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  • 1.
    Akpotor Scott, Johnson
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Integrating Trust-Based Adaptive Security Framework with Risk Mitigation to enhance SaaS User Identity and Access Control based on User Behavior2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the emerging trends in cloud computing technologies have given rise to different computing services through the Internet. Organizations across the globe have seized this opportunity as a critical business driver for computing resource access and utilities that will indeed support significant business operations. Embracing SaaS as a crucial business factor enhances corporate business strategy through economies of scale, easy manageability, cost-effectiveness, non-geographical dependence, high reliability, flexible resources, and fast innovation. However, this has also come with various risks due to the limitation of traditional user identity and access control solutions’ inability to effectively identify and manage cloud users’ authorization process when interacting with the cloud. The limit can result in a legitimate user account's impersonation to carry out malicious activities after the user account is compromised to go undetected since traditional solutions seldom function based on user behavior trust level behind any account.

    Furthermore, the limitation is a significant vulnerability to the cloud environment. This vulnerability is known to be exploited by threats that can eventually lead to substantial unacceptable risks that can undermine security principles or requirements such as confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Significant consequences of this risk are categorized into financial damages, legal implications, reputational damages, and regulatory implications to the cloud environment. As a result, a solution that could contribute to the remediation of these potential risks incurred due to the limitation of user identity and access control management was proposed and designed as User Behavior Trust-Based Adaptive Security framework. The design aims to enhance how cloud users' identity and access control might be managed effectively based on a user behavior trust context and adaptation of corresponding access control measures through adaptive security. The design capability was manifested by integrating it into the standard ISO/2705:2018 Risk Management process. Although, there have been several good information security frameworks such as ISO/IEC 27005:2018 and other technical countermeasures such as SaaS Identity & Access Management (IDaaS) to deal with this risk on the public cloud services. However, they are based on static mitigation approaches, so there is a solid need to shift towards a more dynamic strategical approach.

    The presented design work, User Behavior Trust-Based Adaptive Security framework, intends to serve as a proposed guideline for risk mitigation that would enhance user identity and access control limitations across the cloud. The solution functions by a trust modeling process that evaluates cloud user activities to compute a user behavior comprehensive trust degree. The resulting data is further used as input feeds parameters into a policy decision point process. The policy decision point process adapts the input parameters to user behavior trust level and behavior risk rating to determine the appropriate access control decision. Ultimately, the adaptive security solution consults the policy decision points to dynamically enforce the corresponding controls measures based on the access control decision received as input feed. The report also conducts a risk assessment process to identify vulnerabilities, threats, and risks related to user behavior trust level and risk rating regarding SaaS resources. Then adapt the mitigation solution, User Behavior Trust-Based Adaptive Security framework, as a possible risk treatment within the risk management process ISO/2705:2018.

    This report uses a design methodology derived from User Behavior Trust Modelling scientific research work, Gartner Adaptive Security Architecture Model, and eXtensible Access Control Markup Language's policy decision point concept. The design evaluates user behavior trust level by the trust modeling, while the integrated policy decision point processes the trust level to make the access control decision which is later enforced by the adaptive security solution. The report further adapts the risk management procedure ISO/2705:2018 to identify risk from user behavior and trust level, then implements the design solution as a possible risk treatment. The research findings were documented as Results and Discussion, where the functional and operational aspects of the designed framework were provided. In addition, the effects of applying the framework as a possible risk treatment solution were observed through conducting an ISO/2705:2018 risk management procedure. The notable outcome of a reduction of identified risk levels was an improvement in user attitude or behavior, which eventually increased user behavior trust level and reduced associated behavior risk. At the same time, the discussion detailed the interpretation of the results, implications, and limitation of the research, why the framework could be considered a remediation solution beyond the state-of-the-art for cloud user identity and access management—precisely by integrating user behavior, trust, policy decision making with adaptive security into risk management process to reduce IDM-associated risk in the SaaS.

    Finally, this study has outlined the significance of adopting the designed framework as a possible mitigation solution to enhance the shortcomings of user identity and access control management in the cloud. It has demonstrated that SaaS identified risk can be reduced to an acceptable level when user behavior and activities are taken seriously. Insight into the current trust state and associated risk level of cloud users are vital for continuous risk monitoring and reduction. The solution is to be used as a recommended guideline that might significantly contribute to the research community and information security field of cloud security. Future research direction to consider the possibility of simulating and transforming this conceptual and abstract framework into a real-world working solution due to research work limitations. The framework was designed based on recognized and accepted scientific and technological principles and concepts, from user behavior trust modeling, eXtensible access control markup language, and adaptive security architecture. In addition, to extend this concept to a future research area that will focus exclusively on application-processes behavior.

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  • 2.
    Almudhari, Haider
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Effektivisering av materialhantering gällande plåtrullar i SSAB:s Stålhamn: En fallstudie på Oxelösunds Hamn AB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, manufacturing companies are under competitive and rapid changes in the global market. It challenges companies working with material manufacturing and distribution networks at a global level to continually improve their business. The actors operating within a single supply chain should unite to increase their ability to compete and remain flexible, as a response to the effects of globalization. By creating business goals, sharing information, risks, and profits, all operators in the chain can benefit.

    This case study has been carried out in one of Oxelösund Harbor's operations, namely SSAB's Steel Port, which they operate for SSAB in Oxelösund municipality. The steel harbor has an important role in SSAB's supply chain because it acts as SSAB's port of shipment where materials coming from SSAB in Borlänge and Oxelösund are stored until they are shipped to other ports in the world. Today, Oxelösund Harbor is experiencing inefficient information and material flow within the Steel Harbor's operations.

    The purpose of the study is to investigate material handling in terms of which transport and storage methods are carried out in one of the steel ports operations, the coil terminal. Thereafter, the study will clarify what kind of waste there is and find improvements to streamline information and material flow when handling coils in the coil terminal.

    The study was primarily conducted through observations, unstructured and to a lesser extent structured interviews, structured email conversations and data collection. The focus was on finding the possible areas that could become more efficient in practice and then finding the theory and literature that highlight the shortcomings found. Some theories that will be emphasized, because of their relevance, are Lean, inventory and supply chain theory.

    The study's results and analysis show that the challenges that hinder the efficiency of the coil terminal are based on internal and external factors. Internal factors consist of unnecessary movement of materials, reworking in office and unused work shifts. External factors are caused by vendors in the form of information insufficiency and material input/output.

    The results of the study conclude that the optimal solution is that the cooperation between the operators in the chain is improved so that flow of information becomes better and reduce uncertainty in delivery and shipping. Furthermore, the study encourages Oxelösund Harbor to collect data, in the form of statistics, concerning daily events in Stålhamnen, highlighting problems and costs that are hidden and start utilizing the unused work shift during the night, as well as reducing the stock.

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  • 3.
    Antoja Lleonart, Guillem
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    New Generation 4-Channel GNSS Receiver: Design, Production, and Testing2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the current research needs and the lack of commercial multi-channel, multi-constellation GNSS receivers, a two-board solution has been developed so it can be mated with and take advantage of the processing power of the FPGA board branded as MicroZed.

