used in the early stages of project planning to select machine configurations and work plans that minimize emissions and energy consumption. Using such a model, it is shown that the fuel consumption and emissions of wheel loaders are primarily determined by their engine load, utilization rate, and bucket payload. Moreover, project planners can minimize the environmental impact of wheel loader operations by selecting work plans and equipment configurations that minimize wheel loaders’ idle time and avoid bucket payloads that exceed the upper limits specified by the equipment manufacturer.

  • 4.
    Jassim, Hassanean S. H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Artificial Neural Networks as a Technique in Construction Engineering and Management: Predicting Hourly Air Pollutant of Excavator in the Earthworks2018Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Johansson, Sanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Från Plan till Bygghandling och verklighet: Utvärdering av utförda miljöskyddsåtgärder inom projekt upphandlade av Trafikverket2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    PERFORMANCE VISUALIZATION OF URBAN SYSTEMS2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The planning, construction, management and use of our built environment are affected by diverse social, economic and environmental factors. Sustainable urban development is dependent on the understanding of the complex relations between the built environment, the social activities that take place over time and the interaction with the natural environment. The challenge to understand urban systems on both the local and global scale has inspired researchers and national agencies to develop sustainability indicators to support the planning, construction, management and use of the built environment. Access to open data of our built environment in national, regional and local databases opens new possibilities to generate models of our urban systems to facilitate visualization and analysis of indicators in order to enhance awareness of sustainability dimensions. Here spatial Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) technologies can be used in combination with Geographic Information system GIS to manage data sets from multiple sources in different formats. The purpose of this research is to investigate how spatial ETL technologies can be used to develop models in order to analyse and visualize the performance of urban systems. The applied method is grounded in system development and based on an abductive research approach that was repeated in six studies. Three of the studies deal with the relocation of Kiruna where models of the city was created and used to investigate the impact of mining subsidence on energy supply, infrastructure and buildings. The fourth case investigates the selection of insulation material on the embedded energy in a passive house in Kiruna. In the fifth case an urban model of the twin towns Malmberget/Gällivare was created to explore and relate data on attitudes from a survey to public data on population, infrastructure and built environment. The final case is the development of an energy atlas containing 90% of the multifamily building stock in Sweden. The atlas combines the energy performance and renovation status of multifamily buildings with public data of ownership, income of residents etc. for individual buildings in 3D models or aggregated on spatial scales ranging from 250x250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas in Sweden. The result shows that multiple sources in different formats, both standardized and non-standardized, can be utilized in the extraction of information for the purpose of developing urban performance models. The Swedish high-resolution LiDAR digital height model together property information makes it possible to represent the built environment by extruded footprints to give a 3D representation of all urban areas in Sweden (Level-Of-Detail 1). In combination with performance data (e.g. energy use, renovation status or result from surveys) urban performance GIS models can be created and visualized in applications (such as Google Earth, 3D pdf) to support decision-making on both individual and institutional level. The automation of the process to develop performance models offers a method for customizing information deliveries on the fly using original data sources according to defined requirements. The flexibility and customization are kept in the process rather than in the delivered model. This makes it easier to keep the performance model up to date. For the management of large performance models, e.g. the example of the national energy atlas, a staging phase was added in the automation process, in order to reduce the processing time.

  • 7.
    Lindberg, Frida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Användning av livscykelanalys för beslut vid nybyggnation av flerbostadshus?: En intervjustudie med fastighetsbolag verksamma i norr- och västerbotten2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for environmental and sustainability in the construction industry have increased as well as the awareness of how natural resources are used. This has made environmental issues more and more important (Swedish Construction Service, 2016a). The construction and real estate sector accounts for about 18 percent of Sweden's annual greenhouse gas emissions (Boverket, 2018b). In addition, Boverket (2017a) estimates that 600,000 new homes are needed till the year of 2025, this leads to emissions that are not negligible in a life-cycle perspective.

    The purpose of this thesis is to present if and how LCA (Life-cycle assessment) is currently used in decision making by builders, in this case real estate companies. The aim is to be able to present how LCA is used by builders active in the northen region of Sweden, why or why not LCA is used. The objective is also to present the pros and cons of using LCA in decision making when building multi-family houses.

    The work includes an interview study of seven real estate companies operating in the north of Sweden. The result obtained is a summary of the collected data from the interviews and the theory that exists in the subject.

