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  • 1.
    A. Oliveira, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    S. Salles, Rafael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Deep Learning for Power Quality with Special Reference to Unsupervised Learning2023In: 27th International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2023), IEEE, 2023, p. 935-939, article id 10417Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Aamir, Muhammad Haseeb
    et al.
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Gonçalves, Pedro Pereira
    Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile.
    Otsuki, Akira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile; Neutron Beam Technology Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
    Complementary results of non-destructive elemental assay and liberation analysis of waste printed circuit boards2024In: Non-Destructive Material Characterization Methods / [ed] Otsuki, Akira; Jose, Seiko; Mohan, Manasa; Thomas, Sabu, Elsevier , 2024, p. 767-782Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Aasa, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Linear-Quadratic Regulation of ComputerRoom Air Conditioners2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Data centers operations are notoriously energy-hungry, with the computing and cooling infrastructures drawing comparable amount of electrical power to operate. A direction to improve their efciency is to optimizethe cooling, in the sense of implementing cooling infrastructures controlschemes that avoid performing over-cooling of the servers.Towards this direction, this work investigates minimum cost linearquadratic control strategies for the problem of managing air cooled datacenters. We derive a physical and a black box model for a general datacenter, identify this model from real data, and then derive, present andtest in the eld a model based Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) strategy that sets the optimal coolant temperature for each individual coolingunit. To validate the approach we compare the eld tests from the LQR strategy against classical Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controlstrategies, and show through our experiments that it is possible to reducethe energy consumption with respect to the existing practices by severalpoints percent without harming the servers within the data center fromthermal perspectives.

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  • 4.
    Abid, Fahim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Intermodulation due to interaction of photovoltaic inverter and electric vehicle at supraharmonic range2016In: 2016 17th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, Piscataway. NJ, 2016, p. 685-690, article id 7783471Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advent of power electronic switching is introducing more and more non-linear loads in the low voltage grid. Besides harmonic current generation in the frequency range below 2 kHz, these non-linear loads are also responsible for current emission in the range of 2 kHz to 150 kHz, commonly known as supraharmonic emission. Supraharmonic currents mainly flow between nearby appliances and heavily influence the overall emission of neighboring devices. This paper presents an analysis of supraharmonic interaction between a photovoltaic inverter and an electric vehicle. It has been noticed that intermodulation distortion arises as a result of interaction between different switching frequencies used by the devices. Later, additional household equipment were added to photovoltaic and electric vehicle to observe their effect on intermodulation distortion. All the measurements were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment imitating a domestic customer.

  • 5.
    Abolmasoumi, Amirhossein
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University.
    Sayyaddelshad, Saleh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Observer design for a class of nonlinear delayed systems with unknown inputs and Markovian jump parameters2012In: ICCAS 2012: 12th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, 2012, p. 1848-1852Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of full-order observer design for a class of delayed nonlinear systems with unknown inputs and Markovian jumping parameters is considered. The design method is formulated as solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMI's). Extending the results of nonlinear observer design to Markovian jump systems with time-varying delays is the main advantages of this paper. The sufficient LMI conditions are dependent on both the upper and lower bounds of delay. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown via an illustrative example.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    AC cables strengthening low frequency AC railway with purely active power loads2018In: 2018 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), IEEE, 2018, , p. 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Converter-fed railway power systems traditionally use high voltage AC overhead transmission lines in the railway grid for increased loadability. An increased resistance to overhead high voltage AC transmission lines, may motivate cables as one alternative for the future. The focus of this paper is to compare a non-strengthened system with two cable solutions for comparing loadability, voltages, and reactive powers for different levels of load scaling. The studies confirmed that the obstacle of reactive power produced in lowly utilized cables is, even if less significant for low frequency AC, still present. A simplified load model is used representing trains with VSC-converters and three-phase motors as purely active loads regardless of motoring or regenerating. A previous study has been done on thyristor-based trains. The voltage levels while regenerating are higher than in the thyristor-train case study. Besides that the loadability for motoring and regenerating is higher with modern VSC-trains.

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  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    AC cables strengthening railway low frequency AC power supply systems: a deepened study2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n railway power supply systems using ACfrequencies lower than the public grids of 50/60 Hz,high voltage AC overhead transmission lines in railwaygrid frequency are used as one measure of strengthen-ing the systems. An increased resistance to overheadhigh voltage AC transmission lines, may motivate ca-bles for future railway power systems.With the frequency of 50/60 Hz, reactive powerproduced in lowly utilized cables imposes an obstacle.For low frequency AC, this issue is less significant.Moreover, in converter-fed railways, no reactive powerwill leak into the feeding public grid.This paper studies AC cables in low-frequency ACrailway. Two reinforcement cable solutions are com-pared with no reinforcement. A simplified load model oftrains, with thyristor bridges and DC motors, is used

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  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Administrativ bilaga till Slutrapport2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Considering risks in power system operationand the consequences of different acceptedrisk levels2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Optimal drift och dimensionering avbanmatningssystem: Slutrapport Elektraprojekt2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Risker i drift av elkraftsystem och konsekvenser av olika accepterade risknivåer: Svensk kortversion2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Slutrapport2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Belea, Radu
    Atkins Sverige AB, Kopparbergsvägen 8, Västerås, 72213, Sweden.
    Klerfors, Bertil
    Chalmers Technical University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schütte, Thorsten
    STRI AB, Ingenjör Bââths gata 11, Plan E, Västerås, 72212, Sweden.
    Modern methods for balancing of single phase loads when feeding a.c. Electrified railways2017In: Eb - Elektrische Bahnen, ISSN 0013-5437, Vol. 115, no 6-7, p. 378-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional compensation circuits for phase balancing of single phase AC railways for 50 or 60 Hz have high cost for the associated transformers. A new version of the classical Steinmetz scheme, using three single phase transformers connected as a W with the phase angles -60°, 0° and +60°, can reuse the two standard single phase transformers of a V-connected feeding station with a third identical transformer added. Power factor compensation can easily be included. For neutral sections between different feeding systems, a neutral section converter is proposed.

  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Belea, Radu
    Transilvania University, Kopparbergsvagen 8, Vasteras, Brasov, 72213, Romania.
    Klerfors, Bertil
    Chalmers Technical University, Hockeygatan 5, Vasteras, Gothenburg, 72240, Sweden.
    Schütte, Thorsten
    Kiel and Uppsala Universities, Ingenjor Baaths gata 11, Vasteras, 72212, Sweden.
    Warner, Bruce
    University of Cape Town, ABB Switzerland Ltd, Bruggerstr. 72, Baden, 5400, Switzerland.
    Modern methods for balancing of single phase loads when feeding a.c. Electrified railways2017In: Eb - Elektrische Bahnen, ISSN 0013-5437, Vol. 115, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional compensation circuits for phase balancing of single phase AC railways for 50 or 60 Hz have high cost for the associated transformers. A new version of the classical Steinmetz scheme, using three single phase transformers connected as a W with the phase angles -60°, 0° and +60°, can reuse the two standard single phase transformers of a V-connected feeding station with a third identical transformer added. Power factor compensation can easily be included. For neutral sections between different feeding systems, a neutral section converter is proposed.

