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  • 1.
    Almudhari, Haider
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Effektivisering av materialhantering gällande plåtrullar i SSAB:s Stålhamn: En fallstudie på Oxelösunds Hamn AB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, manufacturing companies are under competitive and rapid changes in the global market. It challenges companies working with material manufacturing and distribution networks at a global level to continually improve their business. The actors operating within a single supply chain should unite to increase their ability to compete and remain flexible, as a response to the effects of globalization. By creating business goals, sharing information, risks, and profits, all operators in the chain can benefit.

    This case study has been carried out in one of Oxelösund Harbor's operations, namely SSAB's Steel Port, which they operate for SSAB in Oxelösund municipality. The steel harbor has an important role in SSAB's supply chain because it acts as SSAB's port of shipment where materials coming from SSAB in Borlänge and Oxelösund are stored until they are shipped to other ports in the world. Today, Oxelösund Harbor is experiencing inefficient information and material flow within the Steel Harbor's operations.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate material handling in terms of which transport and storage methods are carried out in one of the steel ports operations, the coil terminal. Thereafter, the study will clarify what kind of waste there is and find improvements to streamline information and material flow when handling coils in the coil terminal.

    The study was primarily conducted through observations, unstructured and to a lesser extent structured interviews, structured email conversations and data collection. The focus was on finding the possible areas that could become more efficient in practice and then finding the theory and literature that highlight the shortcomings found. Some theories that will be emphasized, because of their relevance, are Lean, inventory and supply chain theory.

    The study's results and analysis show that the challenges that hinder the efficiency of the coil terminal are based on internal and external factors. Internal factors consist of unnecessary movement of materials, reworking in office and unused work shifts. External factors are caused by vendors in the form of information insufficiency and material input/output.

    The results of the study conclude that the optimal solution is that the cooperation between the operators in the chain is improved so that flow of information becomes better and reduce uncertainty in delivery and shipping. Furthermore, the study encourages Oxelösund Harbor to collect data, in the form of statistics, concerning daily events in Stålhamnen, highlighting problems and costs that are hidden and start utilizing the unused work shift during the night, as well as reducing the stock.

  • 2.
    Andrikopoulos, George
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    HUmanoid Robotic Leg via pneumatic muscle actuators: implementation and control2018In: Meccanica (Milano. Print), ISSN 0025-6455, E-ISSN 1572-9648, Vol. 53, no 1-2, p. 465-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a HUmanoid Robotic Leg (HURL) via the utilization of pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) is presented. PMAs are a pneumatic form of actuation possessing crucial attributes for the implementation of a design that mimics the motion characteristics of a human ankle. HURL acts as a feasibility study in the conceptual goal of developing a 10 degree-of-freedom (DoF) lower-limb humanoid for compliance and postural control, while serving as a knowledge basis for its future alternative use in prosthetic robotics. HURL’s design properties are described in detail, while its 2-DoF motion capabilities (dorsiflexion–plantar flexion, eversion–inversion) are experimentally evaluated via an advanced nonlinear PID-based control algorithm.

  • 3.
    Andrikopoulos, Georgios
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Vortex Actuation via Electric Ducted Fans: an Experimental Study2019In: Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, ISSN 0921-0296, E-ISSN 1573-0409, Vol. 95, no 3-4, p. 955-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented work investigates the potential of utilizing commercially available Electric Ducted Fans (EDFs) as adhesion actuators, while providing a novel insight on the analysis of the adhesion nature related to negative pressure and thrust force generation against a target surface. To this goal, a novel EDF-based Vortex Actuation Setup (VAS) is proposed for monitoring important properties such as adhesion force, pressure distribution, current draw, motor temperature etc. during the VAS’ operation when placed in variable distances from a test surface. In addition, this work is contributing towards the novel evaluation of different design variables and modifications to original EDF structures, with the goal of analyzing their effect on the prototype VAS, while optimizing its adhesion efficiency for its future incorporation in a wall-climbing robot for inspection and repair purposes.

  • 4.
    Barf, Jochen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Development and Implementation of an Image-Processing-Based Horizon Sensor for Sounding Rockets2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Björnström, Albert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Flödeskalibrering: Analys av kalibreringsprocesser2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2015 the Paris Agreement was signed in order to create a better global climate. According to the agreement, all countries 'emissions shall be reported to the UN. To be able to do this current emission levels must be known, which means measurement and calculation of emissions are necessary.