    In order to achieve the proposed goals, an initial phase for assessing and updating the older design, building, and testing of SiGe modules (including both the electronics and casings) has been carried out. The results included demonstrate performances at logging GPS-L1 data with similar C/N0 and AGC values as the previous versions of the modules and offering navigation solutions with accuracies of a few meters. Secondly, a first iteration and design proposal for the new generation receiver has been proposed for GPS and GLONASS L1 and L2, which has been manufactured and tested. Partial tests have been performed due to the flaws of the current revision of the MicroZed Board in regards to its communication peripherals, and the results have validated the receiver’s design provided certain modifications are considered for future iterations. Furthermore, voltage and frequency tests have provided results with an error of less than 7%, and signal tests have provided C/N0 values similar to those of the SiGe modules of around 47[dB-Hz] which will be a useful baseline for future iterations. Finally, a design proposal for an Interface Board used between the older NT1065_PMOD Board and other FPGA boards carrying the standardized FMC connectors has been added to the report and negotiations with manufacturers have been engaged.

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  • 4.
    Asplund, Ruben
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Railway curve squeal: Statistical analysis of train speed impact on squeal noise2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 5.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE; Al-Azhar University, Qena, Egypt.
    Abawajy, JemalDeakin University, Australia.
    Security and Privacy in the Internet of Things: Architectures, Techniques, and Applications2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast amount of data generated by the Internet of Things (IoT) has made information and cyber security vital for not only personal privacy, but also for the sustainability of the IoT itself. Security and Privacy in the Internet of Things brings together high-quality research on IoT security models, architectures, techniques, and application domains. This concise yet comprehensive volume explores state-of-the-art mitigations in IoT security while addressing important security and privacy challenges across different IoT layers. The book provides timely coverage of IoT architecture, security technologies and mechanisms, and applications. The authors outline emerging trends in IoT security and privacy with a focus on areas such as smart environments and e-health. Topics include authentication and access control, attack detection and prevention, securing IoT through traffic modeling, human aspects in IoT security, and IoT hardware security. Presenting the current body of knowledge in a single volume, Security and Privacy in the Internet of Things:

    • Discusses a broad range of IoT attacks and defense mechanisms • Examines IoT security and privacy protocols and approaches • Covers both the logical and physical security of IoT devices • Addresses IoT security through network traffic modeling • Describes privacy preserving techniques in smart cities • Explores current threat and vulnerability analyses

    Security and Privacy in the Internet of Things: Architectures, Techniques, and Applications is essential reading for researchers, industry practitioners, and students involved in IoT security development and IoT systems deployment.

  • 6.
    Baroumand, Salman
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fasa University, Fasa, Iran.
    Zaman, Amirreza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Mihaylova, Lyudmila
    Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Attack detection and fault‐tolerant control of interconnected cyber‐physical systems against simultaneous replayed time‐delay and false‐data injection attacks2023In: IET Control Theory & Applications, ISSN 1751-8644, E-ISSN 1751-8652, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 527-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, interconnected cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are widely used with increasing deployments of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications. Other than operating properly under system uncertainties, CPSs should be secured under unwanted adversaries. To mark such challenges, this paper proposes the solution of secure decentralized robust control for uncertain CPSs under replayed time-delay and false-data injection attacks altogether. Potentially, considered attacks can force the whole system to instability and crash. Three challenges are addressed, and solutions are presented: (1) model non-linearity and uncertainties, (2) existing simultaneous time-delay and potential false-data injection attacks with skew probability density functions, and (3) requirement to use real-time attack detection. Thus, a novel, robust control method to deal with thwart attacks on a closed-loop control system is proposed to provide the system's trustworthiness. Additionally, novel attack detection methodologies are presented to detect these advanced attacks rapidly based on statistical methods such as Spearman's correlation coefficient, Neyman–Pearson (NP) error classification, and trend analysis. Ultimately, the proposed novel attack detection and robust control protocol are verified and evaluated in real-time.

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  • 7.
    Bengtsson, Thom
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Snäll, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Portabel nätverksövervakning och prestandatest2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work has been done as an assignment from CGI with the ambition to find an opensource program that provides both network monitoring and performance testing. Theprogram should be able to run on a portable server or other machine, to allow for datagathering of one network one day and of another network the next day. Due to the currentstate of society all work is done *remotely*, restricting tests to only be performed onsmaller private networks. Much time is put into research to find the programs that intheory would work for the purpose. It's quickly revealed that with open source as ademand, a single program is not an option, thus the search is expanded. Tests areperformed where the programs are graded by useability and functions that facilitateredeployment of the server between network sites. The results for network monitoring arethe programs OpenNMS Horizon and NetXMS, which both lived up to the demands. Theprogram chosen for performance testing is Flent, which among others combines Iperf andNetperf in its tests and presents the results in graphs.The limited time affected ouropportunities to test all the programs we came across and the current pandemic limitedour opportunities to test our chosen programs to a greater extent.The goal of finding onesolution was not accomplished and instead resulted in two separate pieces of software.These are found to accomplish their respective goals.

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  • 8.
    Bergerstam, Fanny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Enhancing information mediation to employees at Willys: How a analysis of Willys onboarding process led to a mobile application for employees2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A well thought out process is today a commonly used approach to enable new employees to become efficientin their new role. Axfood is a Swedish company group that operates in the food and logistics industry. Thegroup includes chains as Willys & Hemköp, among others. With over ten thousand employees and a growingcompany the need for recruitment is always present. Axfood is currently in the process of reorganizing theirinternal onboarding processes, rebuilding it from the ground up. This master thesis has been a part of thisbigger initiative and have focused on the onboarding process at the store chain Willys.

    The project has followed the human centered design process, developed by IDEO. This process includes thethree phases, inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The methods used to reach a final result has been interviews,user journey maps, creative workshop, ideation methods, wireframing, prototyping and user testing. In the inspiration phase the current state and the users experiences of the onboarding process was explored.This made it possible to identify enhancement opportunities, one of them being the fact that none of the askedemployees did continuously use Willys intranet. In decision with Axfood, this opportunity was selected as thefocus of the solutions proposal. When the project reached the creative phase it therefore had a new direction,which led: how can Axfood use digital tools to reach employees and distribute information in an attractiveway?

    Throughout the creative and implementation phase a solution for this problem was explored, prototyped,tested and enhanced.The project resulted in a solutions proposal in the form of a mobile application aimed to employees. Thesolution functions as an inspiration of how Axfood can mediate information to employees in a attractive anduser friendly way. The content has been developed based on the user groups request and needs, providingthem with information and support that make them more efficient in their role. Beyond the final result theproject has also contributed Axfood with usable data of their employees needs and knowledge of how humancentered methods can be used in the future.

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  • 9.
    Bezerra, Nibia Souza
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Saguna, Saguna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    de Sousa Jr., Vicente A.
    Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN).
    Temperature Impact in LoRaWAN: A Case Study in Northern Sweden2019In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 20, article id 4414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LoRaWAN has become popular as an IoT enabler. The low cost, ease of installation and the capacity of fine-tuning the parameters make this network a suitable candidate for the deployment of smart cities. In northern Sweden, in the smart region of Skellefteå, we have deployed a LoRaWAN to enable IoT applications to assist the lives of citizens. As Skellefteå has a subarctic climate, we investigate how the extreme changes in the weather happening during a year affect a real LoRaWAN deployment in terms of SNR, RSSI and the use of SF when ADR is enabled. Additionally, we evaluate two propagation models (Okumura-Hata and ITM) and verify if any of those models fit the measurements obtained from our real-life network. Our results regarding the weather impact show that cold weather improves the SNR while warm weather makes the sensors select lower SFs, to minimize the time-on-air. Regarding the tested propagation models, Okumura-Hata has the best fit to our data, while ITM tends to overestimate the RSSI values.

