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  • 1. Ahmad, Riaz
    et al.
    Afzal, Muhammad Zeshan
    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Breuel, Thomas
    Scale and Rotation Invariant OCR for Pashto Cursive Script using MDLSTM Network2015Ingår i: 13th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, IEEE , 2015, s. 1101-1105Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of cursive scripts like Pashto and Urdu is difficult due the presence of complex ligatures and connected writing styles. In this paper, we evaluate and compare different approaches for the recognition of such complex ligatures. The approaches include Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) network and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). Current state of the art in cursive script assumes constant scale without any rotation, while real world data contain rotation and scale variations. This research aims to evaluate the performance of sequence classifiers like HMM and LSTM and compare their performance with descriptor based classifier like SIFT. In addition, we also assess the performance of these methods against the scale and rotation variations in cursive script ligatures. Moreover, we introduce a database of 480,000 images containing 1000 unique ligatures or sub-words of Pashto. In this database, each ligature has 40 scale and 12 rotation variations. The evaluation results show a significantly improved performance of LSTM over HMM and traditional feature extraction technique such as SIFT. Keywords.

  • 2. Ahmad, Riaz
    et al.
    Afzal, Muhammad Zeshan
    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Dengel, Andreas
    Breuel, Thomas
    Recognizable Units in Pashto Language for OCR2015Ingår i: 13th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, IEEE , 2015, s. 1246-1250Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic segmentation of cursive scripts into con- stituent characters is one of the most challenging problems in pattern recognition. To avoid segmentation in cursive script, concrete shapes are considered as recognizable units. Therefore, the objective of this work is to find out the alternate recognizable units in Pashto cursive script. These alternatives are ligatures and primary ligatures. However, we need sound statistical analysis to find the appropriate numbers of ligatures and primary ligatures in Pashto script. In this work, a corpus of 2, 313, 736 Pashto words are extracted from a large scale diversified web sources, and total of 19, 268 unique ligatures have been identified in Pashto cursive script. Analysis shows that only 7000 ligatures represent 91% portion of overall corpus of the Pashto unique words. Similarly, about 7, 681 primary ligatures are also identified which represent the basic shapes of all the ligatures.

  • 3.
    Alerby, Theodor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure: D0032D Examensarbete2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world were data / network infrastructures grows by the day, it is not unfamiliar for tools that streamline the work and provides a great scalability is put into production. In this paper I will describe one of these solutions called ACI (Application Centric The infrastructure). Cisco ACI is possible thanks to a combination of different components that interact with dedicated hard / software, in this paper the fundamentals behind these different components will be described what ACI is and how it works. This will be compared to a traditional data solution implemented by myself. For four weeks, I worked at Axians IT in Solna researching automation / streamlining solutions and what pros / cons they have on real IT companies and data centers. During these four weeks I worked parallel to my research conducting an implementation of a data solution to the company EEHunddagis to give them their own production environment and then compare my hand configured solution with an automation solution and what pros / cons they both bring with them Automation is something that has risen up in the later years and is still on the rise. I will therefore in this paper explain why these types of solutions are necessary and who could use them in their own network environment. 

  • 4. Amin, Marian Hany
    et al.
    Mohamed, Ehab Kamel
    Elragal, Ahmed
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Corporate Social Responsibility disclosure via Twitter by top listed UK companies: A Data Science Approach2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Amin, Marian Hany
    et al.
    The German University in Cairo.
    Mohamed, Ehab Kamel
    Elragal, Ahmed
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Financial Disclosure on Twitter by Top Listed UK Companies: A Data Science Approach2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing advancements in technology have changed dramatically the disclosure media that companies adopt. Such disclosure media have evolved from the traditional paper-based ones, to the internet as the new platform to disclose information via companies’ designated websites. However, currently the new media for disclosures are the social media. The aim of this paper is to investigate corporate social media accounts for financial disclosure, as well as, identify its determinants. The sample of the study is comprised of the tweets posted on the Twitter accounts belonging to the FTSE 350 constituents. Topic modeling is applied to identify financial disclosure tweets and logistic regression is run to identify the determinants of financial disclosure on Twitter. Results show that companies use Twitter to make corporate disclosures and some board characteristics are found to have a significant relationship with financial disclosure.

  • 6. Amin, Marian Hany
    et al.
    Mohamed, Ehab Kamel
    Elragal, Ahmed
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Twitter: An emerging media for corporate disclosure2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Analysis and quantitative comparison of storage, management, and scalability of data in Core Data system in relation to Realm2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing applications for iOS devices it is very common to use Apple’s own Core Data database system which is a framework handling database persistence for iOS devices among other things, but since there so many different kinds of applications it might not be the best option to use the same database system every time. Realm is another database system for iOS devices, it is very lightweight and a big rival to Core Data. This work was conducted with the goal of finding differences between the database systems Core Data and Realm that might show that one or the other is better used in some cases. The comparison between the systems was divided into two different parts, one theoretical comparison focused on reading and analyzing documentation and development of a test application. The test application tested time of create, read, update and delete operations in relation to increasing number of objects and increased number of properties in each object. The tests on Core Data were made with two different implementations to get the aspect of time difference based on implementation included. The results were fairly similar on the different operations with a slight advantage to Core Data. The big difference was seen in implementation difficulty and usability. The included features in the database system were also considered. Realm included more of commonly used and important features but Core Data gives the user the ability to add most of these in the implementation, this results in a question of user case.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Machine Learning in Logistics: Machine Learning Algorithms: Data Preprocessing and Machine Learning Algorithms2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Data Ductus är ett svenskt IT-konsultbolag, deras kundbas sträcker sig från små startups till stora redan etablerade företag. Företaget har stadigt växt sedan 80-talet och har etablerat kontor både i Sverige och i USA.

    Med hjälp av maskininlärning kommer detta projket att presentera en möjlig lösning på de fel som kan uppstå inom logistikverksamheten, orsakade av den mänskliga faktorn.Ett sätt att förbehandla data innan den tillämpas på en maskininlärning algoritm, liksom ett par algoritmer för användning kommer att presenteras.