  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Laury, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Evaluating a constant-current load model through comparative transient stability case-studies of a synchronous-synchronous rotary frequency converter-fed railway2019In: 2019 Joint Rail Conference, ASME Press, 2019, article id V001T09A003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper continues the pursuit of getting a deeper understanding regarding the transient stability of low-frequency AC railway power systems operated at 16 2/3 Hz synchronously to the public grid. The focus is set on the impact of different load models. A simple constant-current load model is proposed and compared to a previously proposed and studied load model in which the train’s active power is regulated.

    The study and comparison is made on exactly the same cases as and grid as with the already proposed and more advanced load model. The railway grid is equipped with a low-frequency AC high-voltage transmission line which is subjected to a fault. The study is limited to railways being fed by different distributions of RFC (Rotary Frequency Converter) types. Both AT (auto transformer) and BT (booster transformer) catenaries are considered.

    The RFC dynamic models are essentially Anderson-Fouad models of two synchronous machines coupled mechanically by their rotors being connected to the same shaft.

    The differences in load behaviour between the proposed constant-current load model and the previously proposed and studied voltage-dependent active power load model are analyzed and described in the paper.

  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Laury, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Further studies on the transient stability of synchronous-synchronous rotary frequency converter fed railways with low-frequency AC high-voltage transmission2018In: International Journal of Energy Production and Management, ISSN 2056-3272, E-ISSN 2056-3280, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 266-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper continues the pursuit of getting a deeper understanding regarding the transient stability of low-frequency AC railway power systems operated at 16 2/3 Hz that are synchronously connected to the public grid. Here, the focus is set on such grids with a low-frequency AC high-voltage transmission line subject to a fault. The study here is limited to railways being fed by different distributions of Rotary Frequency Converter (RFC) types. Both auto transformer (AT) and booster transformer (BT) catenaries are considered. No mixed model configurations in the converter stations (CSs) are considered in this study. Therefore, only interactions between RFCs in different CSs and between RFCs, the fault, and the load can take place in this study. The RFC dynamic models are essentially two Anderson-Fouad models of synchronous machines coupled mechanically by their rotors being connected to the same mechani- cal shaft. Besides the new cases studied, also a new voltage-dependent active power load model is presented and used in this study.

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Serrano Jimenez, Daniel
    University Carlos III.
    Laury, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    AC cables strengthening railway low frequency AC power supplysystems2017In: ASME/IEEE 2017 Joint Rail Conference, ASME Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In present-day railway power supply systems using an AC frequency lower than the one in the public power system of 50/60 Hz, high voltage overhead transmission lines are used as one measure of strengthening the railway power supply system grids. This option may be economically beneficial, compared to strengthening the grid purely by increasing the density of converter stations or increasing the cross section areas of the overhead catenary wires. High voltage AC transmission lines in the railway power supply system allow larger distances between converter stations than would otherwise be possible for a given amount of train traffic. Moreover, the introduction of AC transmission lines implies reduced line losses and reduced voltage level fluctuations at the catenary for a given amount of train traffic. However, due to the increased public and government resistance for additional overhead high voltage AC transmission lines in general, different alternatives will be needed for the future improvements and strengthening of railway power systems. For a more sustainable transport sector, the share and amount of railway traffic needs to increase, in which case such a strengthening becomes inevitable. Earlier, usage of VSC-HVDC transmission cables has been proposed as one alternative to overhead AC transmission lines. One of the main benefits with VSC-HVDC transmission is that control of power flows in the railway power systems is easier and that less converter capacity may be needed. Technically, VSC-HVDC transmission for railway power systems is a competitive solution as it offers a large variety of control options. However, there might be other more economical alternatives reducing the overall impedance in the railway power system. In public power systems with the frequency of 50/60 Hz, an excess of reactive power production in lowly utilized cables imposes an obstacle in replacing overhead transmission lines with cables. In low frequency AC railway power system, the capacitive properties are less significant allowing longer cables compared to 50/60 Hz power systems. Moreover, in converter-fed railways, some kind of reactive compensation will automatically be applied during low-load. At each converter station, voltage control is already present following the railway operation tradition. Therefore, in this paper, we propose AC cables as a measure of strengthening low-frequency AC railway power systems. The paper compares the electrical performances of two alternative reinforcement cable solutions with the base case of no reinforcement. The options of disconnecting or toggling the cables at low load as well as the automatic reactive compensation by converter voltage control are considered. Losses and voltage levels are compared for the different solutions. Investment costs and other relevant issues are discussed.

  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Positionering av last hos gantrykranar via direktverkan på last1988Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    An SBU fully additive production approach for Board-level Electronics Packaging (SBU-CBM Method)2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide electronics market is focusing on developing innovative technologies that can lead to denser, more resilient, and tighter board-level integration. The consumer electronics market is trending toward miniaturization, with HDI-PCBs dominating. Electronics shrinking and scaling technology is the prime concern of all manufacturers. The PCBA industry is transforming its production practices which can reduce the solder joints, limit the usage of discrete and bulky components, reduce the packaging factor of printed boards by accommodating the maximum number of ICs, minimize the assembly span, optimize the latency, and so on. However, developments in production processes in the PCB manufacturing industry need more attention than those in  Silicon-based (ICs) fabrications. One of the issues in PCB fabrication is utilizing conventional metallization approaches. The majority of manufacturers continue to use standard Copper(Cu) laminates on the base substrate and lithography methods to shape the structures.In recent manufacturing technologies, semi-Additive process (SAP) or modified-SAP (mSAP) methods are being adopted to replace traditional subtractive print-and-etch procedures. To scale down the Lines and Spaces (L\&S) on PCBs comparable to that of IC-level, most smartphone makers use Substrate-like PCB (SLP) using mSAP methods. However, subtractive patterning has been used in the intermediate stages of fabrication in those methods. This thesis demonstrates a fully additive selective metallization-based production approach to bridge this technology gap between IC-level and board-level fabrications. The fabrication process has given the name 'Sequential Build-Up Covalent Bonded Metallisation' (SBU-CBM) method.

    This dissertation presents a new approach to Cu metallization using a significant step reducing-pattern-transfer process. The patterning method activates a seed layer of CBM polymer chains on a polymer surface with optimal UV-Laser settings. This surface modification enables a strong Copper (Cu) bonding onto the modified surface by Cu-plating. The suggested approach generated a 2.5D surface pattern using a micrometer via laser ablation and subsequent sub-micrometer laser lithography. Furthermore, the surface characterization of each step involved in the fabrication process is analysed and presented to show the sequential growth of layers on top of each other. To investigate the mechanism of the process at the interfaces, characterizations such as EDS, SEM, and XRD characterizations were performed. This PCB manufacturing method can selectively add metallic layers to the finest feature sizes at considerably lower temperatures. Overall, the thesis has addressed two critical aspects i.e. miniaturization of interconnects at board-level and the feasibility of a fully-additive production approach for electronics packaging.