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  • 10.
    Booth, Todd
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Critical Infrastructure Network DDoS Defense, via Cognitive Learning2017In: / [ed] Pietro Manzoni, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some public and private services are called part of the Critical Infrastructure (CI), which are considered as the most important services to protect the functioning of a society and the economy.  Many CIs provide services via the Internet and thus cyber-attacks can be performed remotely.  It is now very simple and free to find and download software, which automates performing cyber-attacks.  A recent example is that two teenagers, with close to no security knowledge, created an on-line business. They would run cyber-attacks (online booter service called vDOS, as reported by Brian Krebs) for a small fee. They reportedly earned over 600,000 USD in a short period of time by conducting a large number of automated DDoS cyber-attacks. Then Krebs was retaliated against, and the highest DDoS attack bandwidth ever recorded, 620 Gbps, was launched against Krebs. In this paper we show how cognitive learning can be used to significantly mitigate any effects of DDoS network attacks, against the critical infrastructure.

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  • 11.
    Browne Mwakyanjala, Moses
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. REMOS Space Systems AB, Norrbotten, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Petrus
    Satellite Management Services, SSC—Swedish Space Corporation, Solna, Sweden.
    de Oliviera, Élcio Jeronimo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    van de Beek, Jaap
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Feasibility of using a software-defined baseband for multiple space per aperture (MSPA) ground operations2022In: International Journal of Satellite Communications And Networking, ISSN 1542-0973, E-ISSN 1542-0981, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 133-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the feasibility of performing multiple spacecraft per aperture (MSPA) ground operations by using a low-cost software-defined baseband (SDB). The SDB is a Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS)-compliant baseband that employs a personal computer for signal processing and a low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf RF front end for RF signal sampling. The SDB is customized to offer traditional telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services for near-Earth missions operating in S band. The study starts by reviewing MSPA methods already studied by space agencies such as NASA and ESA before going to MSPA methods proposed in the latest CCSDS blue book on RF and modulation systems. The feasibility of operating the CCSDS-proposed multiple uplink carrier MSPA method using the SDB is assessed after evaluating in-band interference and out-of-band emissions from the uplink signals radiated by the low-cost RF front end employed by the SDB. Furthermore, we present a case study where the SDB is used in MSPA operations on a typical solid-state amplifier (SSPA) amplifier typically used in near-Earth missions. 

  • 12.
    Bäckström, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Mätning och analysering utav trådlöst nätverk för skola2023Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 13.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders Kim
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Wall, Daniel
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Fogelberg, Axel
    GEAB, Sweden.
    Lidström, Erica
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Advanced fault location in compensated distribution networks2016In: CIRED Workshop 2016, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a novel fault location system for compensated networks. The work is performed as a part of the ongoing EU FP7 project called DICERN, involving five distribution network operators and several manufacturers and research institutes in Europe. In order to achieve its main goal of finding optimal level of intelligence in distribution grids the demonstration sites play a key role in achieving the central goals of the project. The aim of the Swedish demonstration is to gain knowledge on smart grid network operations and find a cost effective solution for monitoring the medium voltage (MV) network using “simple” sensors. The main objective is to geographically pinpoint faults in the distribution network and furthermore to evaluate the functionality of MV monitoring for fast and reliable fault identification and indicating distance to faults.

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  • 14.
    Casselgren, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reusable road condition information system for traffic safety and targeted maintenance2017In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 230-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver awareness of current winter road conditions (RCs) is known to affect the frequency of accidents due to sudden changes in these conditions. For example, partially icy roads that appear during autumn in northern areas typically result in collisions and ditch runs unless the drivers are generally aware of the situation. Availing motorists who drive under winter RCs of enhanced information is therefore highly desirable to increase their awareness of hazardous driving conditions. Such conditions need to be predicted ahead of time and presented to drivers before they attempt slippery road sections. Moreover, the identification of slippery RCs should quickly trigger targeted road maintenance to reduce the risk of accidents. This study presents a scalable and reusable collaborative intelligent transport system, herein referred to as an RC information system (RCIS). RCIS provides accurate RC predictions and forecasts based on RC measurements, road weather observations, and short-term weather forecasts. The prediction methods in the context of the distributed RCIS have been tested using a prototype implementation. These tests confirmed that these inputs could be combined into useful and accurate information about winter RCs that can be adapted for different types of users.

  • 15.
    Chiaraviglio, Luca
    et al.
    EE Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy; Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Telecomunicazioni, Italy.
    D’Andreagiovanni, Fabio
    National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), France; Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, CNRS, Heudiasyc UMR 7253, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne, France.
    Idzikowski, Filip
    Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications, Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Minimum Cost Design of 5G Networks with UAVs, Tree-based Optical Backhauling, Micro-generation and Batteries2019In: 2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) / [ed] Marek Jaworski; Marian Marciniak, IEEE, 2019, article id We.D2.3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We target the minimum cost design of a 5G network exploiting Small Cells (SCs) carried by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In our architecture, UAV-SCs can be recharged by a set of ground sites, which provide energy capabilities thanks to the exploitation of micro-generation (i.e., locally produced energy) and batteries. In addition, the ground sites are connected by means of a set of optical fibers forming a tree-based topology. We then define an optimization problem to minimize the total installation costs of the ground sites, the optical network, the batteries, and the sources of micro-generation, while ensuring the coverage of the territory through the UAV-SCs. Results demonstrate that it is possible to notably reduce the total costs compared to a legacy solution, which assumes the installation of fixed Base Stations (BSs) to provide full territory coverage.

  • 16.
    Damigos, Gerasimos
    et al.
    Ericsson Research, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Tore
    Ericsson Research, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Toward 5G Edge Computing for Enabling Autonomous Aerial Vehicles2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 3926-3941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offloading processes responsible for a robot’s control operation to external computational resources has been in the spotlight for many years. The vision of having access to a full cloud cluster for any autonomous robot has fueled many scientific fields. Such implementations rely strongly on a robust communication link between the robot and the cloud and have been tested over numerous network architectures. However, various limitations have been highlighted upon the realization of such platforms. For small-scale local deployments, technologies such as Wi-Fi, Zigbee, and blacktooth are inexpensive and easy to use but suffer from low transmit power and outdoor coverage limitations. In this study, the offloading time-critical control operations for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using cellular network technologies were evaluated and demonstrated experimentally, focusing on the 5G technology. The control process was hosted on an edge server that served as a ground control station (GCS). The server performs all the computations required for the autonomous operation of the UAV and sends the action commands back to the UAV over the 5G interface. This research focuses on analyzing the low-latency needs of a closed-loop control system that is put to the test on a real 5G network. Furthermore, practical limitations, integration challenges, the intended cellular architecture, and the corresponding Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that correlate to the real-life behavior of the UAV are rigorously studied.