  • 9.
    Antti, William
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Virtualized Functional Verification of Cross-Platform Software Applications2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With so many developers writing code, so many choose to become a developer every day, using tools to aid in the work process is needed. With all the testing being done for multiple different devices and sources there is a need to make it better and more efficient. In this thesis connecting the variety of different tools such as version control, project management, issue tracking and test systems is explored as a possible solution. A possible solution was implemented and then analyzed through a questionnaire that were answered by developers. For an example results as high as 75\% answering 5 if they liked the connection between the issue tracking system and the test results. 75\% also gave a 5 when asked about if they liked the way the test results were presented. The answers they gave about the implementation made it possible to conclude that it is possible to achieve a solution that can solve some of the presented problems. A better way to connect various tools to present and analyze the test results coming from multiple different sources.

  • 10.
    Araujo Soto, Víctor Estuardo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Performance evaluation of scalable and distributed iot platforms for smart regions2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As the vision of the Internet of Things (IoT) becomes a reality, thousands of devices will beconnected to IoT platforms in smart cities and regions. These devices will actively send dataupdates to cloud-based platforms, as part of smart applications in domains like healthcare, trafficand pollution monitoring. Therefore, it is important to study the ability of modern IoT systemsto handle high rates of data updates coming from devices. In this work we evaluated the per-formance of components of the Internet of Things Services Enablement Architecture of theEuropean initiative FIWARE. We developed a testbed that is able to inject data updates usingMQTT and the CoAP-based Lightweight M2M protocols, simulating large scale IoT deploy-ments. Our extensive tests considered the vertical and horizontal scalability of the componentsof the platform. Our results found the limits of the components when handling the load, and thescaling strategies that should be targeted by implementers. We found that vertical scaling is notan effective strategy in comparison to the gains achieved by horizontally scaling the databaselayer. We reflect about the load testing methodology for IoT systems, the scalability needs ofdifferent layers and conclude with future challenges in this topic.

  • 11.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Furnell, Steven
    Centre for Security, Communications & Network Research, Plymouth University.
    Hassan, Abbas M.
    Faculty of Engineering, Qena, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.
    Tryfonas, Theo
    University of Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Special issue on security of IoT-enabled infrastructures in smart cities2019Ingår i: Ad hoc networks, ISSN 1570-8705, E-ISSN 1570-8713, Vol. 92, artikel-id 101850Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12. Azawi, Mayce Al
    et al.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Breuel, Thomas M
    Combination of Multiple Aligned Recognition Outputs using WFST and LSTM2015Ingår i: 13th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, IEEE , 2015, s. 31-35Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of this paper is a new strategy of integrating multiple recognition outputs of diverse recognizers. Such an integration can give higher performance and more accurate outputs than a single recognition system. The problem of aligning various Optical Character Recognition (OCR) results lies in the difficulties to find the correspondence on character, word, line, and page level. These difficulties arise from segmentation and recognition errors which are produced by the OCRs. Therefore, alignment techniques are required for synchronizing the outputs in order to compare them. Most existing approaches fail when the same error occurs in the multiple OCRs. If the corrections do not appear in one of the OCR approaches are unable to improve the results.We design a Line-to-Page alignment with edit rules using Weighted Finite-State Transducers (WFST). These edit rules are based on edit operations: insertion, deletion, and substitution. Therefore, an approach is designed using Recurrent Neural Networks with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) to predict these types of errors. A Character-Epsilon alignment is designed to normalize the size of the strings for the LSTM alignment. The LSTM returns best voting, especially when the heuristic approaches are unable to vote among various OCR engines. LSTM predicts the correct characters, even if the OCR could not produce the characters in the outputs. The approaches are evaluated on OCR’s output from the UWIII and historical German Fraktur dataset which are obtained from state-of-the-art OCR systems. The experiments shows that the error rate of the LSTM approach has the best performance with around 0.40%, while other approaches are between 1,26% and 2,31%.

  • 13.
    Barf, Jochen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Development and Implementation of an Image-Processing-Based Horizon Sensor for Sounding Rockets2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 14.
    Becker, Tova
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Etiska och moraliska dilemman vid hantering av personlig information.2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I många tusen år har vad som anses vara etiskt försvarbart diskuterats. Allt fler perspektiv beaktas

    bland annat beroende på den tekniska utvecklingen. På senare tid har utvecklingen av de

    digitala medierna inneburit att personlig information värderas och hanteras på nya sätt. Tekniken

    innebär att nya möjligheter skapas samtidigt som det finns en risk att personlig information

    missbrukas. Detta kan påverka vad som är etiskt försvarbart.

    Detta arbete handlar om hur personlig information hanteras med hjälp av digital teknik. Det

    undersöks om användare av IT är medvetna om att deras personliga information samlas in,

    sprids och används för att skapa en mängd nya individuella tjänster. Det utforskas om denna

    hantering, samt de nya möjligheterna att individualisera tjänster, är något som skapar dilemma.

    Till sist sammanställs rekommendationer som framkommit under studien gällande

    vad enskilda individer kan göra om de vill minska riskerna för att personlig information missbrukas.

    Studien inleds med en litteraturgenomgång vilken belyser hur IT påverkat vårt samhälle samt

    hur personlig information hanteras med den nutida teknikens möjligheter.

    Det beskrivs bland annat:

     Hur företag samlar in användardata i bakgrunden utan att tydligt informera om det

     Att det finns profiler om oss alla

     Att den information vi får är anpassad till oss som individer

     Att personlig information finns lättillgänglig och sökbart för alla bland annat för arbetsgivare

    Etik och moral bör ligga till grund för alla resonemang som avser avgöra vad som är rätt och

    fel. Företagen har riktlinjer för hur de bör handla enligt etiska och moraliska principer. Det

    finns lagstiftning och regelverk som styr men informationshantering utvecklas snabbt och är

    global vilket gör situationen komplex. Tekniken utvecklas ofta snabbare än regelverket.