     

    The state-owned mining company Luossavaara Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) operates iron ore mines in Northen Sweden. The iron ore products produced at the KK4 coal mill in Kiruna, consists of some additives that form carbon dioxide when burned. The amount of additives burned is measured using two flowmeters. To ensure that these meters have approved accuracy, annual calibrations are performed where measured volume is compared to a reference volume. In order to ensure that LKAB's calibration method works, another type of calibration was performed by an external company. The results between the two calibration methods differ significantly, which led to this report.

     

    The purpose of this work is to develop improvement proposals for LKAB's calibration method and to present suggestions on how LKAB can create better conditions for the other so called transit time calibration method. By analyzing each method and performing measurements, tests and calculations, weaknesses are noted. Tests show that a weakness of LKAB's calibration is that the level measurement method used is person-dependent. Level measurement with laser range gauge is tested with good results, why this type of measurement is recommended in the future. The main weakness with transit time method is primarily that it is sensitive to variation of the inner diameter of the pipe. In order for this method to provide reliable results, rebuilding of pipes and carefully measured internal diameter are required. Accurate flow measurement means that current carbon dioxide emissions can be calculated, which enables continued work towards set environmental goals. Flowmeters also have a significant role in product quality in KK4, which means that this report can contribute to higher quality and economic profitability.

  • 6.
    Eleftheroglou, Nick
    et al.
    Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, TU Delft, the Netherlands.
    Mansouri, Sina Sharif
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Loutas, Theodoros
    Department of Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics, University of Patras, Greece.
    Karvelis, Petros
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Georgoulas, George
    Department of Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics, University of Patras, Greece.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Zarouchas, Dimitrios
    Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, TU Delft, the Netherlands.
    Intelligent data-driven prognostic methodologies for the real-time remaining useful life until the end-of-discharge estimation of the Lithium-Polymer batteries of unmanned aerial vehicles with uncertainty quantification2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 254, article id 113677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the discharge voltage is utilized as a critical indicator towards the probabilistic estimation of the Remaining Useful Life until the End-of-Discharge of the Lithium-Polymer batteries of unmanned aerial vehicles. Several discharge voltage histories obtained during actual flights constitute the in-house developed training dataset. Three data-driven prognostic methodologies are presented based on state-of-the-art as well as innovative mathematical models i.e. Gradient Boosted Trees, Bayesian Neural Networks and Non-Homogeneous Hidden Semi Markov Models. The training and testing process of all models is described in detail. Remaining Useful Life prognostics in unseen data are obtained from all three methodologies. Beyond the mean estimates, the uncertainty associated with the point predictions is quantified and upper/lower confidence bounds are also provided. The Remaining Useful Life prognostics during six random flights starting from fully charged batteries are presented, discussed and the pros and cons of each methodology are highlighted. Several special metrics are utilized to assess the performance of the prognostic algorithms and conclusions are drawn regarding their prognostic capabilities and potential.

  • 7.
    Fredmer, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Application and Control of Robotic Manipulator through PLC2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the background of the kinematics and control of an articulated robotic arm in order to control it’s motor controllers with a custom controller using PLC programming.

    The goal was to create a MATLAB simulation of a manipulator and then establish a working configuration. This would then later be used by the division of Signals and Systems at LTU to educate students in PLC programming for autonomous setups with the robotic manipulator.

    The thesis was successful following the schedule established at the beginning and most of the objectives were accomplished. The results were a functioning control framework of Siemens PLC that could control the manipulators motor controllers to preform pickand place tasks in conjunction with a conveyor belt.