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  • 17.
    Damigos, Gerasimos
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Lindgren, Tore
    Ericsson Research, Laboratoriegränd 11, 977 53 Luleå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Sara
    Ericsson Research, Laboratoriegränd 11, 977 53 Luleå, Sweden.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Performance of Sensor Data Process Offloading on 5G-Enabled UAVs2023In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, no 2, article id 864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-oriented applications have been growing worldwide. Thus, there is a strong interest in using UAVs for applications requiring wide-area connectivity coverage. Such applications might be power line inspection, road inspection, offshore site monitoring, wind turbine inspections, and others. The utilization of cellular networks, such as the fifth-generation (5G) technology, is often considered to meet the requirement of wide-area connectivity. This study quantifies the performance of 5G-enabled UAVs when sensor data throughput requirements are within the 5G network’s capability and when throughput requirements significantly exceed the capability of the 5G network, respectively. Our experimental results show that in the first case, the 5G network maintains bounded latency, and the application behaves as expected. In the latter case, the overloading of the 5G network results in increased latency, dropped packets, and overall degradation of the application performance. Our findings show that offloading processes requiring moderate sensor data rates work well, while transmitting all the raw data generated by the UAV’s sensors is not possible. This study highlights and experimentally demonstrates the impact of critical parameters that affect real-life 5G-enabled UAVs that utilize the edge-offloading power of a 5G cellular network.

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  • 18.
    Damigos, Gerasimos
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems. Ericsson Research, Ericsson, Laboratoriegränd 11, Luleå, 977 53, Norrbotten, Sweden.
    Stathoulopoulos, Nikolaos
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Koval, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Lindgren, Tore
    Ericsson Research, Ericsson, Laboratoriegränd 11, Luleå, 977 53, Norrbotten, Sweden.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Communication-Aware Control of Large Data Transmissions via Centralized Cognition and 5G Networks for Multi-Robot Map merging2024In: Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, ISSN 0921-0296, E-ISSN 1573-0409, Vol. 110, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple modern robotic applications benefit from centralized cognition and processing schemes. However, modern equipped robotic platforms can output a large amount of data, which may exceed the capabilities of modern wireless communication systems if all data is transmitted without further consideration. This research presents a multi-agent, centralized, and real-time 3D point cloud map merging scheme for ceaselessly connected robotic agents. Centralized architectures enable mission awareness to all agents at all times, making tasks such as search and rescue more effective. The centralized component is placed on an edge server, ensuring low communication latency, while all agents access the server utilizing a fifth-generation (5G) network. In addition, the proposed solution introduces a communication-aware control function that regulates the transmissions of map instances to prevent the creation of significant data congestion and communication latencies as well as address conditions where the robotic agents traverse in limited to no coverage areas. The presented framework is agnostic of the used localization and mapping procedure, while it utilizes the full power of an edge server. Finally, the efficiency of the novel established framework is being experimentally validated based on multiple scenarios.

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  • 19.
    Eriksson, Göran A.P.
    et al.
    Ericsson Research.
    Mattsson, John
    Ericsson Research.
    Mitra, Nilo
    Ericsson Research.
    Sarker, Zaheduzzaman
    Ericsson Research.
    Blind cache: A solution to content delivery challenges in an all-encrypted web2017In: Ericsson review (English ed.), ISSN 0014-0171, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 8-19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Fabian, de Laval
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    5G Cell Search: A Matlab prototype2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis sets out to implement the  first part of the user equipment side of the 5G random access procedure in Matlab connected to a software defined radio device. The goal is to successfully transmit the  first random access preamble to a 5G base station located at LTU. A full implementation successfully decoding the  first three system messages Master Information Block, Downlink Control Information and System Information Block 1 was developed. A successful transmission of the random access preambles was not possible as the Matlab SDR API did not provide enough control of the timing of transmitted samples.

  • 21. Faiz, M.
    et al.
    Zaslavsky, Arkady
    Database replica management strategies in multidatabase systems with mobile hosts1996In: Database Reengineering and Interoperability, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 1996, p. 323-336Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Database systems, wireless communication technologies and advanced applications have given rise to new and challenging problems which have to be dealt with in multidatabase systems (MDS). This paper addresses a classification of various replica control protocols as an integral part of MDS with an emphasis on workstation mobility issues. The paper proposes and discusses modifications that have to be made to replicated database management strategies in order to address the effect of mobility on the existing replica control protocols. In a mobile environment replication will be an essential technique providing reliable distributed computing and data availability to MDS users. It is argued that the existing algorithms have to be tuned for a mobile environment and it is discussed what this may entail. As an illustration, a variation of the primary copy algorithm, called “virtual primary copy” method is proposed and discussed and it is shown that it is well suited for the mobile environment.

  • 22.
    Hasselfors, Victor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers.
    Characterization and Modeling of mm-Wave Power Amplifiers2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation of mobile communication (5G) is upon us, and with that newtypes of technologies are needed for improved data rates, reliability, response timeand increased utilization. In this report, two highly efficient linear power amplifiersare characterized and tested with simulated communication signals. The purpose ofthe amplifiers is to be integrated into antenna arrays that will transmit amplifiedcommunication signals to mobile users.One of the amplifiers is tested with modulated communication signals with anoptimized gate bias value. The amplifier shows during the final tests high-efficiencylevels of up to 40% and is still able to behave linearly with>20 dB gain and lowerror vector magnitude below 1%.The fundamental theory for signal processing is described at the beginning of thereport, followed by an overview of the experimental setup built during the thesis formeasuring modulated signals through amplifiers.

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  • 23.
    Hägglund, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Geo-process lookup management2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a method to deploy and lookup applications and devices based on a geographical location. The proposed solution is a combination of two existing technologies, where the first one is a geocode system to encode latitude and longitude coordinates, and the second one is a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) where values are stored and accessed with a $<$key,value$>$ pair. The purpose of this work is to be able to search a specific location for the closest device that solves the user needs, such as finding an Internet of Things (IoT) device. The thesis covers a method for searching by iterating key-value pairs in the DHT and expanding the area to find the devices further away. The search is performed using two main algorithm implementations LayerExpand and SpiralBoxExpand, to scan the area around where the user started the search. LayerExpand and SpiralBoxExpand are tested and evaluated in comparison to each other. The comparison results are presented in the form of plots where both of the functions are shown together. The function analysis results show how the size of the DHT, the number of users, and size of the search area affects the performance of the searches.