    Metoden för insamlande av empiri bestod av två delar. Primärdata samlades in via intervjuer

    och sekundärdata söktes via nätet och medier för att få aktuell data som underlag till intervjuerna.

    Intervjuerna genomfördes som semikonstruerade intervjuer där datorer användes som

    hjälpmedel för att exemplifiera data som fanns tillgänglig om respondenten. Den empiri som

    framkom från intervjuerna innehåller en bred beskrivning av ämnesområdet även om urvalsgruppen

    var liten. Insamlad data analyserades genom att notera och sammanställa svaren samt

    söka mönster och samband mellan olika teman i intervjun.

    Slutsatser sammanställdes vilka visar på att det finns oroväckande låg medvetenhet inom ämnesområdet.

    Slutsaterana innehåller också tre dilemman kopplade till hur den tekniska utvecklingen

    hanterar personlig information. Dessa är faktaresistens, kränkning av den personliga

    integriteten och utformning av lagar, avtal och normer. Sist sammanställs rekommendationer

    avsedda för de som vill minska riskerna med hantering av personlig information.

    I slutet diskuteras att det är först när allmänheten börjar reagera som en diskussion kan uppstå.

    Först då kan en eventuell förändring ske där en reglering som behandlar hur individer får beröras

    och hur tekniken får användas växer fram.

  • 15.
    Berrios Moron, Jonathan Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Quality of Experience Provisioning in Mobile Cloud Computing2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 16.
    Bethge, Matthias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Situation and Threat Comprehensionand Conduit of Action with particular reference to aFuture Technology Data Fusion System2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 17.
    Birgersson, Christoffer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Site to Cloud lösning i Microsoft Azure2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle så blir vi allt mer och mer beroende av den teknik vi utvecklar, därför är det av större vikt att vi alltid skall ha tillgång till den information som vi behöver för att kunna göra våra dagliga sysslor. Detta lägger större press på att de system som utvecklas skall fungera felfritt och man skall ha snabba responstider för att allt ska flyta på så bra som möjligt och om det så skulle bli en kritisk systemkrasch så skall inte informationen gå helt förlorad. Därför har det blivit populärt att ändra från att ha personliga servrar till att köra allt mer och mer applikationer och information i det så kallade ”molnet”.  Därför är det av allt större intresse att ha koll på några av de större leverantörerna av molntjänster och hur man kan använda dessa för att få en bättre verksamhet. Därför kommer denna rapport att handla om hur ett arbete utförts på TeamNorrs begäran för att göra en jämförelse mellan Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform och Amazon Web Services. Den kommer även gå igenom hur responstiderna ser ut till några av världens datacenter med en utgångspunkt från TeamNorrs huvudkontor i Umeå. Rapporten går även igenom hur man själv kan testa på Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform och Amazon Web Services, och hur man i Microsoft Azure kan göra en så kallad ”Site to Cloud” lösning med en VPN tunnel för att kunna skapa en MSSQL backup i molnet. Sedan diskuteras för och nackdelar med det arbete som utförts, samt vilka förbättringar som skulle kunna vara aktuella i framtiden.

  • 18.
    Bodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Lööw, Joel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Teknisk rapport BASIE: Bärbara sensorer för ökad personsäkerhet2016Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Industriella arbetsmiljöer utgör trots omfattande säkerhetsarbete fortfarande en risk för hälsa och välbefinnande för arbetstagarna. Moderna sensorer och tekniker möjliggör att upptäcka risker och olyckor i tid och därmed öka säkerheten inom industrier. Industriella miljöer utrustas idag ofta med vältäckande trådlösa kommunikationsnät som möjliggör positionering och kommunikation med sensorer som bärs av personal. Den här rapporten beskriver aktuella tillämpningar och tekniklösningar. Förstudien har inte identifierat någon särskild tillämpning som kraftfullt driver utveckling av bärbara sensorer för industriella miljöer. Däremot har ett flertal lovande tillämpningar hittats som för närvarande provas av industrier eller finns kommersiellt tillgängliga som tidiga produkter. Några initiativ kan stödja flera tillämpningar och/eller funktioner med samma arkitektur och hårdvara. Flera lösningar bygger på positionering och i viss mån kontextanpassning.

     

    För fortsatt arbete föreslås utvärdera tillämpningar såsom (1) insamling av information för bättre uppföljning och analys av tillbud och olyckor, (2) stöd för genomförande av säkerhetsförbättrande åtgärder, baserat på analys av tillbud/olycka eller av annan anledning, samt (3) automatisk larmning vid ensamarbete och/eller särskilt riskfyllt arbete. Som ansats för fortsatt arbete föreslås att (A) definiera en flexibel arkitektur som möjliggör tester med olika typer av sensorer för olika tillämpningar, och etablera ett sådant testsystem, (B) identifiera existerande system till vilka integration behövs, samt (C) definiera återanvändbara funktioner för att säkert skydda den personliga integriteten efter behov som styrs av aktuell tillämpning och överenskommelse med företrädare för personal (dvs. fackföreningar), samt (D) hitta tydliga och väl avgränsade tillämpningar som kan provas praktiskt i målmiljöer.

  • 19.
    Brännman, Rasmus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Användning av loggfilsdata som beslutsunderlag2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett problem som Ventiro stött på i sin verksamhet är en brist på underlag vid felsökning och fakturering. I dagsläget finns inga möjligheter att övervaka datatrafikmängden hos en specifik kund och därför har de varken vetskap om eller underlag som visar hur mycket datatrafik en kund står för. Detsamma gäller felsökningen om något går fel i deras serverhall.

    Innehållet i denna rapport behandlar vägen mot en lösning på deras problem, där datainsamling från loggfiler, behandling av informationen som denna genererar samt en början på utvecklingen av en prototyp av en applikation ingår. Denna skapas med uppdraget att visa upp denna information på ett lättillgängligt sätt, och för att förse Ventiro med ett statistiskt underlag vid de redan nämnda situationerna.