    The study's conclusion is that there are currently few real estate companies in Norr- and Västerbotten, as well as throughout Sweden, using LCA. In this interview study, it is one real estate company that uses LCA. The real estate company uses LCA to develop its product and production and would like to be at the forefront of environmental issues. This real estate company only sees advantages of using LCA. And the literature study shows that the benefits are many, among other things, it shows where the biggest environmental impact is in a building's life cycle and can contribute to development.

     

    However, the incentive to use LCA is low. This is mainly due to the fact that knowledge about LCA within their own organization is low and many find it difficult to understand and implement LCA. These are also some of the disadvantages found in this study, LCA is time consuming and it is difficult to get reliable data. For those companies that do not use LCA, at the present time, there is a will to start using the tool if user friendliness is improved and the economic benefits can be demonstrated.

     

    All real estate companies interviewed are convinced that environmental issues will be increasingly important in the future and believe that LCA will be a part of achieving sustainable construction.

     

    Proposals for further studies are to map more real estate companies, such as real estate companies operating in major cities where more and larger construction projects occur. The real estate company that uses LCA is using industrial construction, it would have been interesting to study if LCA is easier to applicate to an industrial building concept.

  • 8.
    Lindberg, Jonathan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Brismo, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Moderna skolmiljöer: god tillgång till dagsljus genom tidig integrering av statiska, dynamiska och kvalitativa mätindikatorer: Ett gestaltningsförslag med lärdomar ur undersökningar av studieobjekt och dagsljussimuleringar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently more housing is being built than in the past 60 years.

    There are many challenges accompanied with the volume of housing that needs to be built. Many of the dwellings that are going to be built are placed in new densely planned urban areas, which imposes requirements for infrastructure investments, for example in the form of new schools.

    According to forecasts, the number of students in primary school will increase by 250,000 by the year 2025. This implies a need for approximately 1000 new schools in ten years. The need for new schools are long term and therefore the learning environments need to be designed to be long term.

    Daylight and view have a major impact on our work environment, performance and are necessary for our health. Studies have shown that daylight-lit school environments enhance the performance of the students. The building legislation regulates the required levels using the daylight factor metric. Since the 50’s the requirements of daylight levels in schools have been approximately halved from 2 % to 1,0 %. Today the daylight requirements are the same for classrooms as for bedrooms in dwellings.

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine modern school environments in relation to today's regulatory requirements for access to daylight. Furthermore, the work aims to produce good examples of daylight solutions that can be used when designing modern school environments against the regulatory requirements. To assess the daylight access in modern schools, a selection of three nursery schools and two primary schools in the vicinity of Stockholm were chosen. Case studies were conducted using the 3D modelling software, Rhinoceros 3D and the daylight factor was then simulated using the Grasshopper and Honeybee plug-ins. The schools were modelled according to the acquired drawings and daylight were performed using the simulation engine Radiance.

    The result from the daylight factor simulation show that none of the schools examined fully meet the requirements. The reasons why the examined schools do not meet the requirements vary between or constitute a combination of; room depth, window size, window façade, obstruction angles, obstructing components and shading devices. The study shows that rooms such as: common areas and study hall often lack windows towards the outside and therefore only gets borrowed light from other areas. These kinds of rooms are common when using progressive pedagogical approaches. Depending on the intended future use of the rooms, they may be classified in such a way that they need to fulfil the regulations regarding daylight.

    From the literature review it is understood that early integration of daylight design in the design process is necessary to ensure good accesses to daylight in learnings environments. As a part of the thesis project, a design proposal has been developed using a daylight design process. During the design process, the access to daylight has been iteratively simulated to motivate selected design choices and ensure a good daylight level.  For comparison and site-specific results, climate-based simulation methods have been used. The use of the Optimal Day-lit Area (ODA) metric measures the usefulness of the available daylight illumination intensity over a year. At the same time, ODA takes the eventual over lit areas that may cause overheating and glare into account. The presented design proposal demonstrates the use of an integrated daylight design process and its results. 