    First, a subtractive method is shown to achieve Copper interconnects with feature size 3.0$\mu$m. This miniaturization corresponds to 70\% reduction in the feature size from 20 $\mu$m to 3 $\mu$m. Next, the proposed additive production process has produced Cu interconnects with feature sizes of 2.5 $\mu$m L\&S and via of diameter 10 $\mu$m. The scaling of the interconnects was achieved by optimizing the process parameters involved in the proposed fabrication recipe.

    Second, the sequential build-up (SBU) procedure is adopted to realize the embedded passives with the minimum possible feature size ($<$ 10 $\mu$m). An embedded capacitor and a planar inductor were fabricated. The proposed method can be employed to achieve any desirable pattern on FR-4, and a few of them are shown in the thesis. This additive technique can further be investigated through electrical and reliability assessment to make it an industrially accepted method.

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  • 20.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    An Additive Production approach for Microvias and Multilayered polymer substrate patterning of 2.5μm feature sizes2020In: IEEE 70th Electronic Components and Technology Conference: ECTC 2020, IEEE, 2020, p. 1304-1308Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer electronics market is escalating towards the miniaturization and the use of HDI-PCBs is dominating. Thus, the production technologies are adapting the Semi-Additive process (SAP) or modified-SAP (mSAP) methods over conventional subtractive print-and-etch methods. Most of the Smartphone manufacturers are using Substrate-like PCB (SLP) with mSAP techniques to scale down the Lines and Spaces (L&S) on PCBs equivalent to ICs. However, those processes still involve subtractive patterning in the intermediate stages of fabrication. In this paper, a fully additive multi-layer patterning process using an electroless copper plating has been investigated. This patterning process is based on modifying a polymer surface by activating a seed layer of grafting polymer chains on it using optimized UV-Laser parameters. This surface modification enables a strong bonding of Copper (Cu) onto the modified surface by Cu-plating. Using a micrometer via laser ablation and subsequent sub-micrometer laser lithography a 2.5D surface pattern has been achieved with the proposed technique.So far, using the proposed additive production process the feature sizes of 2.5 μm L&S and via of diameter 10 μm have been achieved.The via ablation and pattering were done by using 266nm and 375nm laser sources respectively.The substrates used are standard FR4 material and a layer of polyurethane of thickness 35μm coated on top of it. Analysis of the process parameters and their optimization has been done by factorial design method using Design Expert 12.0 software to show their contribution and significance in the production process.

  • 21.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. Department of Information Technology & Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Fabrication Process for On-Board Geometries Using a Polymer Composite-Based Selective Metallization for Next-Generation Electronics Packaging2021In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 1634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in production techniques in PCB manufacturing industries are still required as compared to silicon-ICs fabrications. One of the concerned areas in PCBs fabrication is the use of conventional methodologies for metallization. Most of the manufacturers are still using the traditional Copper (Cu) laminates on the base substrate and patterning the structures using lithography processes. As a result, significant amounts of metallic parts are etched away during any mass production process, causing unnecessary disposables leading to pollution. In this work, a new approach for Cu metallization is demonstrated with considerable step-reducing pattern-transfer mechanism. In the fabrication steps, a seed layer of covalent bonded metallization (CBM) chemistry on top of a dielectric epoxy resin is polymerized using actinic radiation intensity of a 375 nm UV laser source. The proposed method is capable of patterning any desirable geometries using the above-mentioned surface modification followed by metallization. To metallize the patterns, a proprietary electroless bath has been used. The metallic layer grows only on the selective polymer-activated locations and thus is called selective metallization. The highlight of this production technique is its occurrence at a low temperature (20–45 °C). In this paper, FR-4 as a base substrate and polyurethane (PU) as epoxy resin were used to achieve various geometries, useful in electronics packaging. In addition, analysis of the process parameters and some challenges witnessed during the process development are also outlined. As a use case, a planar inductor is fabricated to demonstrate the application of the proposed technique.

  • 22.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Realization of Embedded Passives using an additive Covalent bonded metallization approach2019In: 2019 22nd European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference & Exhibition (EMPC): Technical Papers, IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Miniaturization is the call of the day. Electronics shrinking and scaling technology is the priority of all manufacturers. PCBA Industry is working towards the elimination of solder joints, reduction in use of discrete and bulky components, lowering of assemble span, minimized latency etc. Embedded passive technology is playing a significant role in this roadmap by providing better signal performance, reduced parasitic and crosstalk. In this work, the primary focus is to develop a cost-efficient and flexible fabrication methodology that will be suitable for bulk production. A sequential build up (SBU) procedure is adopted with an additive lithography process to realize the passives with minimum possible feature size (<; 10 μm). A low cost insulating material, promising grafting solution and Laser assisted writing machine with optimized fabrication parameters are the highlights of this production method. A Computer Aided Design (CAD) software i.e. clewin is used during this process to pattern the mask for the entire process. Covalent bonded metallization (CBM) is the key process for the adhesion of copper layer on the desired site of the pattern. In the CBM process, a polymer surface is modified by grafting. The position of the surface modification is optically defined using a laser lithography system. Such surface modified samples are, then treated in an electroless copper process. Resulting in copper metallization only at the locations with a CBM modified surface. The verification of the copper deposition on the substrate is investigated using a high-resolution microscope followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The confirmation of passive formation has been checked using kethley's source (electrical two-probe measurement). The first-order measured results showed the capacitance formed in the range of 0.3-8 pF. Further concrete measurements using standard methods are undergoing. One of the key advantage of this proposed process is its easiness and feasibility of at room temperature.

  • 23.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Scalability of Copper-Interconnects down to 3μm on Printed Boards by Laser-assisted-subtractive process2019In: Proceedings of: 2019 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac), IEEE, 2019, p. 206-209Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As per the latest roadmap of iNEMI, the global electronics market is emphasizing to identify disruptive technologies that can contribute towards denser, robust and tighter integration on the board level. Therefore, reduction in packaging factor of printed board can accommodate greater number of ICs to support miniaturization. This paper has shown an experimental method to pattern the metallic layer on a Printed circuit Board (PCB) to the smallest feature size. To investigate this, a commercially available FR-4 PCB with photosensitive material coat and a Copper (Cu) layer on it, is used. A reverse-mode Laser assisted writing is implemented to pattern the desired copper tracks. Soon after, a well-controlled development and chemical etching of the Laser-activated regions are done using Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by an aqueous solution of Sodium Persulfate. Current PCB interconnects used by the industries are of the order (~20 μm). Whereas the present work is a contribution towards achieving Copper interconnects with feature size 3.0μm. This miniaturization corresponds to 70% reduction in the feature size from 20 μm to 3μm. The natural adhesion of the Cu layer has remained intact even after the etching, shows the efficiency of the method adopted. Also, variation in the parameters such as etching time, etchant solution concentrations, temaperature, gain and exposure time of Laser beam and their corresponding effects are discussed. Other highlights of this subtractive method includes its cost-efficiency, lesser production time and repeatability.