    För insamlingen av loggfiler användes Logstash, som är en del av Elastic Stack, som hämtade loggfiler från brandväggarna i deras serverhall. Dessa filtrerades sedan med hjälp av Elasticsearch, för att sedan visas upp i en applikation. Denna applikation var tänkt att skrivas i PHP med hjälp av ramverket CodeIgniter, men eftersom tiden var begränsad och inte räckte till så avbröts utvecklingsarbetet. Arbetets fokus hamnade istället på att ta reda på vilka delar av de redan insamlade loggfiler som skulle kunna användas, vilket presenteras tillsammans med förslag på justeringar som hade kunnat förbättra applikationen och skräddarsy den ytterligare för att bättre passa Ventiros verksamhet.

  • 20.
    Buzhinsky, Igor
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Pakonen, Antti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Explicit-state and symbolic model checking of nuclear I&C systems: A comparison2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5439-5446Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In some fields of industrial automation, such as nuclear power plant (NPP) industry in Finland, thorough verification of systems and demonstration of their safety are mandatory. Model checking is one of the techniques to achieve a high level of reliability. The goal of this paper is practical: we explore which type of model checking - either explicit-state or symbolic - is more suitable to verify instrumentation and control (I&C) applications, represented as function block networks. Unlike previous studies, in addition to the common open-loop approach, which views the controller model alone, we consider closed-loop verification, where the plant is also modeled. In addition, we present a procedure to translate block networks to the language of the SPIN explicit-state model checker.

  • 21.
    Buzhinsky, Igor
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Pakonen, Antti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Scalable methods of discrete plant model generation for closed-loop model checking2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5483-5488Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate correctness and safety of mission-critical automation systems, formal methods should be applied in addition to simulation and testing. One of such formal methods is model checking, which is capable of verifying complex requirements for the system's model. If both the controller and the controlled plant are formally modeled, then the variant of this technique called closed-loop model checking can be applied. Recently, a technique of automatic plant model generation has been proposed which is applicable in this scenario. This paper continues the work in this direction by presenting two plant model construction approaches which are much more scalable with respect to the previous one, and puts this work into a more practical context. The approaches are evaluated on a case study from the nuclear automation domain

  • 22.
    Chikh, Haidar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    APOLLO: A System for Proactive Application Migration in Mobile Cloud Computing2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 23.
    Davidescu, George
    et al.
    IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Network planning and self-repair in models of urban distribution networks via Hill Climbing2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5477-5482Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Network Planning and Fault Location, Isolation and Supply Restoration (FLISR) are important functions of power distribution automation systems. We model these functions as a combinatorial optimization graph problem called the Capacitated Spanning Forest Problem (CSF), defined as the problem of creating a spanning forest with a capacity constraint on each tree bounding its total weight. We present an algorithm based on a Hill Climbing heuristic for the solution of CSF that can be used to solve network planning and supply restoration scenarios on large graphs representing smart grids.

  • 24.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Architectural Design Principles For Industrial Internet of Things2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As society has progressed through periods of evolution and revolution, technology hasplayed a key role as an enabler. In the same manner that mechanical machines of the1800’s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machines are driving another one.With this recognition of a fourth industrial revolution, the Industry 4.0 initiative wasfounded. One of the drivers of Industry 4.0 is the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).

    The IIoT is a consequence of widely present computing ubiquity and interconnected-ness. Software has become a crucial tool of almost all industries from bakeries and arts to manufacturing facilities and banking. Programming is now a required competenceand used by a variety of professions. It is not only about algorithm development, it has become more about engineering and integrating existing designs and tools. This impacts the way software is architected and drives a large body of research in the area.

    Software solutions are becoming more distributed, not only over multiple processes, but over heterogeneous hardware and business domains. Computing platforms could bemobile or geographically separated over large distances, exposing the solutions to network disturbances, performance degradation and security vulnerabilities.

    Hence, IIoT introduces complexity on a scale previously unseen in the software in-dustry. Software architecture must accommodate these heterogeneous domains and com-petencies and handle the increasing levels of complexity.

    This thesis proposes an architectural style for designing IIoT software architectures.The popular Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) style is not sufficient to define a com-plete architecture for IIoT applications. SOA fundamental principles are defined as loose coupling, lookup and late binding. The proposed architecture style extends these SOA principles with autonomy, specialization, data at its source and first person perspective. It preserves the benefits of SOA that models functionalities as reusable services with standardized interfaces. Thus, the proposed style helps to capture the heterogeneity of IIoT (e.g. systems, capabilities, domains, competencies etc.), while handling challenges imposed by it. The style also captures resource constraints of IIoT platforms; distri-bution of application logic across IIoT; dependence between services within IIoT; and presentation of the solution in various stakeholder perspectives.

    The IIoT generates large amounts of data that is subsequently stored, analysed, archived and eventually fed back into the product life cycle. Centralization of data has well known challenges. This thesis proposes a method of information extraction based on the principle of data at its source. Such data preserves implicit context, reducing the burden of semantic data within the system. Desired information is expressed through dynamic (runtime) queries. Using the queries, a path is created to retrieve the requested data. It alleviates the need for data to be stored in intermediary nodes; data remains atthe source. Thus, IIoT applications extract information and present it to requesting sys-tems without redundant source related context. This helps with issues of data ownership, access control and stale data.

    Another IIoT challenge tackled in this work is decentralization of Manufacturing Execution System (MES). It is motivated by a need to mitigate the impact of vulnerable shared networks on the factory floor; and by business requirements to reduce dependence on local factory infrastructure. This thesis explores a solution where functions of MES are distributed to the workstations that enables them to operate autonomously. Such autonomous workstations utilize the proposed Intelligent Product, Workflow Managerand Workflow Executor systems. Thus, MES can be decentralized to edge nodes as envisioned by Industry 4.0.