  • 9.
    Lundkvist Grönberg, Amanda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Materialinventering av byggnader inför rivning2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Shadram, Farshid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Assessment and optimization of life cycle enrgy use in buildings2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings account for 40% of all energy use in European countries. The European Union (EU) therefore encourages member states to adopt Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs) and implement energy-efficient practices during building design to minimize the energy use of buildings. However, recent studies have shown that energy-efficient buildings may not always outperform conventional buildings in terms of Life Cycle Energy (LCE) use. This is mainly due to the trade-off between embodied and operational energy, and a reliance on EEMs that reduce operational energy while sometimes increasing embodied energy and LCE use. To improve buildings’ environmental performance, the impact of different EEMs on buildings’ energy use needs to be assessed from a lifecycle perspective, and methods for identifying optimal combinations of EEMs that minimize LCE use should be developed. Ideally, these methods should be integrated with building information modelling (BIM) to enable seamless data exchange and to help Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) practitioners make optimal design decisions relating to EEMs. The work presented in this thesis had two overall objectives: (1) to explore the scope for developing BIM-supported method(s) for assessing and optimizing the impact of EEMs on buildings’ LCE use during the design process, and (2) use the BIM-supported method(s) for exploring the impact of various EEMs that are implemented and modified during the building design process on the buildings’ LCE use.

    The work presented in this thesis is based on an exploratory research design involving iterative cycles of (1) problem identification, (2) method development, (3) method examination, and (4) theory suggestion. In step 1, problems were identified by conducting literature studies and workshops with AEC practitioners, and analyzing archival data. In step 2, prototyping was used to develop methods to overcome the identified problems. In step 3, the applicability of these methods (or prototypes) was tested in case studies on actual and hypothetical building projects. Three case studies were conducted – one dealing with a low energy dwelling located in Kiruna, Sweden; another dealing with a multifamily residential building in Uppsala, Sweden; and a third dealing with a hypothetical multifamily residential building in Stockholm, Sweden. In step 4, the results were compared to existing theories to strengthen existing knowledge and identify previously unrecognized findings.

    In relation to the first objective, the results obtained show that the factors and activities required to develop BIM-supported method(s) for assessing and optimizing the impact of EEMs on a building’s LCE use during the design phase are:

    • A database that stores external and building project data (e.g. BIM data) and links it to be used for assessment and optimization, providing access to the data whenever needed.

    • The development of interfaces using middleware applications to ensure interoperability and seamless automated exchange of information between BIM and other systems.

    • Predefined objects (i.e. building part and component recipes) that are stored in a database and linked to inventories and Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) for the relevant materials, enabling assessment of the buildings’ embodied energy and LCE use.

    • The application of multi-objective optimization techniques (e.g. Pareto-based genetic algorithms) to identify optimal solution(s) for EEMs that minimize (optimize) the building’s LCE use.

    In relation to the second objective of the thesis, the results obtained indicate that:

    • EEMs that are implemented and modified during the detailed design phase have much less influence on the building’s LCE use than those implemented in the early design phase. Highly influential EEMs related to the early design phase which were tested herein were the building’s shape, orientation, Window to Wall Ratio (WWR), and the selection of materials used in the building envelope.

    • Generally, thickening roof insulation has a strong beneficial effect on LCE use for buildings in Sweden.

    • For buildings using energy sources with high primary energy factors, the most effective way to reduce LCE use may be to implement many EEMs that reduce operational energy use. However, this approach may be less helpful for buildings using greener energy sources because in such cases the embodied energy may have a greater effect on the final LCE use.

    • The embodied energies of materials in the same class can vary significantly between suppliers. Such differences in embodied energy can be identified by considering the suppliers’ EPDs, the energetic contributions due to their mode of transportation from the site of production, and the distance between the site of production and the construction site.

    • If the developed optimization approach is used to identify optimal combinations of EEMs in the early design phase, designers can freely choose from a wide range of building shapes without greatly affecting LCE use. However, without early phase optimization, designs that use different building shapes may exhibit significantly different LCE use values.

    The results provide both theoretical and practical contributions that may be useful to researchers and AEC practitioners seeking to develop BIM-supported design processes and to reduce buildings’ LCE use by adopting appropriate EEMs. The results also show that embodied energy can be a major component of a building’s LCE use if the building’s design relies heavily on EEMs designed solely to reduce operational energy use. Policy makers and governmental bodies are thus advised to update regulations and building codes to reflect the importance of embodied energy so as to minimize the LCE use of new and retrofitting building projects.

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