  • 8.
    Gómez Rosal, Dulce Adriana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Aalto University.
    Transfer of reinforcement learning for a robotic skill2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we develop the transfer learning (TL) of reinforcement learning (RL) for the robotic skill of throwing a ball into a basket, from a computer simulated environment to a real-world implementation. Whereas learning of the same skill has been previously explored by using a Programming by Demonstration approach directly on the real-world robot, for our work, the model-based RL algorithm PILCO was employed as an alternative as it provides the robot with no previous knowledge or hints, i.e. the robot begins learning from a tabula rasa state, PILCO learns directly on the simulated environment, and as part of its procedure, PILCO models the dynamics of the inflatable, plastic ball used to perform the task. The robotic skill is represented as a Markov Decision Process, the robotic arm is a Kuka LWR4+, RL is enabled by PILCO, and TL is achieved through policy adjustments. Two learned policies were transferred, and although the results show that no exhaustive policy adjustments are required, large gaps remain between the simulated and the real environment in terms of the ball and robot dynamics. The contributions of this thesis include: a novel TL of RL framework for teaching the basketball skill to the Kuka robotic arm; the development of a pythonised version of PILCO; robust and extendable ROS packages for policy learning and adjustment in a simulated or real robot; a tracking-vision package with a Kinect camera; and an Orocos package for a position controller in the robotic arm.

  • 9.
    Heung, Tsz Hin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering. Aalto University.
    Visual space navigation system for CubeSat using deep convolutional neural networks2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Hladký, Maroš
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Julius-Maximilians-University Würzburg, Informatics VII : Robotics and Telematics .
    Vision Based Attitude Control2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problematics of precise pointing and more specifically an attitude control is present sincethe first days of flight and Aerospace engineering. The precise attitude control is a matter ofnecessity for a great variety of applications. In the air, planes or unmanned aerial vehicles needto be able to orient precisely. In Space, a telescope or a satellite relies on the attitude control toreach the stars or survey the Earth. The attitude control can be based on various principles, pre-calculated variables, and measurements. It is common to use the gyroscope, Sun/Star/horizonsensors for attitude determination. While those technologies are well established in the indus-try, the rise in a computational power and efficiency in recent years enabled processing of aninfinitely more rich source of information - the vision. In this Thesis, a visual system is used forthe attitude determination and is blended together with a control algorithm to form a VisionBased Attitude Control system.A demonstrator is designed, build and programmed for the purpose of Vision Based AttitudeControl. It is based on the principle of Visual servoing, a method that links image measure-ments to the attitude control, in a form of a set of joint velocities. The intermittent steps arethe image acquisition and processing, feature detection, feature tracking and the computationof joint velocities in a closed loop control scheme. The system is then evaluated in a barrage ofpartial experiments.The results show, that the used detection algorithms, Shi&Tomasi and Harris, performequally well in feature detection and are able to provide a high amount of features for tracking.The pyramidal implementation of the Lucas&Kanade tracking algorithm proves to be a capablemethod for a reliable feature tracking, invariant to rotation and scale change. To further evaluatethe Visual servoing a complete demonstrator is tested. The demonstrator shows the capabilityof Visual Servoing for the purpose of Vision Based Attitude Control. An improvement in thehardware and implementation is recommended and planned to push the system beyond thedemonstrator stage into an applicable system.

  • 11.
    Jafari, Hedyeh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Replicating human brain mechanisms towards balancing2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the performance of the human brain to stabilize the body remains an open fundamental research question. In this article, we study the hypothesis of internal model of the Central Nervous System (CNS) by a novel proposed architecture based on a recurrent neural network. The overall objective of the article and the main contribution stems from demonstrating the capability of replicating the balancing mechanisms of the brain by training the proposed bio-inspired network architecture with human balancing data and in the sequel applying the resulting control structure for controlling a single link inverted pendulum. Towards this direction, the body kinetics and kinematics measurements of forty-five subjects during upright stance trails were collected and utilized for training the proposed neural network. The efficacy of the proposed scheme will be proven through multiple simulation results with a single link inverted pendulum, where it will be demonstrated that the brain-inspired control scheme achieves a proper balance.