  • 25.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Software Architectural Style for Industrial Internetof ThingsIngår i: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As society has progressed through periods of evolutionand revolution, technology has played a key role as anenabler. In the same manner that mechanical machines of the1800’s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machinesare driving another industrial revolution. With the recognitionof a fourth industrial revolution the Industry 4.0 initiative wasfounded in Germany in 2011. One of the drivers of Industry4.0 is the Industrial Internet of Things. The Internet of Thingsis a natural step as computing ubiquity and interconnectednessbecome more widely present. Add to this intelligence, delegationand human orientation and the result is software intensiveengineering at almost all layers (excluding the physical andhuman layers). Software development is a competency in communications,information systems, computer science, softwareand computer systems engineering and electrical and electronicengineering. Software solutions are becoming more distributed,not only over processes, but over heterogeneous computing platformsand business domains. These platforms could be physicallyseparated over large distances, or highly mobile platforms withvarying security requirements. All these requirements introducecomplexity on a scale previously unseen in the software industry.

  • 26.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture2019Ingår i: IEEE Systems Journal, ISSN 1932-8184, E-ISSN 1937-9234, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 3675-3686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As society has progressed through periods of evolution and revolution, technology has played a key role as an enabler. In the same manner, mechanical machines of the 1800s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machines are driving another industrial revolution. Manufacturers are increasing the digital footprint on the factory floor. It is challenging to harness the vast amounts of data generated, stored, analyzed, archived, and returned. Data centralization has several well-known challenges, such as collection bottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure, and data scheme fragility as data heterogeneity increases. This paper proposes a method of information distribution based on the principle of data at its source . It proposes that contextual data be used at runtime through the creation of dynamic queries that build compositions of different systems. Such system of systems (SoS) compositions handle the flow of data across its life cycle and present it as information to the initiating system. The proposal starts by creating a graph model of the Arrowhead framework. Then, building on the graph model, the query-based approach for specifying, validating, and forming the SoS is proposed. The proposed graph model allows for unambiguous description of systems and their interrelations, including security relations. The proposed composer operates on the edge computing hardware and gives the production floor the ability to extract information without impacting the overall operation of the factory.

  • 27.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University, Helsinki.
    Towards formal verification for cyber-physically agnostic software: A case study2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5509-5514Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical agnosticism (CPA) is a property of software in cyber-physical systems (CPS) to withstand various disturbances and keep maintaining the required behaviour of the physical process. With the increased research on the use of internet of things (IoT) in industrial automation (IoT-A), there is a need for robust distributed automation control systems that can take into account some overheads of using wireless devices in such an IoT setup. For example, data transfer delays between wireless sensors and the controller might result in the controller acting on a stale sensor value. In this paper, we present an approach of using time-aware computations to let the controller to assess quality of the input data and formal verification as a method to check the CPA property of the IoT-A applications. The paper specifically considers IEC 61499 standard for implementation of distributed IoT-A application. Ptolemy II PTIDES inspired time stamped event semantics is used in the application to keep track of the origin of different events. Timed automata are used to model the plant. The IEC 61499 application together with abstract plant model is then converted to SMV language and NuSMV model checker is used for formal verification. The paper presents a case study of an elevator example to demonstrate the proposed approach. A random delay is used to model the communication delay in the wireless network. It is shown that if the communication delay was not accounted for, then the elevator would stop in-between the floors and open the doors that is considered unsafe. The paper then shows how time-aware computation is used to make sure that the elevator always follows safe behaviour.

  • 28. Eichenberger, Nicole
    et al.
    Garz, Angelika
    Chen, Kai
    Wei, Hao
    Ingold, Rolf
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    DivaDesk: A Holistic Digital Workspace for Analyzing Historical Document Images2014Ingår i: Manuscript Cultures, ISSN 1867-9617, Vol. 7, s. 69-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present the concept of DIVADesk – a Virtual Research Environment (VRE) for scholarly work on historical documents inspired by the shift toward working with digital facsimiles. The contribution of this article is three-fold. First, a review of existing tools and projects shows that a holistic workspace integrating the latest outcomes of computational Document Image Analysis (DIA) research is still a desideratum that can only be achieved by intensive interdisciplinary collaboration. Second, the underlying modular architecture of the digital workspace is presented. It consists of a set of services that can be combined according to individual scholars’ requirements. Furthermore, interoperability with existing frameworks and services allows the research data to be shared with other VREs. The proposed DIVADesk addresses specific research with historical documents, as this is one of the hardest cases in computational DIA. The outcomes of this paradigmatic research can be transferred to other use cases in the humanities. The third contribution of this article is a description of already existing services and user interfaces to be integrated in DIVADesk. They are part of ongoing research at the DIVA research group at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. The labeling tool DIVADIA, for example, provides methods for layout analysis, script analysis, and text recognition of historical documents. These methods build on the concept of incremental learning and provide users with semi-automatic labeling of document parts, such as text, images, and initials. The conception and realization of DIVADesk promises research outcomes both in computer science and in the humanities. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach and intensive collaboration between scholars in the two research fields are of crucial importance.

  • 29.
    Elragal, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Klischewski, Ralf
    German University in Cairo (GUC).
    Theory-driven or Process-driven Prediction?: Epistemological Challenges of Big Data Analytics2017Ingår i: Journal of Big Data, E-ISSN 2196-1115, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id 19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most scientists are accustomed to make predictions based on consolidated and accepted theories pertaining to the domain of prediction. However, nowadays big data analytics (BDA) is able to deliver predictions based on executing a sequence of data processing while seemingly abstaining from being theoretically informed about the subject matter. This paper discusses how to deal with the shift from theory-driven to process-driven prediction through analyzing the BDA steps and identifying the epistemological challenges and various needs of theoretically informing BDA throughout data acquisition, preprocessing, analysis, and interpretation. We suggest a theory-driven guidance for the BDA process including acquisition, pre-processing, analytics and interpretation. That is, we propose—in association with these BDA process steps—a lightweight theory-driven approach in order to safeguard the analytics process from epistemological pitfalls. This study may serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to consider while conducting future big data analytics.