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  • 24.
    Ibrahim, Emad Farouk
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Selected Topics on Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces2022Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is a promising technology for wireless communications applications. A RIS is a thin planar array that consists of multiple reflecting elements, each of which is connected to a tunable chip and can induce a controllable reflection coefficient to the incident signal. The RIS is a nearly passive unit as it only leverages the reflection on its elements and it does not consume any power for transmission. Furthermore, RISs can actively control the propagation channel, by accurately tuning the reflection coefficients of their elements to fit a specific need. The advantage of the RIS arises in creating energy-efficient smart radio environments wherein the wireless channel becomes an optimization variable. In this thesis, we study some of the potential applications and deployments for the RIS in wireless communications. First, the multiple-input multiple-output channel matrix in line-of-sight (LoS) environments turns out to be rank deficient such that spatial multiplexing becomes unattainable. Thus, we exploit the RISs to create additional degrees of freedom by synthesizing a sort of multi-path propagation. Then, we optimize the transmit covariance matrix and the reflection coefficients of the RISs using an alternating optimization algorithm to maximize the achievable rate. Alternatively, we propose different schemes to enhance the composite channel power which would result in an improvement to the achievable rate. Second, we characterize the efficient regions of RIS deployments with single and multiple antenna systems in Rician fading channels. We show that in RIS-aided single antenna systems, near RIS deployments relative to the transmitter or receiver are always better than far deployments. Moreover, we show that in RIS-aided multiple antenna systems, the efficient regions of operations are highly dependent on the propagation environment itself. In LoS environments, both the near and far deployments can result in substantial achievable rate gains. However, as the channel becomes richer with multipath, near deployments gradually become more efficient than the far deployments. Third, we propose the RIS to act as an access point for information transfer by exploiting the polarization control ability of the RIS. In particular, the RIS alternates the polarization state of the reflected waves to perform conventional as well as differential polarization shift keying (PolSK) modulation schemes. In RIS-aided conventional PolSK, two different schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, the receiver corrects for the polarization mismatch loss that occurs in the wireless channel. In the second scheme, the RIS additionally pre-codes the reflected wave to compensate for the polarization mismatch. In RIS-aided differential PolSK, the detection process is independent of the polarization mismatch. Thus, there is no need for a polarization mismatch compensation process by either the receiver or the RIS.

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  • 25.
    Ibrahim, Emad Farouk
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nilsson, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    van de Beek, Jaap
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Binary Polarization Shift Keying with Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces2022In: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, ISSN 2162-2337, E-ISSN 2162-2345, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 908-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel binary polarization shift keying modulation scheme for a line-of-sight environment by exploiting the polarization control ability of the reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS). The RIS encodes the information data in terms of the polarization states of either the reflected wave from the RIS or the composite wireless channel between an RF source and receiver. In the first case, polarization mismatch correction becomes essential at the receiver. In the second case, the RIS pre-codes the reflected wave to compensate for the polarization mismatch which allows non-coherent demodulation at the receiver.

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  • 26.
    Ibrahim, Emad Farouk
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Nilsson, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    van de Beek, Jaap
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Differential Polarization Shift Keying Through Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces2022In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-aided differential polarization shift keying modulation scheme for a line-of-sight environment. In this scheme, the RIS exploits the state of polarization (SoP) of the reflected waves over two successive reflection frames to encode the data bit. In particular, the RIS either preserves the SoP of the reflected wave similar to the previous reflection frame or switches it to another orthogonal SoP as a function of the information data bits. The proposed scheme allows non-coherent data detection without the need for polarization mismatch estimation and compensation processes at the receiver.    

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  • 27.
    Javed, Saleha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Department of Computer Science, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Chiniot-Faisalabad Campus, Chiniot, Pakistan.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mokayed, Hamam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Deep Ontology Alignment Using a Natural Language Processing Approach for Automatic M2M Translation in IIoT2023In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, no 20, article id 8427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technical capabilities of modern Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0 are vast and growing exponentially daily. The present-day Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) combines manifold underlying technologies that require real-time interconnection and communication among heterogeneous devices. Smart cities are established with sophisticated designs and control of seamless machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, to optimize resources, costs, performance, and energy distributions. All the sensory devices within a building interact to maintain a sustainable climate for residents and intuitively optimize the energy distribution to optimize energy production. However, this encompasses quite a few challenges for devices that lack a compatible and interoperable design. The conventional solutions are restricted to limited domains or rely on engineers designing and deploying translators for each pair of ontologies. This is a costly process in terms of engineering effort and computational resources. An issue persists that a new device with a different ontology must be integrated into an existing IoT network. We propose a self-learning model that can determine the taxonomy of devices given their ontological meta-data and structural information. The model finds matches between two distinct ontologies using a natural language processing (NLP) approach to learn linguistic contexts. Then, by visualizing the ontological network as a knowledge graph, it is possible to learn the structure of the meta-data and understand the device&apos;s message formulation. Finally, the model can align entities of ontological graphs that are similar in context and structure.Furthermore, the model performs dynamic M2M translation without requiring extra engineering or hardware resources.

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  • 28.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    3D modeling of mineshaft using autonomous quad rotor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master's thesis a multirotor with the ability to scan its surroundingswas built. To be able to produce these scans the multirotor will be equippedwith a custom built 3D LIDAR. In the future, the scans will be used togenerate a 3D map to visualize mineshafts in a well suited way for inspections.This multirotor is designed with the purpose to map mineshafts that areinaccessible to humans, due to safety reasons. To produce a 3D map of themultirotor surroundings the absolute position is needed. Since the multirotorwill be used in an environment where GPS is unavailable, the positioning issolved by utilizing an IMU and Computer Vision technology with a Rangingdevice.The functionality has been tested in a lab environment resembling real lifeoperational conditions, and conrms that it is possible to use this approachto scan an environment where it is possible to have the multirotor in line-ofsightfor the camera.The 3D scanning is relaying on a stable Wi-Fi connection and absolute positionand as long as this is established it is possible to use this point cloudfor inspection.The positioning of the multirotor is tested up to a range of 40 m, with amaximum measured accuracy of 5 cm, which is well within the range ofthe requirements of the application.

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  • 29.
    Kahawala, Sachin
    et al.
    Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.
    De Silva, Daswin
    Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland.
    Alahakoon, Damminda
    Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.
    Nawaratne, Rashmika
    Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Jennings, Andrew
    Centre for Data Analytics and Cognition, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland.
    Robust Multi-Step Predictor for Electricity Markets with Real-Time Pricing2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 14, article id 4378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time electricity pricing mechanisms are emerging as a key component of the smart grid. However, prior work has not fully addressed the challenges of multi-step prediction (Predicting multiple time steps into the future) that is accurate, robust and real-time. This paper proposes a novel Artificial Intelligence-based approach, Robust Intelligent Price Prediction in Real-time (RIPPR), that overcomes these challenges. RIPPR utilizes Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) to transform the spot price data stream into sub-series that are optimized for robustness using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. These sub-series are inputted to a Random Vector Functional Link neural network algorithm for real-time multi-step prediction. A mirror extension removal of VMD, including continuous and discrete spaces in the PSO, is a further novel contribution that improves the effectiveness of RIPPR. The superiority of the proposed RIPPR is demonstrated using three empirical studies of multi-step price prediction of the Australian electricity market.

  • 30.
    Kallsäby, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Modular MiniTest Tester2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    RealTest is a company located in V¨aster˚as, Sweden, that works with embedded systems and test systems. RealTest had a need for a new test system for one of their products, the MiniTester (MT) mk2 that is used to test Drive Control Units (DCUs) used on trains. The problems that had to be solved were, finding out the most common faults of the product, make the test system modifiable and scalable, have a software running on a Windows PC with a working GUI and test logic and design a hardware component measurement unit to generate and measure signals.

    The system described in this report is the software parts of the developed MiniTest tester that runs on a Windows PC as well as the hardware design. The programming of the measurement unit and the testing of that unit is not covered by this report.