  • 24.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    et al.
    STRI AB, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    Falbygdens Energi AB, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    STRI, Sweden.
    Regulatory Aspects of Energy Storage in Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Adaldo, Antonio
    et al.
    Department of Automatic Control, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Mansouri, Sina Sharif
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Kanellakis, Christoforos
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    Department of Automatic Control, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    Department of Automatic Control, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Cooperative coverage for surveillance of 3D structures2017In: IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1838-1845, article id 8205999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we propose a planning algorithm for coverage of complex structures with a network of robotic sensing agents, with multi-robot surveillance missions as our main motivating application. The sensors are deployed to monitor the external surface of a 3D structure. The algorithm controls the motion of each sensor so that a measure of the collective coverage attained by the network is nondecreasing, while the sensors converge to an equilibrium configuration. A modified version of the algorithm is also provided to introduce collision avoidance properties. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated in a simulation and validated experimentally by executing the planned paths on an aerial robot.

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  • 26.
    Adewumi, Oluwatosin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Liwicki, Foteini
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Vector Representations of Idioms in Conversational Systems2022In: Sci, E-ISSN 2413-4155, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we demonstrate that an open-domain conversational system trained on idioms or figurative language generates more fitting responses to prompts containing idioms. Idioms are a part of everyday speech in many languages and across many cultures, but they pose a great challenge for many natural language processing (NLP) systems that involve tasks such as information retrieval (IR), machine translation (MT), and conversational artificial intelligence (AI). We utilized the Potential Idiomatic Expression (PIE)-English idiom corpus for the two tasks that we investigated: classification and conversation generation. We achieved a state-of-the-art (SoTA) result of a 98% macro F1 score on the classification task by using the SoTA T5 model. We experimented with three instances of the SoTA dialogue model—the Dialogue Generative Pre-trained Transformer (DialoGPT)—for conversation generation. Their performances were evaluated by using the automatic metric, perplexity, and a human evaluation. The results showed that the model trained on the idiom corpus generated more fitting responses to prompts containing idioms 71.9% of the time in comparison with a similar model that was not trained on the idiom corpus. We have contributed the model checkpoint/demo/code to the HuggingFace hub for public access.

  • 27.
    Adewumi, Tosin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Alkhaled, Lama
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mokayed, Hamam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Liwicki, Foteini
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    ML_LTU at SemEval-2022 Task 4: T5 Towards Identifying Patronizingand Condescending Language2022In: Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022) / [ed] Guy Emerson, Natalie Schluter, Gabriel Stanovsky, Ritesh Kumar, Alexis Palmer, Nathan Schneider, Siddharth Singh, Shyam Ratan, Association for Computational Linguistics , 2022, p. 473-478Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the system used by the Machine Learning Group of LTU in subtask 1 of the SemEval-2022 Task 4: Patronizing and Condescending Language (PCL) Detection. Our system consists of finetuning a pretrained text-to-text transfer transformer (T5) and innovatively reducing its out-of-class predictions. The main contributions of this paper are 1) the description of the implementation details of the T5 model we used, 2) analysis of the successes & struggles of the model in this task, and 3) ablation studies beyond the official submission to ascertain the relative importance of data split. Our model achieves an F1 score of 0.5452 on the official test set.

  • 28.
    Adjrad, M.
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Aguado, L.E.
    Advanced Digital Institute.
    Daly, M.
    University of Leeds.
    Kemp, A.
    University of Leeds.
    Junered, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindström, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Akos, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mangin, F.
    France Developpement Conseil.
    Interference monitoring for GNSS bands in indoor and urban environments2007In: Proceedings of the 20th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation: ION GNSS 2007, Institute of Navigation, The , 2007, Vol. 4, p. 1211-1220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A collaborative research project between the University of Leeds and Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, has taken place aiming to characterize the man-made noise in urban and indoor environments in the Galileo allocated frequency bands: E5 (1191.795 ± 25.575 MHz), E6 (1278.75 ± 20 MHz), and L1 (1575.42 ± 16 MHz), obviously, also covering the GPS L1 and L5 bands. This project has been co-funded by the European GNSS Supervisory Authority (EGSA), with funding from the 6th Framework Program of the European Community for research and technological development. The project includes the development of two receiver systems: the first instrument is based on the use of a spectrum analyzer (SA-based instrument), a wideband GNSS antenna, and a front-end capable of capturing each Galileo band separately using appropriate filtering and switches. The second instrument addresses the issues of cost and portability, providing interference detection and alarm triggering without the need for complex instrument. This is accomplished using low cost components in a small form factor where the instrument is based on a core GNSS front-end. This instrument will only cover the L1/E1 band. The interference measurement is obtained by combining the information from the automatic gain control (AGC) voltage that controls the AGC amplifier gain and the spectrum analysis of the analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) output raw data. The AGC information will be very important for detecting the presence of wideband interference signals where this will be difficult using spectrum analysis (in contrast to the case to narrowband interference signals). Control and data logging from both instruments are performed using a laptop computer where the spectrum analyzer traces and the FE-based instrument data are recorded for offline analysis via a suite of MATLAB® scripts. This paper describes the spectrum survey conducted at various indoor and urban locations, operationally significant to GNSS, in the North of the UK. The survey sites were selected to obtain geographically diverse measurement results and provide a general representation of the spectral environment. In addition, the temporal variation of man-made noise (MMN) is considered, this latter being correlated with the human activity at the measurement site, by performing the measurements day and night, weekdays and weekends.

  • 29.
    Adolfsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Ericsson, Klas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Grennberg, Anders
    Automatic detection of burn-through in GMA welding using a parametric model1996In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 633-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of automatic detection of burn-through in weld joints. Gas metal arc (GMA) welding with pulsed current is used, and welding voltage and current are recorded. As short-circuitings are common between the welding electrode and the work piece during burn-through, a short-circuit detector is developed to detect these events. To detect another specific characteristic of burn-through - this detector is combined with a square-law detector. This second detector is based on a non-linear modification of an autoregressive model with extra input (ARX-model) of the welding process. The results obtained from this compound detector indicate that it is possible to detect burn-through in the welds automatically. The work also indicates that it is possible to design an on-line monitoring system for robotic GMA welding.

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  • 30.
    Adrielsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Zedboard based platform for condition monitoring and control experiments2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New methods for monitoring the condition of roller element bearings in rotating machinery offer possibilities to reduce repair- and maintenance costs, and reduced use of environmentally harmful lubricants. One such method is sparse representation of vibration signals using matching pursuit with dictionary learning, which so far has been tested on PCs with data from controlled tests. Further testing requires a platform capable of signal processing and control in more realistic experiments. This thesis focuses on the integration of a hybrid CPU-FPGA hardware system with a 16-bit analog-to-digital converter and an oil pump, granting the possibility of collecting real-time data, executing the algorithm in closed loop and supplying lubrication to the machine under test, if need be. The aforementioned algorithm is implemented in a Zynq-7000 System-on-Chip and the analog-to-digital converter as well as the pump motor controller are integrated. This platform enables portable operation of the matching pursuit with dictionary learning in the field under a larger variety of environmental and operational conditions, conditions which might prove difficult to reproduce in a laboratory setup. The platform developed throughout this project can collect data using the analog-to-digital converter and operations can be performed on that data in both the CPU and the FPGA. A test of the system function at a sampling rate of 5 kHz is presented and the input and output are verified to function correctly.