  • 30.
    Emmersköld, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Wireless Site Survey Analysis Best Western Hotels Malmia2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 31.
    Eng, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. david.eng@trw.com.
    Efficient MultiCore Communication in AutoSAR2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The AutoSAR specification provides a common development standard for automotive software. The functionality was initially aimed at single-core processors, and as the paradigm shifted to multiple cores in the automotive industry, new performance challenges arose. Performance is the main reason for the shift, yet the industry is competing to overcome obstacles stemming from peripherals and memory sharing. Many optimization algorithms on single-core processors do not apply to the multi-core platforms and this thesis presents a solution in the form of improvement with predictability in the multi-core AutoSAR model, including the communication time between software components. Investigated here are the scheduling policy and the priority inversion caused by scheduling inter-communicating tasks on a multi-core processor. Several problems with resource sharing and mutual locks, used in concurrent execution of the AutoSAR tasks, are explored.

     Due to the scale of these models, a tool has additionally been developed to assist with the integration to fit solutions into the final production workflow. The tool makes use of the Artop framework, based on the Eclipse Technologies, and includes the necessary function to handle the AutoSAR model. This thesis begins with a detailed introduction of the AutoSAR software development tools used in the industry and its adaption to multi-core processors in automotive application.

  • 32.
    Engfors, Emil
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Markstedt, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Packetfence och Cisco ISE: En jämförelse av NAC2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete var att jämföra de två mjukvarorna Packetfence och Cisco Identity Services Engine. Målet är att bilda en förståelse kring hur den här typen av mjukvaror kan implementeras i ett nätverk av olika storlekar och även en insikt över hur detta kan minska den administrativa belastningen.

    Den här typen av system kan även användas för att centralt styra åtkomst till ett företags resurser och kan säkra upp olika typ av enheter och program. Det genomfördes en installation för att upptäcka skillnader mellan systemen, därefter konfigurerades de så likt varandra som möjligt för att upptäcka om det finns några olikheter i den här delen av mjukvaran.

    Rapporten tar upp grundläggande information kring de tjänster som systemen innehåller och beskriver även de steg som krävs för att utföra konfiguration. Rapporten redovisar den metod gruppen arbetat efter under dessa veckor för att uppnå ett tillfredsställande resultat för uppdragsgivaren.

    Resultatet presenterar arbetet gruppen utfört under arbetet och visar hur de olika systemen kan konfigureras för att uppnå ett säkert nätverk hos ett företag. Diskussionen tar upp att det är viktigt att vara flexibel i sin planering för att arbeta runt uppkomna problem.

  • 33.
    Ennefors, William
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Netconf Device Simulator: Developing a NETCONF based testing platform2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing network configuration/orchestration applications, it is often convenient to run automated as well as manual tests towards simulated rather than actual hardware devices. Though there exists software of this type, they rarely contain features that can be convenient for testing purposes. The simulation needs to be lightweight, be able to generate special events, and use the NETCONF RPC protocol. This thesis will explain the decisions that were made while developing a simulation software of this type, it will also explain the underlying functionalities and terms associated with the simulation.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Enabling Reactive Design of Robust Real-Time Embedded Systems2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35. Eriksson, Martin
    et al.
    Lucchese, Riccardo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    RISE - Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Mousavi, Arash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system.
    Monitoring and Modelling Open Compute Servers2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 7177-7184Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficient control of server rooms in modern data centers can help reducing the energy usage of this fast growing industry. Efficient control, however, cannot be achieved without: i) continuously monitoring in real-time the behavior of the basic thermal nodes within these infrastructures, i.e., the servers; ii) analyzing the acquired data to model the thermal dynamics within the data center. Accurate data and accurate models are indeed instrumental for implementing efficient data centers cooling strategies. In this paper we focus on a class of Open Compute Servers, designed in an open-source fashion and currently deployed by Facebook. We thus propose a set of methods for collecting real-time data from these platforms and a control-oriented model describing the thermal dynamics of the CPUs and RAMs of these servers as a function of both manipulable and exogenous inputs (e.g., the CPU utilization levels and the air mass flow produced by the server's fans). We identify the parameters of this model from real data and make the results available to other researchers.

  • 36.
    Facchetti, Jeremy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    HAALO: A cloud native hardware accelerator abstraction with low overhead2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the upcoming 5G deployment and the exponentially increasing data transmitted over cellular networks, off the shelf hardware won't provide enough performance to cope with the data being transferred over cellular networks. To tackle that problem, hardware accelerators will be of great support thanks to their better performances and lower energy consumption. However, hardware accelerators are not a silver bullet as their very nature prevents them to be as flexible as CPUs. Hardware accelerators integration into Kubernetes and Docker, respectively the most used tools for orchestration and containerization, is still not as flexible as it would need. In this thesis, we developed a framework that allows for a more flexible integration of these accelerators into a Kubernetes cluster using Docker containers making use of an abstraction layer instead of the classic virtualization process. Our results compare the performance of an execution with and without the framework that was developed during this thesis. We found that the framework's overhead depends on the size of the data being processed by the accelerator but does not go over a very low percentage of the total execution time. This framework provides an abstraction for hardware accelerators and thus provides an easy way to integrate hardware accelerated applications into a heterogeneous cluster or even across different clusters with different hardware accelerators types. This framework also moves the hardware specific parts of an accelerated program from the containers to the infrastructure and enables a new kind of service, OpenCL as a service.

  • 37.
    Giovanelli, Christian
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Liu, Xin
    Artificial Intelligence Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo.
    Sierla, Seppo A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering Aalto University.
    Ichise, Ryutaro
    National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo.
    Towards an aggregator that exploits big data to bid on frequency containment reserve market2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 7514-7519Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased penetration of distributed and volatile renewable generation requires the demand-side to be actively involved in energy balancing operations. This paper proposes a solution in which big data and machine learning methods are employed to enhance the capabilities of a Virtual Power Plant to participate and intelligently bid into a demand response energy market. The energy market being investigated consists of the frequency containment reserve market. First, we define the core decision-making required to overcome the uncertainties in the frequency containment reserve market participation for a Virtual Power Plant. Then, we focus on forecasting the frequency containment reserve prices for the day-ahead. We analyze the price data, and identify and collect the relevant features for the prediction of the prices. In addition, we select several regression analysis methods to be utilized for the prediction. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the implemented methods by executing several experiments, and compare the the performance with the performance of a state of the art autoregression method.