    The hardware consist of custom PCBs and Arduino boards. The Windows PC programs implemented a GUI and test logic according to the goals with a few exceptions left for further work. These programs have been evaluated by emulating the hardware. The system is shown to be modifiable in practice by implementation and scalable in theory

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  • 31.
    Kanwar, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Detecting and identifying radio jamming attacks in low-power wireless sensor networks2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used in all kinds of different sectors ranging from agriculture, environment, healthcare and the military. Embedded systems such as sensor nodes are low-power and consist of low memory, which creates a challenge for its security. One of WSN’s worst enemies is interference radio jamming attacks. They are easy to construct and execute, but hard to detect and identify. In this thesis, we tackle the problems of detecting, but most importantly identifying, and distinguishing the most commonly used interference radio jamming attacks. Presenting SpeckSense++, a firmware that makes it possible for low-power embedded systems to detect, identify and distinguish interference radio jamming attacks and unintentional interference such as Bluetooth and WiFi to a certain degree. Showing an accuracy of 96 to 90 % for proactive jammers, 89% for reactive, and 92 to 85 % for unintentional interference.

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  • 32.
    Kanwar, John
    et al.
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Sweden.
    Finne, Niclas
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Sweden.
    Tsiftes, Nicolas
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Sweden.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Sweden.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    He, Zhitao
    ASSA ABLOY, Sweden.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Saguna, Saguna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    JamSense: Interference and Jamming Classification for Low-power Wireless Networks2021In: 2021 13th IFIP Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), IEEE, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power wireless networks transmit at low output power and are hence susceptible to cross-technology interference. The latter may cause packet loss which may waste scarce energy resources by requiring the retransmission of packets. Jamming attacks are even more harmful than cross-technology interference in that they may totally prevent packet reception and hence disturb or even disrupt applications. Therefore, it is important to recognize such jamming attacks. In this paper, we present JamSense. JamSense extends SpeckSense, a system that is able to detect multiple sources of interference, with the ability to classify jamming attacks. As SpeckSense, JamSense runs on resource-constrained nodes. Our experimental evaluation on real hardware shows that JamSense is able to identify jamming attacks with high accuracy while not classifying Bluetooth or WiFi interference as jamming attacks.

  • 33.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. Department of Computer Science (DIDA), Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Awaysheh, Feras M.
    Institute of Computer Science, Data Systems Research Group, Tartu University, 51009 Tartu, Estonia.
    Ikuesan, Richard A.
    Cyber and Network Security Department, Community College Qatar, Doha 00974, Qatar.
    Alawadi, Sadi A.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alshehri, Mohammad Dahman
    Department of Computer Science, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.
    A Blockchain-Based Multi-Factor Authentication Model for a Cloud-Enabled Internet of Vehicles2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 18, article id 6018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous and emerging advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have enabled Internet-of-Things (IoT)-to-Cloud applications to be induced by data pipelines and Edge Intelligence-based architectures. Advanced vehicular networks greatly benefit from these architectures due to the implicit functionalities that are focused on realizing the Internet of Vehicle (IoV) vision. However, IoV is susceptible to attacks, where adversaries can easily exploit existing vulnerabilities. Several attacks may succeed due to inadequate or ineffective authentication techniques. Hence, there is a timely need for hardening the authentication process through cutting-edge access control mechanisms. This paper proposes a Blockchain-based Multi-Factor authentication model that uses an embedded Digital Signature (MFBC_eDS) for vehicular clouds and Cloud-enabled IoV. Our proposed MFBC_eDS model consists of a scheme that integrates the Security Assertion Mark-up Language (SAML) to the Single Sign-On (SSO) capabilities for a connected edge to cloud ecosystem. MFBC_eDS draws an essential comparison with the baseline authentication scheme suggested by Karla and Sood. Based on the foundations of Karla and Sood’s scheme, an embedded Probabilistic Polynomial-Time Algorithm (ePPTA) and an additional Hash function for the Pi generated during Karla and Sood’s authentication were proposed and discussed. The preliminary analysis of the proposition shows that the approach is more suitable to counter major adversarial attacks in an IoV-centered environment based on the Dolev–Yao adversarial model while satisfying aspects of the Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) triad.

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  • 34.
    Lam, An Ngoc
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. Faculty of Computer Science, Engineering and Economics, Østfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Haugen, Øystein
    Faculty of Computer Science, Engineering and Economics, Østfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Dynamical Orchestration and Configuration Services in Industrial IoT Systems: An Autonomic Approach2022In: IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, E-ISSN 2644-1284, Vol. 3, p. 128-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) enables the integration of physical devices such as sensors and actuators into the virtual world of automation application systems via different communication protocols. Interoperability among the "things" appears to be one of the biggest conceptual and technological challenges in developing the IIoT framework. Typically, collaboration at the field device level is very limited. Instead, the decision-making process is usually propagated to higher levels with substantial computational resources. This centralized architecture has been widely deployed based on global cloud infrastructure. However, sending data over the cloud for analysis may bring about privacy and security threats. Besides, network latency could be another factor that reduces adaptability. In this article, we propose a decentralized approach that applies the concepts of local automation cloud. By using semantic technologies to achieve autonomicity, the approach enables real-time monitoring of the control systems within one local cloud and automates orchestration and configuration locally through adaptation based on semantic policies. The approach is deployed and tested on a chemical production use case in which business-level policies have been used for dynamical planning for suppliers and automatic detection of malfunctioning sensors with subsequent adaptation to continuing supply planning and production as smooth as possible. 

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  • 35.
    Li, Yuhong
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Su, Xiang
    Centre for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Lindgren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. SICS Swedish ICT, Kista, Sweden.
    Shi, Xinyue
    State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Cai, Xiang
    State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Riekki, Jukka
    Centre for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Que, Xirong
    State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, China.
    Distance Assisted Information Dissemination with Broadcast Suppression for ICN-based VANET2016In: / [ed] Hsu C.-H.,Wang S.,Zhou A.,Shawkat A, Springer, 2016, p. 179-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information-centric networking (ICN) is being applied to the vehicular networks by more and more researchers on account of its lightweight and connectionless networking paradigm and in-network caching characteristics, making it suitable for the dynamic environments of vehicular networks. However, wireless transmission of interest packets to find content in the network may lead to broadcast storms that can affect the performance of information dissemination severely. This paper proposes a distance assisted data dissemination method with broadcast storm suppressing mechanism (DASB) for supporting rapid and efficient information dissemination in ICN-based vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Geo-position data of vehicles are used to accelerate packet forwarding, and vehicular nodes in certain areas are restricted to forward packets in order to suppress the broadcast storm. Simulation results show that the proposed method can greatly reduce the total number of packets transmitted in the network, and the successful information delivery ratio and information delivery time can also be improved.

  • 36.
    Li, Yuhong
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing.
    Wang, Ji
    State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing.
    Lindgren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Su, Xiang
    Centre for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu.
    Riekki, Jukka
    Centre for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu.
    Implicit Cooperative Caching based on Information Popularity for Vehicular Networks2017In: CHANTS 2017: Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Challenged Networks, co-located with MobiCom 201720 October 2017, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 51-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information dissemination is one of the most important tasks of vehicular networks. Therefore, information-centric networking (ICN) technology is being more and more widely used in vehicular networks due to the connectionless and lightweight characteristics of this networking paradigm. Caching plays an essential role in information-centric networks, but current caching techniques for ICN are not ideal for use in vehicular networks on account of the dynamicity and wireless transmission of vehicular networks. This paper presents a caching approach for ICN-based vehicular networks that takes into account both the dynamicity of vehicular networks and the popularity of the information to be distributed. By introducing the “interval” metric and estimating the popularity of information and current networking conditions of the vehicles on road, cooperative caching among nodes can be realized without exchanging cache management information among them. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can increase the storage space utilization and has low data response time for vehicular networks.