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  • 31.
    Agrianidis, Anastasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Information Security Training and Serious Games2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digital transformation of the 21st century has led to a series of new possibilities and challenges, where one major concern of many major organizations and enterprises is promoting Information Security Awareness and Training (ISAT) for their employees. This aspect of Information Security (IS) can promote cybersecurity in the work environment against threats related to the human factor. Apart from traditional methods as workshops and seminars, researchers study the effect of gamification on ISAT, by proposing customized digital games to train employees regardless their IT skills. This thesis is trying to propose what techniques and approaches can be considered to train people throughout a full threat progression by studying the features of previous efforts. For this purpose, a literature study based on the principles of a systematic literature review (SLR) is essential to gather the available data and review their characteristics. More specifically, the solutions of the researchers are analyzed against the seven steps of the Lockheed Martin Cyber Kill Chain (LM CKC), where each game is classified to one or more phases, according to the training they offer. Thus, some tools can provide a wide range of training, covering many aspects of the CKC, while others are targeting a specific IS topic. The results also suggest that popular attacks involving social engineering, phishing, password and anti-malware software are addressed by many games, mainly in the early stages of the CKC and are focus on trainees without professional IT background. On the other hand, in the last two phases of the CKC, the majority of categorized games involves countermeasures that IS specialists must launch to prevent the security breach. Therefore, this study offers insight on the characteristics of serious games, which can influence an ISAT program, tailored to the enterprise’s distinct IS issue(s) and the IT background of the trainees.

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  • 32.
    Agües Paszkowsky, Núria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. Research Institutes of Sweden, Unit for Data Center Systems and Applied Data Science, Sweden.
    Brännvall, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. Research Institutes of Sweden, Unit for Data Center Systems and Applied Data Science, Sweden.
    Carlstedt, Johan
    Research Institutes of Sweden, Unit for Data Center Systems and Applied Data Science, Sweden.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Kovács, György
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Vegetation and Drought Trends in Sweden’s Mälardalen Region – Year-on-Year Comparison by Gaussian Process Regression2020In: 2020 Swedish Workshop on Data Science (SweDS), IEEE, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes analytical work carried out in a pilot project for the Swedish Space Data Lab (SSDL), which focused on monitoring drought in the Mälardalen region in central Sweden. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Moisture Stress Index (MSI) – commonly used to analyse drought – are estimated from Sentinel 2 satellite data and averaged over a selection of seven grassland areas of interest. To derive a complete time-series over a season that interpolates over days with missing data, we use Gaussian Process Regression, a technique from multivariate Bayesian analysis. The analysis show significant differences at 95% confidence for five out of seven areas when comparing the peak drought period in the dry year 2018 compared to the corresponding period in 2019. A cross-validation analysis indicates that the model parameter estimates are robust for temporal covariance structure (while inconclusive for the spatial dimensions). There were no signs of over-fitting when comparing in-sample and out-of-sample RMSE.

  • 33. Ahmad, Riaz
    et al.
    Afzal, Muhammad Zeshan
    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal
    Liwicki, Marcus
    DFKI Kaiserslautern, Germany .
    Breuel, Thomas
    Scale and Rotation Invariant OCR for Pashto Cursive Script using MDLSTM Network2015In: 13th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, IEEE , 2015, p. 1101-1105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of cursive scripts like Pashto and Urdu is difficult due the presence of complex ligatures and connected writing styles. In this paper, we evaluate and compare different approaches for the recognition of such complex ligatures. The approaches include Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) network and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). Current state of the art in cursive script assumes constant scale without any rotation, while real world data contain rotation and scale variations. This research aims to evaluate the performance of sequence classifiers like HMM and LSTM and compare their performance with descriptor based classifier like SIFT. In addition, we also assess the performance of these methods against the scale and rotation variations in cursive script ligatures. Moreover, we introduce a database of 480,000 images containing 1000 unique ligatures or sub-words of Pashto. In this database, each ligature has 40 scale and 12 rotation variations. The evaluation results show a significantly improved performance of LSTM over HMM and traditional feature extraction technique such as SIFT. Keywords.

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  • 34.
    Ahmad, Riaz
    et al.
    DFKI, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Afzal, Muhammad Zeshan
    DFKI, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal
    DFKI, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    University in Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Dengel, Andreas
    DFKI, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Breuel, Thomas
    TU, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Recognizable units in Pashto language for OCR2015In: 13th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, IEEE , 2015, p. 1246-1250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic segmentation of cursive scripts into con- stituent characters is one of the most challenging problems in pattern recognition. To avoid segmentation in cursive script, concrete shapes are considered as recognizable units. Therefore, the objective of this work is to find out the alternate recognizable units in Pashto cursive script. These alternatives are ligatures and primary ligatures. However, we need sound statistical analysis to find the appropriate numbers of ligatures and primary ligatures in Pashto script. In this work, a corpus of 2, 313, 736 Pashto words are extracted from a large scale diversified web sources, and total of 19, 268 unique ligatures have been identified in Pashto cursive script. Analysis shows that only 7000 ligatures represent 91% portion of overall corpus of the Pashto unique words. Similarly, about 7, 681 primary ligatures are also identified which represent the basic shapes of all the ligatures.

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  • 35.
    Ahmed, Arsalan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Digital Twins for Natural Environments: Case Study on a Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networkfor Waterbirds Monitoring2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade or so, Digital Twins have emerged as a disruptive technology opening doors for digital innovation and modernization. A Digital Twin is defined as an accurate virtual model reflecting the state of a physical asset. With their futuristic applications, Digital Twins have already revolutionized several industrial sectors including product life cycle management, smart cities, healthcare and aerospace. More recently, researchers have started creating Digital Twins for natural environments. Virtual models are developed to understand, manage and protect these ecosystems which have huge potential in resisting their global decline in the face of the environmental crisis. In line with the trend, this work considers a specific Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network for waterbirds monitoring as a case study within the larger context of Digital Twins for natural environments and delivers a proof-of-concept implementation through the design and development of an associated Digital Twin system.

    Waterbirds monitoring plays a pivotal role in wetland management, given that waterbirds serve as reliable indicators of wetland health. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks offer a promising solution for monitoring and evaluating waterbird populations in their natural habitat. Nonetheless, these networks encounter challenges associated with large-scale deployments under natural environmental conditions. These conditions introduce harsh circumstances that may not have been anticipated during the pre-deployment testing phase. Hence, this work integrates a Digital Twin with a considered Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network acting as a replica of the system. Inorder to observe the effectiveness of the proposal through experimentation, a real-world wetland scenario is utilized. The system is validated using a specific research use-case involving the dynamic control of the image compression rate at the source nodes of the Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network. The results clearly demonstrate that the integration of Digital Twin technology brings significant value by enabling real-time optimizations and performance improvements.