  • 38.
    Gotis, Georgos
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Nagibin, Ilya
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Metadata in Digital Preservation and Exchange of Electronic Healthcare Records.2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Archives are in charge of the management of Common Specifications (CS). CS are genericmetadata specifications that provides structure and markup when transferring digital information betweeninformation systems and to electronic archives. As of now there is no CS for electronic healthcare records (EHR).Organizations around Sweden have developed their own specifications for transferring healthcare information. Inaddition to that, there are comprehensive international EHR metadata standards established. The Swedish NationalArchives have commissioned a study of EHR metadata specifications and standards to aid in the development of theCS.A Delphi study was conducted, including respondents from major archiving organizations in Sweden, to identifynecessary metadata categories when exchanging EHRs. The data was analyzed considering the international EHRmetadata standards HL7 CDA2 and CEN/ISO EN13606, as well as digital preservation metadata categories. Theresults were a set of metadata categories necessary to include in a CS. In addition, a subset of suggested mandatorymetadata categories is proposed and a list of implications for practice. Clinical codes, auditing, and separatingmetadata related to different contexts are a sample size of the implications.The results were evaluated in an interview with the Swedish National Archives, as well as Sydarkivera. Three criteriafor evaluating the results were proposed, being that the results had to consider a common terminology as well as bebased on a metadata standard and Swedish metadata specifications for EHRs. The interview revealed that the resultssatisfied these criterions, except for requiring a study on one additional user environment of EHRs.

  • 39.
    Gritsenko, Vladimir I.
    et al.
    International Research and Training Center for Information Technologies and Systems of the NAS of Ukraine and of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine.
    Rachkovskij, Dmitri A.
    International Research and Training Center for Information Technologies and Systems of the NAS of Ukraine and of Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine.
    Frolov, Alexander A.
    Technical University of Ostrava.
    Gayler, Ross
    Kleyko, Denis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Neural Distributed Autoassociative Memories: A Survey2017Ingår i: Cybernetics and Computer Engineering Journal, ISSN 0454-9910, Vol. 188, nr 2, s. 5-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Neural network models of autoassociative, distributed memory allow storage and retrieval of many items (vectors) where the number of stored items can exceed the vector dimension (the number of neurons in the network). This opens the possibility of a sublinear time search (in the number of stored items) for approximate nearest neighbors among vectors of high dimension.

    The purpose of this paper is to review models of autoassociative, distributed memory that can be naturally implemented by neural networks (mainly with local learning rules and iterative dynamics based on information locally available to neurons).

    Scope. The survey is focused mainly on the networks of Hopfield, Willshaw and Potts, that have connections between pairs of neurons and operate on sparse binary vectors. We discuss not only autoassociative memory, but also the generalization properties of these networks. We also consider neural networks with higher-order connections and networks with a bipartite graph structure for non-binary data with linear constraints.

    Conclusions. In conclusion we discuss the relations to similarity search, advantages and drawbacks of these techniques, and topics for further research. An interesting and still not completely resolved question is whether neural autoassociative memories can search for approximate nearest neighbors faster than other index structures for similarity search, in particular for the case of very high dimensional vectors. 

  • 40.
    Grönlund, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Positional Quality of Service using Dynamic Collection Fingerprinting2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Positioning in environments where GPS is absent is a field currently under intensive research.Systems are currently being researched or designed for indoor use, often relying on ultra-wideband radio, ultrasound, fingerprinting or Wi-Fi.For underground mining, the problem is magnified, as installation of new equipment is expensive.Mobilaris Mining and Civil Engineering AB supplies a service, Mobilaris Mining Intelligence, using existing Wi-Fi infrastructure present in many mines for communication, and has developed two Wi-Fi-based positioning methods and one hybrid system, using dead reckoning and gyroscope.The first positioning method, Positioning Method 1, positions resources at the location of the strongest access point.The other positioning method, Positioning Method 4, uses signal strength values to construct an area where the tag is likely to be, similar to a Venn diagram.

    This thesis proposes a Quality of Positioning system to dynamically and select the best of all available positioning systems for every object to be positioned.This should be trained automatically by ``light vehicles'', such as service pickup trucks, equipped with the hybrid positioning system acting as reference values.Testing was done at the Kristineberg Mine in Västerbotten, Sweden, using a pickup truck equipped with the hybrid positioning system and Wi-Fi personnel positioning tags.It was found that the difference between the two positioning methods was not statistically significant, and that the hybrid positioning system was insufficiently accurate to act as a reference value.

    This thesis further revealed that the architecture of Mobilaris Mining Intelligence makes implementing a dynamic system impractical.Although planned for, the dynamic Quality of Positioning system was not implemented due to being deemed too impractical, complex and time-consuming compared to the benefit it would have provided.A high-level description of such an implementation is however presented, should it be motivated by future studies.

  • 41.
    Heathcote-Fumador, Ida Ey
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    MEEDS- A Decision Support System for Selecting the Most Useful Developmental Projects in Developing Countries: Case of Ghana2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Several sustainable development indicators have been used to monitor and measure the progress of various countries. Similarly, reports and data available about countries progress prove that development has not been equal in all regions.  On the brighter side, the data can be used to inform decision making in areas that are experiencing deficiencies. In this research, a decision support system(DSS) is built to help governments and NGOs to properly choose projects that align with the needs of the people. We approached this research by utilizing Abraham Maslow’s proven psychological framework on the hierarchy of needs as the main criteria for choosing projects for sustainable development. The system ranks development projects based on the needs priority and how much it has been fulfilled. It ranks projects that meet an urgent need that is also lacking fulfillment higher than other project alternatives. The social progress index (SPI), a comprehensive open data that measures the social progress of counties were correlated to the needs indicated by Maslow’s Hierarchy. The needs were then used as criteria in the AHP decision analysis model to build a classic DSS to aid in selecting the most appropriate development project.