  • 37.
    Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Björkman, Mats
    Feasibility of ICN in Automation Networks2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Liu, Ximeng
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Information Security of Network Systems, College of Computer and Data Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China.
    Deng, Robert H.
    School of Information Systems, Singapore Management University, Singapore 178902, Singapore.
    Miao, Yinbin
    School of Cyber Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China; Guangxi Key Laboratory of Trusted Software, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, China.
    Vasilakos, Athanasios V.
    School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.
    Guest Editorial: 5G-enabled Intelligent Application for Distributed Industrial Internet-of-Thing System2022In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 2807-2810Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a novel network infrastructure that realizes the interconnection of humans, machines, and things, the 5G-based or blockchain-based applications have been widely deployed in the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). However, there are still many challenges to be solved, such as poor scalability, low efficiency, and privacy leakages. In the special issue, we present eight advanced solutions in data analysis, secure communication, authentication, access control, and data deduplication.

  • 39.
    Lundberg, Christoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    CoFramer: Ett diskussionsformat för djupa diskussioner på publika forum med låg Information Overload inspirerat av Philosophy for Children2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this essay is to develop a design concept for online public discussions with deep discussions and low information overload. The method used is Concept Driven Interaction Design (CDID) which involves constructing a design concept by applying a variety of theories in tangible interaction design. A design concept has three basic parts: a name, high-level goals and outlines generic principles. CDID includes seven steps which is used in this work:

    1.      Concept Generation – Formatted into a table that compare forum discussion (with several hypothesis) compared to discussions with the method Philosophy for Children (P4C) and other theories.

    2.      Concept Exploration – Eight distinct design aspects are identified from the comparison table.

    3.      Internal Concept Critique – The design aspects are compared to three similar discussion formats.

    4.      Design of Artifacts – Design concept version 1 is created.

    5.      External Design Critique – Interviews are conducted to explore their general experience of online discussions, investigate the hypothesis from the comparison table and to seek direct feedback on the first draft of the design concept.

    6.      Concept Revisited – Changes are made to the design concept based on the interview material and the direct feedback.

    7.      Concept Contextualization – The design concept is related to the original literature.

    The result of the study is a design concept named CoFramer. CoFramer’s generic principles are summarized and contrasted against factors identified from the interview material in this table:

    Tabell 2: CoFramer’s generic principles and interviews about online discussions.

    CoFramer’s generic principles | From interview material on forum discussion

    Organized start and ending | Discussions without clear ending

    Limited number of participants | Large number of participants

    Minimum number of participants | Large number of inactive spectators

    Explicit participants | Low information about participants

    Common conditions | Vagueness in participants conditions

    Limited information density per post | Long posts and/or fast posts

    The red thread and parallel threads | Often parallel threads

    Active facilitator | Unresolved misunderstandings

    The study indicates that CoFramer would create more structured discussions with a lower amount of information overload and less grounding cost compared what normally arise in public online discussions.

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  • 40.
    Lyamin, Nikita
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Kleyko, Denis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Delooz, Quentin
    University of Liège, Belgium.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    AI-Based Malicious Network Traffic Detection in VANETs2018In: IEEE Network, ISSN 0890-8044, E-ISSN 1558-156X, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 15-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inherent unreliability of wireless communications may have crucial consequences when safety-critical C-ITS applications enabled by VANETs are concerned. Although natural sources of packet losses in VANETs such as network traffic congestion are handled by decentralized congestion control (DCC), losses caused by malicious interference need to be controlled too. For example, jamming DoS attacks on CAMs may endanger vehicular safety, and first and foremost are to be detected in real time. Our first goal is to discuss key literature on jamming modeling in VANETs and revisit some existing detection methods. Our second goal is to present and evaluate our own recent results on how to address the real-time jamming detection problem in V2X safety-critical scenarios with the use of AI. We conclude that our hybrid jamming detector, which combines statistical network traffic analysis with data mining methods, allows the achievement of acceptable performance even when random jitter accompanies the generation of CAMs, which complicates the analysis of the reasons for their losses in VANETs. The use case of the study is a challenging platooning C-ITS application, where V2X-enabled vehicles move together at highway speeds with short inter-vehicle gaps.

  • 41.
    Mellberg, Jakob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Analys och planering av Björkskolans trådlösa nätverk: Examensprojekt av Jakob Mellberg2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The wireless network at Björkskolan does not perform optimally where the major issues lies in the hardware used. This prevents the school from separating pupils from staff on different networks. The hardware features contribute to poorer performance on the wireless network. Because of the available hardware more than just the wireless network needs to be reviewed, thus the entire network needs an update.

    Various plans have been developed to meet the needs of the school, where the most advantageous plan is to acquire a new router and four new accesspoints that are placed over the premises to provide separation between the networks, which in turn provides increased security.

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  • 42.
    Minovski, Dimitar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ögren, Niclas
    Network Protocols, InfoVista Sweden AB, Skellefteå, Sweden, Sweden.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mitra, Karan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Throughput Prediction using Machine Learning in LTE and 5G Networks2023In: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, ISSN 1536-1233, E-ISSN 1558-0660, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 1825-1840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of novel cellular network technologies, within 5G, are envisioned as key enablers of a new set of use-cases, including industrial automation, intelligent transportation, and tactile internet. The critical nature of the traffic requirements ranges from ultra-reliable communications, massive connectivity, and enhanced mobile broadband. Thus, the growing research on cellular network monitoring and prediction aims for ensuring a satisfied user-base and fulfillment of service level agreements. The scope of this study is to develop an approach for predicting the cellular link throughput of end-users, with a goal to benchmark the performance of network slices. First, we report and analyze a measurement study involving real-life cases, such as driving in urban, sub-urban, and rural areas, as well as tests in large crowded areas. Second, we develop machine learning models using lower-layer metrics, describing the radio environment, to predict the available throughput. The models are initially validated on the LTE network and then applied to a non-standalone 5G network. Finally, we suggest scaling the proposed model into the future standalone 5G network. We have achieved 93% and 84% R^2 accuracy, with 0.06 and 0.17 mean squared error, in predicting the end-user's throughput in LTE and non-standalone 5G network, respectively.

  • 43.
    Mustakhova, Diana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Sustainable communicating materials2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of smart items are entering our daily lives as the Internet of Things becomes increasingly prevalent. ICT device miniaturization introduces a brand-new material type called Communicating Material (CM). The term “communications material” refers to a single system that includes a material equipped with communication devices. In this paper, the main limitation of CM was studied - the issue of energy consumption. Due to the limited battery capacity of sensor nodes, the issue of network lifetime comes to the fore, emphasizing the importance of power management and optimization for each sensor node. The first and most important step in tackling this problem is to precisely estimate and calculate each node's power usage. In addition, the WSN's embeddedness in the material makes it challenging to replace batteries and measure network power consumption, necessitating the development of a different approach to power consumption estimation. Thus, our work explores all the different approaches to energy estimation in WSN and tries to choose the best method that fits our WSN platform. 