  • 12.
    Jerker, Bergström
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Path Planning with Weighted Wall Regions using OctoMap2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the work of the Control Engineering research group of the Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and systems at Luleå University of Technology a need had arisen for a path planning algorithm. The ongoing research with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles(UAVs) had so far been done with any complicated paths being created manually with waypoints set by the uses. To remove this labourious part of the experimental process a path should be generated automatically by simply providing a program with the position of the UAV, the goal to which the user wants it to move, as well as information about the UAV's surroundings in the form of a 3D map.In addition to simply finding an available path through a  3D environment the path should also be adapted to the risks that the physical environment poses to a flying robot. This was achieved by adapting a previously developed algorithm, which did the simple path planning task well, by adding a penalty weight to areas near obstacles, pushing the generated path away from them.The planner was developed working with the OctoMap map system which represents the physical world by segmenting it into cubes of either open or occupied space. The open segments of these maps could then be used as vertices of a graph that the planning algorithm could traverse.The algorithm itself was written in C++ as a node of the Robot Operating System(ROS) software framework to allow it to smoothly interact with previously developed software used by the Control Engineering Robotics Group.The program was tested by simulations where the path planner ROS node was sent maps as well as UAV position and intended goal. These simulations provided valid paths, with the performance of the algorithm as well as the quality of the paths being evaluated for varying configurations of the planners parameters.The planner works well in simulation and is deemed ready for use in practical experiments.

  • 13.
    Kanellakis, Christoforos
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Mansouri, Sina Sharif
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Fresk, Emil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Kominiak, Dariusz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Cooperative UAVs as a Tool for Aerial Inspection of Large Scale Aging Infrastructure2018In: 2018 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, p. 5040-5040Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents an aerial tool towards the autonomous cooperative coverage and inspection of a large scale 3D infrastructure using multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In the presented approach the UAVs are relying only on their onboard computer and sensory system, deployed for inspection of the 3D structure. In this application each agent covers a different part of the scene autonomously, while avoiding collisions. The autonomous navigation of each platform on the designed path is enabled by the localization system that fuses Ultra Wideband with inertial measurements through an Error- State Kalman Filter. The visual information collected from the aerial team is collaboratively processed to create the 3D model. The performance of the overall setup has been experimentally evaluated in realistic wind turbine inspection experiments, providing dense 3D reconstruction of the inspected structures.

  • 14.
    Koval, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Mansouri, Sina Sharif
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Online Multi-Agent Based Cooperative Exploration and Coverage in Complex Environment2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an online collaborative exploration and coverage method is proposed for the unknown complex environment with multiple agents. The exploration and coverage is based on Boustrophedon motion, while the detection conditions for backtracking points have been modified based on mission requirements, the battery charge level of each agent is considered to reduce agent loss, and collision free paths are generated. The proposed method is evaluated in simulation, where complex environment with multiple branches is explored by multiple agents.

  • 15.
    Leblebici, Robin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Development of an automated adjusting process for robotic end-effectors to handle dry textiles for preforming of carbon fiber reinforced plastics2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to fulfill increasing production rates, new automated production technologies are required for manufacturing carbon fiber reinforced plastic components for the aerospace industry. Currently, large, double curved composite components have to be manufactured manually, which leads to high process times and poor scalability. As a consequence, a team of cooperating robots with passively adjustable end-effectors was developed, that is capable of handling dry carbon textiles and can be used for layups in double curved molds. This thesis deals with the implementation of a robot program, that performs an automated adjustment of each end-effector to the surface geometry of the manufactured part. The functional principle and the accuracy of the process are evaluated. Further, the automatically adjusted end-effectors are utilized to cooperatively layup carbon plies. The results show, that the accuracy of the automated adjusting process is sufficient to drape carbon fabrics during pick-up and automated layup is possible with this approach. In conclusion, the developed process can be integrated into a fully automated process for future experiments, but hardware inaccuracies should be improved, in order to further enhance the accuracy of the system.

  • 16. Lundell, Jens
    Dynamic movement primitives andreinforcement learning for adapting alearned skill2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally robots have been preprogrammed to execute specific tasks. Thisapproach works well in industrial settings where robots have to execute highlyaccurate movements, such as when welding. However, preprogramming a robot isalso expensive, error prone and time consuming due to the fact that every featuresof the task has to be considered. In some cases, where a robot has to executecomplex tasks such as playing the ball-in-a-cup game, preprogramming it mighteven be impossible due to unknown features of the task. With all this in mind,this thesis examines the possibility of combining a modern learning framework,known as Learning from Demonstrations (LfD), to first teach a robot how toplay the ball-in-a-cup game by demonstrating the movement for the robot, andthen have the robot to improve this skill by itself with subsequent ReinforcementLearning (RL). The skill the robot has to learn is demonstrated with kinestheticteaching, modelled as a dynamic movement primitive, and subsequently improvedwith the RL algorithm Policy Learning by Weighted Exploration with the Returns.Experiments performed on the industrial robot KUKA LWR4+ showed that robotsare capable of successfully learning a complex skill such as playing the ball-in-a-cupgame.