  • 36.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    On the Energy Efficiency and Reliability of Data Centers in Operation2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new generation information technology (IT) services like mobile Internet, Internet of things (IoT), cloud computing, processing of big data, applications of artificial intelligence, etc. are becoming popular with the development of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry. In this industry, the dependency on the data centers is also increasing to ensure the quality of services (QoS). Thus, the energy consumption of the data centers is increasing with the increasing demand for computational resources in it because the load sections of the data center with sensitive equipment run $24$ hours a day, $365$ days of the year. Regarding data center operation, it is becoming a technical challenge to make a trade-off between reducing the energy consumption to limit the operational costs and ensuring higher reliability of the data center.

    A way to help data center operators to cope with the posed challenges is by identifying the ``right size of the computational resource'', considering the power losses and service availability of the data center. This endeavor requires power consumption models that can consider different load sections with different types of equipment. The power consumption models of the load sections can address the electrical load demand and the power losses, especially losses in the internal power conditioning system (IPCS). On the other hand, the service availability of the data center mainly depends on the availability of the computational resources like servers and on the availability of the power supply through the IPCS. It is important to characterize the servers' failure and repair times to develop the stochastic model of the server unavailability in operation. The availability of adequate power supply through the IPCS depends on its component failures and the power supply capacity of its components. The bottleneck of the power supply capacity of the IPCS is subjected to the power losses of the equipment in the IPCS. Additionally, the voltage disturbances like voltage dips and swells in the IPCS also interrupt the power supply units (PSUs) of the servers, which also degrades the QoS of the data center.

    The outcomes of this thesis can be synthesized as follows: 1) A comparative analysis of the energy consumption models of the major load sections in the data center, and an analysis of the impact of the power losses in the IPCS on the outage probability of the servers. 2) Reliability indices to assess the adequacy of the computational resources in the data center considering the outages of power supplies and the servers in operation. 3) The impacts of voltages disturbances in the IPCS on the power supply outages, hence on the interruptions of servers. 4) An analysis of the trade-off between the energy efficiency and reliability in operational planning of the data center.

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  • 37.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A Novel Reliability Index to Assess the Computational Resource Adequacy in Data Centers2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 54530-54541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy demand of data centers is increasing globally with the increasing demand for computational resources to ensure the quality of services. It is important to quantify the required resources to comply with the computational workloads at the rack-level. In this paper, a novel reliability index called loss of workload probability is presented to quantify the rack-level computational resource adequacy. The index defines the right-sizing of the rack-level computational resources that comply with the computational workloads, and the desired reliability level of the data center investor. The outage probability of the power supply units and the workload duration curve of servers are analyzed to define the loss of workload probability. The workload duration curve of the rack, hence, the power consumption of the servers is modeled as a function of server workloads. The server workloads are taken from a publicly available data set published by Google. The power consumption models of the major components of the internal power supply system are also presented which shows the power loss of the power distribution unit is the highest compared to the other components in the internal power supply system. The proposed reliability index and the power loss analysis could be used for rack-level computational resources expansion planning and ensures energy-efficient operation of the data center.

  • 38.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Characterizing Failure and Repair Time of Servers in a Hyper-scale Data Center2020In: Proceedings of 2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe) 26-28 October, 2020, IEEE, 2020, p. 660-664Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyper-scale data centers are used to host cloud computing interfaces to support the increasing demand for storage and computational resources. For achieving specific service level agreements (SLA), this infrastructure demands highly available cloud computing systems. It is necessary to analyze the server failure incidents to determine the way of improving the reliability of the system since the computational interruption causes financial losses for the data center owners. Regarding the reliability analysis, it is important to characterize the time to failure and time to repair of the servers. In this paper, a publicly available data set from Google cloud-cluster data center will be analyzed to find the distribution function for the time to failure and the time to repair for the servers in a cloud based data centers.

  • 39.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math H.J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Reliability Analysis of Internal Power Supply Architecture of Data Centers in Terms of Power Losses2021In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 193, article id 107025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of data centers and the energy demand are increasing globally with the development of information and communication technology (ICT). The data center operators are facing challenges to limit the internal power losses and the unexpected outages of the computational resources or servers. The power losses of the internal power supply system (IPSS) increase with the increasing number of servers that causes power supply capacity shortage for the devices in IPSS. The aim of this paper is to address the outage probability of the computational resources or servers due to the power supply capacity shortage of the power distribution units (PDUs) in the IPSS. The servers outage probability at rack-level defines the service availability of the data center since the servers are the main computational resource of it. The overall availability of the IPSS and the power consumption models of the IPSS devices are also presented in this paper. Quantitative studies are performed to show the impacts of the power losses on the service availability and the overall availability of the IPSS for two different IPSS architectures, which are equivalent to the Tier I and Tier IV models of the data center.

  • 40.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Letha, Shimi Sudha
    Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technical Teachers, Chandigarh, India.
    The Impacts of Voltage Disturbances Due to Faults In the Power Supply System of A Data Center2022In: 2022 20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP) Proceedings: “Power Quality in the Energy Transition”, IEEE, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal power condition system (IPCS) in data centers is prone to have cable faults that cause voltage dips and swells. The voltage dips and swells impact the power supply units (PSUs) with the servers. The servers connected with the PUSs restart or turn-off when the input voltage comes out of the voltage-tolerance range. This paper analyses the impact of such voltage disturbances on server outages due to a single-phase fault in the IPCS. The voltage-tolerance range of the PSUs is considered according to the guideline of the Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC). The voltage dip propagates to the healthy load sections from the fault location, while voltage swells are also observed due to sudden load reduction. Moreover, the current limitation mode of the inverter in the uninterrupted power supply (UPS) is identified as a cause of voltage dip to almost zero experienced by the PSUs. The reliability of the data center considering the outage probability of the servers are finally quantified to show the impacts of the voltage dips and swells in the IPCS.

  • 41.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    de Oliveira, Roger Alves
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Risk Assessment of Server Outages Due To Voltage Dips In the Internal Power Supply System of a Data Center2021In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, p. 708-712, article id 0090Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The data centers host sensitive electronic devices like servers, memory, hard disks, network devices, etc., which are supplied by the power supply units. The regulated direct current (DC) output of the power supply units fluctuates with input voltage variation since they typically contain single phase switch-mode power supplies. The voltage dips caused by faults in the internal power supply system of the data center can be large enough to violate the Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC) proposed voltage-tolerance guideline. The output of the power supplies, hence the operation of the servers will be interrupted due to such voltage dips. In this paper, the outage probability of the servers caused by the voltage dips are analyzed for different fault location in the internal supply system of a data center.