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  • 44.
    Mörtsell, Hugo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Design of an excavator grip: A pilot study and development of an ergonomic Human-Machine interface for excavators2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Excavator industry is developmentally behind many other similar industries. This is, like many parts of these long living machines, true for the controls used to maneuver them. It has few competent control systems that are ergonomic, comfortable, adaptable, durable and intuitive. Existing solutions that fill some of these criteria exist, but the approximate majority of machines in the world lack a good solution and most are equipped with inadequate solutions. 

    The doctrine of Human centered design was applied throughout the pilot study to increase the quality of research and ease finding correlations between instances of information. International standards, Human-machine systems and Anthropometrics were consulted to achieve a result adapted for a larger variety of operators. 

    This thesis consists of the pilot study and prototype development of one such Human-machine-system, more specifically the joystick, or grip as it’s called within the industry. The solution developed is specifically equipped with controls adapted for tiltrotator control. As the grip is developed on behalf of the company engcon, who develops tiltrotators and also the control system including a grip, to offer a complete plug and play solution. 

    The first main objective was performing a pilot study of what is required in the future for excavator grips. Primarily through interviews with excavator operators, but also a benchmarking and a workshop it was determined what must be achieved in terms of technical and ergonomic solutions. 

    The second main objective during the thesis was to create a prototype that achieve a high level in terms of grip form. A form which is comfortable to hold, ergonomic to operate for multiple hours and that is adapted to a larger variety of hand sizes than the competitors. It also required a higher level of stability than the current solution. This shape needed to take internal electronics, ISO-standards and future controls into account. The solution must eventually achieve a high level of manufacturability, of which the groundwork was laid during the thesis, but took lower priority. Further testing is required but results so far seem to point towards this being achieved. 

    This will hopefully post-thesis result in a solution that leads to healthier operators, further enabling female operators entering the field, performing work with higher accuracy and a longer lasting more sustainable product that is intuitive and easy to learn. 

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  • 45.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Evaluation of Secure Long Distance Communication in Non-Urban Environments2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 46.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Machine Learning Concepts for Service Data Interoperability2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation is transforming by ongoing digitalization efforts to create a flexible industrial internet of things, turning manufacturing facilities into large-scale systems of cyber-physical systems. This development requires addressing the challenging issue of making heterogeneous systems, data models, and standards interoperable, a core problem in designing sustainable service-oriented automation frameworks. This thesis reviews the problem of automatically establishing the interoperability of services exchanging heterogeneous message data. A machine-learning architecture is developed, where the optimization of message transcoders and the system of systems utility are mechanisms for establishing interoperability. By optimizing the transcoders using both service- and metadata, the aim is to ground the learned latent representations in the physical environment to improve generalization. Two physical simulation experiments were performed to investigate and evaluate the architecture by generating heterogeneous JSON messages from multiple heating and air conditioning services. The first experiment focuses on unsupervised learning via back-translation for transcoding engineered features of service messages, reaching a maximum translation accuracy of 49%. The second experiment focuses on supervised learning and a modular neural network (JSON2Vec) for automated encoding of the heterogeneous JSON messages, which enables correct message interpretation in terms of the expected system of systems behavior. These results suggest that machine learning is a viable direction in interoperability automation research which can benefit from both symbolic metadata and message data for reliable generalization and adaptation. Appropriate open datasets are required to consolidate the envisioned development and the migration of solutions to automation systems.

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  • 47.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Machine Learning based System–of–Systems Interoperability: A SenML–JSON Case StudyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Nilsson Thapnoi, Carl Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Planering och driftsättning av kontors-LAN2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Imega Media/IT has planned an upgrade for the network within one of the company departments called Display. Hardware is implemented in order to establish a local network and replace the installed Cat5 Ethernet cables with the Cat6 version in order to achieve a higher connection speed. This report documents steps taken in order to analyze and in the best possible way implement the planned upgrade, based on offered hardware and configuration requirements. With the help of a sketch, covering the network topology, one could state that no secondary route existed towards the end switches, therefore guaranteeing that no switching loops could appear after the final installation. Based on the documented topology, improved Ethernet cabling and new hardware were implemented, establishing a new local network. Finally, by using existing hardware resources within the upgraded network, measurements could be made to guarantee that a gigabit speed was reached.

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  • 49.
    Nykvist, Kim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Underwater probe for deep sea exploration: Long range acoustic underwater communication system2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This was a thesis that was commissioned by Researcher Peter Sigray at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm and was based on an idea by Professor Thomas Rossby, University of Rhode Island (URI).

    The idea was to further develop the existing Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT), which has been in use since the 1960s. This by first and foremost replacing existing transfer technology, which involved using a thin copper wire when communicating with the recipient remaining on the ship. The new way in which communication is to take place, is by acoustic signals transmitted from the freely descending probe. The goal is to be able to measure down to greater depth compared to the previous type. The aim is to increase today's in-depth measuring capacity of about 900 meters, down to depth of at least 2000 meters, preferably even deeper.

    The thesis project was divided into several smaller parts, some of which went on in parallel, while others had to have the preceding portion completed, in order for them to take place, i.e., to begin. Initially – and in parallel during the rest of the thesis work – their were studies of two selected books and a set of documents. This to ensure the understanding of all the concepts to be used during the development of the probe. In parallel with the studies, simulations in the computer program COMSOL Multiphysics began. The model probe geometry and material parameters were programmed. An important task was to implement and verify that the so called Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) performed as expected. This was of crucial importance, as different implementations of the PML turned out to result in different outcomes of the simulations’ data. With the results from Perfectly Matched Layer tests verified, the actual simulations could be initiated. Two different pipes were evaluated; one made of stainless steel and the other made of aluminum alloy. Their proportions were slightly different regarding diameter and length. The simulations led to the makings of plots/diagrams over the Transmission Voltage Response (TVR) over a certain frequency range (3000-17000 Hz). Directivity polar plots were also created for both pipes in the program MATLAB and by using a MATLAB. The actual assessment of the probes began in the latter part of the simulation work. There were several different steps in the process of assembling the probes. Finally, the tests in the water tank at The Defense Research Institute (FOI) could take place. For three days all the simulated results were “put to test.” The results during the tests in the water tank at FOI were promising and the remaining challenges, before a complete probe is developed, are achievable. The hypothesis that initially was set got proven, and it can be argued that the thesis as a whole successfully demonstrated it to be true. The idea of the probe is definitely worth further development, in the making of the new version of the Expendable Bathythermograph.

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  • 50.
    Ollars, Emil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Design and characterization of a radio receiver for satellite communication2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increase in volume and speed of data transmissions in recent years, the demand for high-speed satellite communication solutions has increased. This thesis investigates the possibility of making a receiver for satellite radio based on an Analog Devices ADC evaluation board. To do this, evaluation boards for each component were acquired and tested individually before connecting them. The system components include an I/Q demodulator, a local oscillator, and an ADC. Using these components a system design for the radio receiver has been proposed, and its performance analyzed. The SNR of the designed system was measured to26 dB. This performance was deemed to be sufficient for a signal using the BPSKmodulation scheme.

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