  • 17.
    Mansouri, Sina Sharif
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Kanellakis, Christoforos
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Fresk, Emil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Kominiak, Dariusz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Cooperative UAVs as a tool for Aerial Inspection of the Aging Infrastructure2017In: Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 11th International Conference / [ed] Marco Hutter, Roland Siegwart, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 177-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an aerial tool towards the autonomous cooperative coverage and inspection of a 3D infrastructure using multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In the presented approach the UAVs are relying only on their onboard computer and sensory system, deployed for inspection of the 3D structure. In this application each agent covers a different part of the scene autonomously, while avoiding collisions. The visual information collected from the aerial team is collaboratively processed to create the 3D model. The performance of the overall setup has been experimentally evaluated in a realistic outdoor infrastructure inspection experiments, providing sparse and dense 3D reconstruction of the inspected structures.

  • 18.
    Mansouri, Sina Sharif
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Karvelis, Petros
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Kanellakis, Christoforos
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Kominiak, Dariusz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Vision-based MAV Navigation in Underground Mine Using Convolutional Neural Network2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) method to enable autonomous navigation of low-cost Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) platforms along dark underground mine environments. The proposed CNN component provides on-line heading rate commands for the MAV by utilising the image stream from the on-board camera, thus allowing the platform to follow a collision-free path along the tunnel axis. A novel part of the developed method consists of the generation of the data-set used for training the CNN. More specifically, inspired from single image haze removal algorithms, various image data-sets collected from real tunnel environments have been processed offline to provide an estimation of the depth information of the scene, where ground truth is not available. The calculated depth map is used to extract the open space in the tunnel, expressed through the area centroid and is finally provided in the training of the CNN. The method considers the MAV as a floating object, thus accurate pose estimation is not required. Finally, the capability of the proposed method has been successfully experimentally evaluated in field trials in an underground mine in Sweden.

  • 19.
    Nesterud, Klara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Vålvik, Agnes
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Utmaningar och rekommendationer vid utvecklandet av robotstyrdprocessautomation inom en verksamhetsprocess2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society companies increasingly strive to automate and streamline their business processes. As a result of the digital transformation of our society, new opportunities and technological innovations are constantly being created with the purpose of supporting the automation of processes by doing things in a completely new way and by utilizing modern information and computer technology. This study examines the new technological innovation in the form of a software technology called RPA (robotic process automation) and its ability to automate tasks that are usually performed manually. The study aims to highlight the challenges that are likely to arise and what the developer should consider when developing RPA within an operational process, which is presented in the form of recommendations. The method of the study is based on an exploratory approach, a qualitative data collection and an abductive approach, since a phenomenon is examined and analyzed using theory related to RPA and the automation of business processes. The challenges and recommendations that have been developed are based on results from a number of meeting sessions in the form of semi-structured workshops based on the four stages of the development process and on the development group's own experiences combined with the theory used as a basis for an analysis. The most important result of the study is that the process should be carefully mapped out and optimized before the development begins and that a continuous follow-up with the end user should be carried out in order to detect any changes in requirements. Someone within the development group should, in addition to a technical perspective, also possess a perspective related to processes and basic knowledge of business development in general.

  • 20.
    Papadimitriou, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Modeling, Identification and Control of a Wall Climbing Robot Based on Vortex Actuation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Pomyen, Siriphat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Indoor path planning and navigation of quadrotors via Ultra-WidebandWireless Technology2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAVs) has been rising recently due to advances in technology such as battery capacity and miniaturization of microcontrollers.In addition, the reduction of the production cost of the quadrotors made them moreaccessible for various applications. Quadrotors find applications in military, agriculture, entertainment and surveillance. Most UAVs use GPS for navigation, limitingthe use of quadrotors to outdoors. In order to use the quadrotors indoors, an indoorpositioning system needs to be developed. Indoor localization can be developed usingnovel navigation algorithms along with the use of ranging sensors, cameras and radiowaves in addition to the sensors that are usually onboard. The development of anindoor navigation system allows the use of quadrotors in environments where GPS is unavailable, such as in factories or in underground areas. The aim of this thesis isto integrate a positioning system using Pozyx UWB wireless technology onto DJIMatrice 100 quadrotors in order to perform the indoor navigation and path planning.