  • 42.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sutaria, Jil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Electrical Energy Consumption Model of Internal Components in Data Centers2019In: Proceedings of: 2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe), IEEE, 2019, article id 331Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of modern information technology (IT) industry, cloud computing is gaining popularity for big data handling. Therefore, IT service providers like Google, Facebook and Amazon are expanding their technical resources by building data centers to improve the data processing and data storage facilities under cloud service pattern. However, data centers consume a large amount of electrical energy. In recent years, a lot of research has been done to reduce the electrical energy consumption of data centers by high performance computing. However, very few researchers have focused on the electrical energy consumption by the electrical components inside the data center. In this paper, a component based electrical energy consumption modelling approach is presented to identify the losses of different components as well as their interactions to the total electrical energy consumption of the data center. The electrical energy consumption models of servers and other components are presented as a function of server utilization.

  • 43.
    Ahmer, Muhammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements. AB SKF.
    Intelligent fault diagnosis and predictive maintenance for a bearing ring grinder2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting the failure of any structure is a difficult task in a mechanical system. However complicated and difficult the prediction might be, the first step is to know the actual condition of the system. Given the complexity of any machine tool, where a number of subsystems of electro-mechanical structures interact to perform the machining operation, failure diagnostics become more challenging due to the high demand for performance and reliability. In a production environment, this results in maintenance costs that the management always strives to reduce. Condition-based machine maintenance (CBM) is considered to be the maintenance strategy that can lead to failure prediction and reducing the maintenance cost by knowing the actual condition of the asset and planning the maintenance activities in advance.

    Grinding machines and grinding processes have come a long way since the inception of the centuries old grinding technique. However, we still have a number of challenges to overcome before a completely monitored and controlled machine and process can be claimed. One such challenge is to achieve a machine level CBM and predictive maintenance (PdM) setup which is addressed in this thesis. A CBM implementation framework has been proposed which combines the information sampled from sensors installed for the purpose of the process as well as condition monitoring. Accessing the machine's controller information allows the data to be processed with respect to different machine states and process stages. The successful implementation is achieved through a real-time and synchronized data acquisition setup that allows data from multiple sources to be acquired, stored, and consolidated. The dataset thus generated is used in a significant part of this project and is also published in Swedish National Data Service (SND).

    The thesis also presents the failure diagnostic model based on two step classification approach using benchmarked random forest models. The binary classifier predicts if there is a fault present in the machine based on crucial sensors data from the Idle segment of the grinding cycle. Multi-class random forest classifier diagnosis the fault condition. PdM, knowing when to trigger maintenance action, is achieved through predicting the overall quality of the produced parts from the feature set extracted from sensor data of the Spark-out segment of the grinding cycle. Combining fault diagnosis with the predicted quality information resulted in reliable and actionable maintenance decisions for the bearing ring grinder. The demonstrated setup, based on a production bearing ring grinder, is adaptable to similar machines in production.

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  • 44.
    Ahmer, Muhammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements. AB SKF, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Gustafsson, Martin
    AB SKF, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Kim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    An implementation framework for condition-based maintenance in a bearing ring grinder2022In: Leading manufacturing systems transformation – Proceedings of the 55th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems 2022 / [ed] Emanuele Carpanzano, Claudio Boër, Anna Valente, Elsevier, 2022, Vol. 107, p. 746-751Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand on a bearing ring grinder, as any other machine tool, is to produce parts as per the specification and desired quality. A failure to achieve the quality can be due to functional issues or mechanical failure modes. Ultimately this results in lower productivity and higher production costs. Despite the increased emphasis on practicing condition-based machine maintenance (CBM) in manufacturing applications, it is still considered a challenge to fully deploy CBM in production machines due to diversity in equipment and variety in machine configurations as well as complex characteristics of failure modes. Although there exists extensive literature on CBM for machine tools and subsystems, the issue remains with realization of a technically capable and cost effective CBM system, specifically for a bearing ring grinder. Therefore, sensor(s) selection, data acquisition setup, data processing and analysis are the essential factors considered in the proposed framework to ensure a systematic and organized CBM implementation. The CBM setup is evaluated against production of bearing rings under different process and failure conditions. A machine type independent data acquisition system is designed to capture both machine and process dynamics. The data gathered from sensors at strategic locations exhibits its effectiveness in capturing the process and condition variations in relation to time and operating modes. The presented results of data analysis support the capability and effectiveness of the proposed framework. The utility of this framework can be extended for any number of scenarios including predictive maintenance or adaptive process optimization where solutions using machine learning and artificial intelligence tools can benefit from high dimensional structured dataset. The proposed framework provides a strong foundation to fast track the adaption of CBM in other production machines having similar subsystems.

  • 45.
    Ahmer, Muhammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements. AB SKF, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Gustafsson, Martin
    AB SKF, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Kim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Dataset Concerning the Process Monitoring and Condition Monitoring Data of a Bearing Ring Grinder2022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    In the manuscript, we have investigated the effective use of sensors in a bearing ring grinder for failure classification in the condition-based maintenance context. The proposed methodology combines domain knowledge of process monitoring and condition monitoring to successfully achieve failure mode prediction with high accuracy using only a few key sensors. This enables manufacturing equipment to take advantage of advanced data processing and machine learning techniques.

    The grinding machine is of type SGB55 from Lidköping Machine Tools and is used to produce functional raceway surface of inner rings of type SKF-6210 deep groove ball bearing. Additional sensors like vibration, acoustic emission, force, and temperature sensors are installed to monitor machine condition while producing bearing components under different operating conditions. Data is sampled from sensors as well as the machine's numerical controller during operation. Selected parts are measured for the produced quality.

  • 46.
    Ahmer, Muhammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements. Manufacturing and Process Development, AB SKF, 415 50 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Gustafsson, Martin
    Manufacturing and Process Development, AB SKF, 415 50 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Kim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Using Multivariate Quality Statistic for Maintenance Decision Support in a Bearing Ring Grinder2022In: Machines, E-ISSN 2075-1702, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grinding processes’ stochastic nature poses a challenge in predicting the quality of the resulting surfaces. Post-production measurements for form, surface roughness, and circumferential waviness are commonly performed due to infeasibility in measuring all quality parameters during the grinding operation. Therefore, it is challenging to diagnose the root cause of quality deviations in real-time resulting from variations in the machine’s operating condition. This paper introduces a novel approach to predict the overall quality of the individual parts. The grinder is equipped with sensors to implement condition-based maintenance and is induced with five frequently occurring failure conditions for the experimental test runs. The crucial quality parameters are measured for the produced parts. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) and Hotelling’s T-squared (T2) have been evaluated to generate quality labels from the multi-variate quality data. Benchmarked random forest regression models are trained using fault diagnosis feature set and quality labels. Quality labels from the T2 statistic of quality parameters are preferred over FCM approach for their repeatability. The model, trained from T2 labels achieves more than 94% accuracy when compared to the measured ring disposition. The predicted overall quality using the sensors’ feature set is compared against the threshold to reach a trustworthy maintenance decision.