  • 22.
    Ramavaram, Harish Rao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Software and Control Design for 2-D Floating Satellite Simulator2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Rådman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Implementation and testing of a path tracker for a full-scale Unmanned Ground Vehicle2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is the implementation and testing of a path tracker for a car-sized Unmanned Ground Vehicle. The vehicle, a Toyota Land Cruiser, was provided by SSC and hadpreviously been modified for remote operation. The developed path tracker uses a "follow the carrot" algorithm and has been writtenin C using the Robot Operating Software (ROS) framework and has been integrated intothe vehicles existing ROS powered software. During the implementation, the Gazebo rigid body simulator was used to simulate a simplified vehicle. Integration with the real sensors was performed using a small-scalecar, both indoors with the aid of a Vicon motion capture system and outdoors utilizingonly sensors available to the full-size car. The small-scale tests showed promise, howeverwhen full-scale field tests were performed the results showed some problems and reasonsfor these are discussed.

  • 24.
    Sherly, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering. Aalto university.
    Visual Grasping of Unknown Objects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the thesis is to compare and study recent visual grasping techniques which areapplied on a robotic arm for grasping of unknown objects in an indoor environment.The novelty of the thesis is that the study has led to questioning the general approach used byresearchers to solve the grasping problem. The result can help future researchers in investing more onthe problem areas of grasping techniques and can also lead us to question ourselves on the approachwe are using to solve the grasping problem.

  • 25.
    Struckmeier, Oliver
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Aalto University.
    Generating Explanations of Robot Policies in Continuous State Spaces2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency in HRI describes the method of making the current state of a robotor intelligent agent understandable to a human user. Applying transparencymechanisms to robots improves the quality of interaction as well as the userexperience. Explanations are an effective way to make a robot’s decision making transparent. We introduce a framework that uses natural language labels attached to a region inthe continuous state space of the robot to automatically generate local explanationsof a robot’s policy. We conducted a pilot study and investigated how the generated explanations helpedusers to understand and reproduce a robot policy in a debugging scenario.

  • 26.
    Tariq, Usama
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Robotic Grasping of Large Objects for Collaborative Manipulation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In near future, robots are envisioned to work alongside humans in professional anddomestic environments without significant restructuring of workspace. Roboticsystems in such setups must be adept at observation, analysis and rational de-cision making. To coexist in an environment, humans and robots will need tointeract and cooperate for multiple tasks. A fundamental such task is the manip-ulation of large objects in work environments which requires cooperation betweenmultiple manipulating agents for load sharing. Collaborative manipulation hasbeen studied in the literature with the focus on multi-agent planning and controlstrategies. However, for a collaborative manipulation task, grasp planning alsoplays a pivotal role in cooperation and task completion.In this work, a novel approach is proposed for collaborative grasping and manipu-lation of large unknown objects. The manipulation task was defined as a sequenceof poses and expected external wrench acting on the target object. In a two-agentmanipulation task, the proposed approach selects a grasp for the second agentafter observing the grasp location of the first agent. The solution is computed ina way that it minimizes the grasp wrenches by load sharing between both agents.To verify the proposed methodology, an online system for human-robot manipu-lation of unknown objects was developed. The system utilized depth informationfrom a fixed Kinect sensor for perception and decision making for a human-robotcollaborative lift-up. Experiments with multiple objects substantiated that theproposed method results in an optimal load sharing despite limited informationand partial observability.