  • 47.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Online fibre property measurements: foundations for a method based on ultrasound attenuation2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the foundations of a method for estimating fibre properties of pulp suitable for online application in the pulp and paper industry. In the pulp and paper industry, increased efficiency and greater paper quality control are two of the industry's main objectives. It is proposed that online fibre property measurements are a means of achieving progress in both of these objectives. Optical based systems that provide valuable geometric data on the fibres and other pulp characteristics are commercially available. However, measurements of the elastic properties of the fibres are not currently implemented using these systems. To fill this gap an ultrasound based system for measuring the elastic properties of the wood fibres in pulp is proposed. Ultrasound propagation depends on the elastic properties of a solid. Hence attenuation measurements from suspensions of fibres depend on their elastic properties. The method is based on solving the inverse problem where the output is known and the objective is to establish the inputs. In this case, attenuation is measured and a model of attenuation based on ultrasound scattering is developed. A search algorithm is used for finding elastic properties that minimize the error between the model and measured attenuation. The results of the search are estimates of the elastic properties of the fibres in suspension. The results show resonance peaks in the attenuation, in the frequency region tested, for fibres with radii of the order of 10 microns. These peaks are found in both the measured and modelled attenuation spectra. Further investigation of these resonances suggests that they are due to modes of vibration in the fibre where the fibre modelled as an infinitely long cylinder. These resonances are shown to aid in the identification of the elastic properties. The attenuation is found to depend heavily on the geometry of the fibres. Hence fibre geometry, which can be obtained from online optical fibre measurement system, provides the key to extracting the elastic properties from the attenuation signal. Studies are also carried out on the effect of viscosity on attenuation as well as the differences in attenuation between hollow and solid synthetic fibres in suspensions. The measurement method is also applied to hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps. The results of these studies show that using the model derived in the thesis and attenuation measurements, estimates of the elastic properties can be obtained. The elastic property estimates for synthetic fibres agree well with values from other methods. The elastic property estimates for pulps require further validation due to the difficulty in comparing between different testing methods and different types of pulp. The conclusions, based on the work so far and under three realisable conditions, are that the shear modulus and the transverse Young's modulus of pulp fibres can be measured. Once these conditions are met a system based on this method can be implemented. By doing this the industry would benefit from the increase in paper quality control and energy saving such system could provide.

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  • 48.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Towards a measurement of paper pulp quality: ultrasonic spectroscopy of fibre suspensions2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For the paper and pulp industry in Sweden and Finland to remain competitive against countries with lower overheads, they have to constantly strive to improve the quality and the efficiency of the manufacturing processes. One of the ways of doing this is to introduce sensors that will provide valuable online feedback on the characteristics of the pulp so that adjustments can be made to optimise the manufacturing process. The measurement method proposed in this thesis is based on ultrasound, since it is rapid, inexpensive, non-destructive and non-intrusive. Thus could be done online. Since ultrasound propagation and attenuation depends on the material properties through which is propagates, it has the potential to provide measurements of material properties such as pulp fibre density and elasticity. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the possibility of using ultrasound to measure pulp fibre material properties. The idea is to solve the inverse problem of estimating these properties from attenuation measurements and to establish the degree of accuracy to which this can be done. Firstly a model is developed and is tested with synthetic fibres to establish is validity. It is then used to solve the inverse problem of estimating material properties from attenuation measurements, again with synthetic fibres, to test the accuracy to which these properties can be estimated. Resonance peaks in the frequency response of the attenuation were found. On closer investigation it was established that the location of these peaks in the frequency domain is sensitive to the diameter of the fibres and their material properties. If the diameter is known, these peaks improve the accuracy of the estimation process. The results of the estimation process for synthetic fibre suspensions show values for the shear modulus are within known ranges but the estimation of Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus is poor. Improving the model or the estimation procedure may lead to better results. For the method as it is to have application in the paper and pulp industry there are certain conditions that need to be fulfilled. These are that we find peaks in the frequency response of the attenuation in pulp, know the diameter distribution of the fibres and the hollow nature of the fibres does not significantly alter the results. We can then, potentially, be able to establish the shear modulus of the pulp fibres. If the shear modulus is a factor in paper quality, we may be close to an online measurement of paper pulp quality using ultrasonic spectroscopy. Improving the model may allow us to estimate further properties and take into account the fibres being hollow. The thesis consists of two parts. The first part includes an overview of the pulp and paper industry and current testing methods, background theory on which the model is based and an overview of the model that is used in predicting ultrasound attenuation. There then follows a summary of the work done, some addition points are raised in the discussion before drawing conclusions. Finally we discuss what needs to be done to take this further. The second part contains a collection of four papers describing the research.

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  • 49.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Noël, Maxime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Linder, Tomas
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Light scattering in cellulose nanofibre suspensions: Model and experiments2016In: Computers in Chemistry Proceeding from ACS National Meeting San Diego: Proceeding from ACS National Meeting San Diego, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2016, p. 122-, article id CELL 235Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here light scattering theory is used to assess the size distribution in a suspension of cellulose as it is fibrillated from micro-scaled to nano-scaled fibres. A model based on Monte carlo simulations of the scattering of photons by different sizes of cellulose fibres was used to predict the UV-IF spectrum of the suspensions. Bleached cellulose hardwood pulp was tested and compared to the visually transparent tempo-oxidised hardwood cellulose nanofibres (CNF) suspension. The theoretical results show that different diameter size classes exhibit very different scattering patterns. These classes could be identified in the experimental results and used to establish the size class dominating the suspension. A comparison to AFM/microscope size distribution was made and the results indicated that using the UV-IF light scattering spectrum maybe more reliable that size distribution measurement using AFM and microscopy on dried CNF samples. The UV-IF spectrum measurement combined with the theoretical prediction can be used even at this initial stage of development of this model to assess the degree of fibrillation when processing CNF.

  • 50. Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Estimating suspended fibre material properties by modelling ultrasound attenuation2006In: Mathematical Modeling of Wave Phenomena: conference on mathematical modeling of wave phenomea, Växjö, Sweden, 14 - 19 August 2005 / [ed] Börje Nilsson; Louis Fishman, Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2006, p. 250-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical model for use in the inverse problem of estimating material properties of suspended fibres from ultrasonic attenuation has been developed. The ultrasound attenuation is derived theoretically from the energy losses arising when a plane wave is scattered and absorbed off an infinitely long, isotropic, viscoelastic cylinder. By neglecting thermal considerations and assuming low viscosity in the suspending fluid, we can make additional assumptions that provide us with a tractable set of equations that can be solved analytically. The model can then be to used in inverse methods of estimating material properties. We verify the model with experimentally obtained values of attenuation for saturated Nylon fibres. The experimental results from Nylon fibres show local peaks in the attenuation which are thought to be due to the resonant absorption at the eigenfrequencies of the fibres. The results of the experiments show that the model is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in different types of Nylon. Applications for suspended fibre characterization can be found in the paper manufacturing industry.

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