  • 27.
    Terkovic, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Dynamic modelling of a landing gear2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies in the aerospace industry would benefit from a faster, more flexible wayto investigate physical system issues in the vehicles/aircraft during their lifetime.Current software and hardware provides us with the option of making a systemmodel to simulate investigated problems, saving money and time.This work focuses on a nose landing gear of the Airbus’ fighter jet - EurofighterTyphoon. The landing gear itself is a very complex system designed for highperformance rather than robust usage; it requires a lot of maintenance and testingduring its lifetime. A practical investigation tool is much needed.The primary objective of this work is developing of a simulation model for thenose landing gear in Matlab, Simulink using Simscape library. The model spreadsmainly across two domains: the hydraulic and the multibody domain.The resulting model can simulate extension and retraction behaviour of the realEurofighter nose landing gear under different in-flight conditions. Friction in thehydraulic actuator was derived from the model.Connecting the known parameters of the landing gear subsystems and adjustingthe model to mimic real system behaviour, it can be used to extract the derived parameters,which were previously unknown. The model solves the time-consuminginvestigations and is much more flexible than physical test benches. Finally, it canbe used for future development and planning by simple parameter adjustment.

  • 28.
    White, Jack
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Aalto University/Erasmus+.
    Guided policy search for a lightweight industrial robot arm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    General autonomy is at the forefront of robotic research and practice. Earlier research has enabled robots to learn movement and manipulation within the context of a specific instance of a task and to learn from large quantities of empirical data and known dynamics. Reinforcement learning (RL) tackles generalisation, whereby a robot may be relied upon to perform its task with acceptable speed and fidelity in multiple---even arbitrary---task configurations. Recent research has advanced approximate policy search methods of RL, in which a function approximator is used to represent an optimal policy while avoiding calculation across the large dimensions of the state and action spaces of real robots. This thesis details the implementation and testing, on a lightweight industrial robot arm, of guided policy search (GPS), an RL algorithm that seeks to avoid the typical need, in machine learning, for lots of empirical behavioural samples, while maximising learning speed. GPS comprises a local optimal policy generator, here based on a linear-quadratic regulator, and an approximate general policy representation, here a feedforward neural network. A controller is written to interface an existing back-end implementation of GPS and the robot itself. Experimental results show that the GPS agent is able to perform basic reaching tasks across its configuration space with approximately 15 minutes of training, but that the local policies generated fail to be fully optimised within that timescale and that post-training operation suffers from oscillatory actions under perturbed initial joint positions. Further work is discussed and recommended for better training of GPS agents and making locally optimal policies more robust to disturbance while in operation.

  • 29.
    Zaenker, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering. Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation.
    Hypermaps: Beyond occupancy grids2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent and autonomous robotic applications often require robots to have more information about their environment than provided by traditional occupancy maps. An example are semantic maps, which provide qualitative descriptions of the environment. While research in the area of semantic mapping has been performed, most robotic frameworks still offer only occupancy maps.

    In this thesis, a framework is developed to handle multi-layered 2D maps in ROS. The framework offers occupancy and semantic layers, but can be extended with new layer types in the future. Furthermore, an algorithm to automatically generate semantic maps from RGB-D images is presented.

    Software tests were performed to check if the framework fulfills all set requirements. It was shown that the requirements are accomplished. Furthermore, the semantic mapping algorithm was evaluated with different configurations in two test environments, a laboratory and a floor. While the object shapes of the generated semantic maps were not always accurate and some false detections occurred, most objects were successfully detected and placed on the semantic map. Possible ways to improve the accuracy of the mapping in the future are discussed.

  • 30.
    Zeltner, Felix
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Autonomous Terrain Classification Through Unsupervised Learning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A key component of autonomous outdoor navigation in unstructured environments is the classification of terrain. Recent development in the area of machine learning show promising results in the task of scene segmentation but are limited by the labels used during their supervised training.

    In this work, we present and evaluate a flexible strategy for terrain classification based on three components: A deep convolutional neural network trained on colour, depth and infrared data which provides feature vectors for image segmentation, a set of exchangeable segmentation engines that operate in this feature space and a novel, air pressure based actuator responsible for distinguishing rigid obstacles from those that only appear as such. Through the use of unsupervised learning we eliminate the need for labeled training data and allow our system to adapt to previously unseen terrain classes.

    We evaluate the performance of this classification scheme on a mobile robot platform in an environment containing vegetation and trees with a Kinect v2 sensor as low-cost depth camera. Our experiments show that the features generated by our neural network are currently not competitive with state of the art implementations and that our system is not yet ready for real world applications.

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