  • 42.
    Hridoy, Md Rafiul Sabbir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    An Intelligent Flood Risk Assessment System using Belief Rule Base2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disasters disrupt our daily life and cause many sufferings. Among the various natural disasters, flood is one of the most catastrophic. Assessing flood risk helps to take necessary precautions and can save human lives. The assessment of risk involves various factors which can not be measured with hundred percent certainty. Therefore, the present methods of flood risk assessment can not assess the risk of flooding accurately. 

    This research rigorously investigates various types of uncertainties associated with the flood risk factors. In addition, a comprehensive study of the present flood risk assessment approaches has been conducted. Belief Rule Base expert systems are widely used to handle various of types of uncertainties. Therefore, this research considers BRBES’s approach to develop an expert system to assess the risk of flooding. In addition, to facilitate the learning procedures of BRBES, an optimal learning algorithm has been proposed. The developed BRBES has been applied taking real world case study area, located at Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. The training data has been collected from the case study area to obtain the trained BRB and to develop the optimal learning model. The BRBES can generate different "What-If" scenarios which enables the analysis of flood risk of an area from various perspectives which makes the system robust and sustainable. This system is said to be intelligent as it has knowledge base, inference engine as well as the learning capability.

  • 43.
    Huang, Wanqi
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Dai, Wenbin
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Wang, Peng
    Shenyang Institute of Automation, China Academy of Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Aalto University.
    Real-time data acquisition support for IEC 61499 based industrial cyber-physical systems2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 6689-6694Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems enhance physical devices with control, computing and communication abilities to provide smart solutions for industrial applications. In industrial applications, data acquisition is an important topic. Based on feedback data from sensors and equipment, industrial processes could be optimized either by experienced engineers manually or smart agents automatically. The IEC 61499 standard is designed for modeling distributed automation systems that perfectly fits the scope of industrial CPS. However, real-time data acquisition is not supported by the IEC 61499 standard currently. In this paper, an extension to IEC 61499 compliance profile is proposed to support real-time data acquisition. Both client/server and peer-to-peer model are supported. The proposed extension is demonstrated using a demo car manufacturing line.

  • 44.
    Häggström, Linus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Integrering av BIM- och GIS-data på semantiska webben2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jordens befolkning beräknas öka med 2 miljarder människor fram till år 2050. Samtidigt som befolkningsmängden ökar kommer befolkningstätheten i städerna öka. Det gör att städerna måste bli smartare och mer hållbara för att klara av befolkningsökningen.

    Information- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT) kommer att vara en stor del i att göra städerna smartare genom att kommunicera med invånare men även mellan olika system inom staden. Två system i staden som kommer att behöva kommunicera är Geografiska Informationssystem (GIS) och Byggnadsinformationsmodeller (BIM). För att systemen ska kommunicera krävs att informationen är maskinläsbar. Ett sätt att göra det på är att använda World Wide Web-grundaren, Tim Berners-Lee´s, koncept om semantiska webben. Semantiska webben möjliggör att datorer kan förstå innebörden och semantiken i informationen som lagras på semantiska webben.

    Syftet med examensarbetet har varit att studera hur semantisk webbteknik kan användas vid integration av BIM- och GIS-data. De frågor som besvarat under arbetets gång är hur GIS och BIM beskrivs med semantisk webbteknik och hur det är möjligt att visualisera BIM- och GIS-data från samma databas.

    För att uppnå syftet och besvara frågorna har en explorativ och kvalitativ metod använts. Först genomfördes en litteraturstudie för att författaren skulle bygga upp en förståelse kring den semantiska webben och hur BIM- och GIS-data är uppbyggt. Efter litteraturstudien översattes teorikunskaperna till verklighet genom att sätta upp en semantisk databas och konvertera GIS- och BIM-data till den semantiska webben.

    Resultatet visade att både BIM- och GIS-data kunde konverteras och lagras på den semantiska webben. För att konvertera och lagra geografiska information användes Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) ontologi GeoSPARQL. För BIM användes World Wide Web Consortiums (W3C) framtagna ontologi för byggnader Linked Building Data (LBD). Vid visualisering av data från databasen användes RDF2Map för att visualisera GIS-data men inget sätt för att visualisera BIM-data direkt från databasen identifierades.

    För att analysera resultatet genomfördes en fallstudie på riktiga projektdata. Projektdata hämtades från Swecos projektering av en pumpstation vid återöppningen av dagbrottet i Svappavaara åt LKAB. Fallstudien gav resultatet att geografisk information kan konverteras, lagras och visualiseras på den semantiska webben. Byggnadsinformationsmodellen som användes i projektet i Svappavaara var enbart till för visualisering och därför innehöll inte geometrierna någon information utöver geometrierna. På grund av detta lyckades inte någon konvertering göras till LBD.

    Slutsatsen från examensarbetet är att geografisk information är möjligt att lagra och visualisera på den semantiska webben men att visualiseringen bör utvecklas till att använda GeoSPARQL för att säkerställa korrekta geometrier. Byggnadsinformationsmodeller kan lagras på den semantiska webben men visualisering är inte möjlig direkt från databasen. Lagringen av BIM är även begränsad av hur stor modellen är, vid modellstorlek över 46 megabyte klarar ej konverteraren av att konvertera. Ytterligare slutsatser från examenarbetet är att vid projektering av en BIM-modell måste information lagras på rätt sätt i modellen och att det är viktigt att ingen information går förlorad vid export.

  • 45.
    Hännestrand, Filip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Real-time generation of nature from polygonal data2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Lantmäteriet is developing an application that can show a three-dimensional representation of Sweden based on the data that Lantmäteriet has. The purpose of this application is to be able to crowdsource improvements and changes to the map data that Lantmäteriet has, it will also be able to be used to improve a case's information for easier and faster turnaround at Lantmäteriet. In this Project, I examine how best to use this map data to generate nature such as vegetation in this application to improve usability, and make it easier for the user to know where they are in the application. During the process, I designed a nature generator that uses polygon triangulation to better generate nature.  

  • 46.
    Izagirre, Mikel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Deception strategies for web application security: application-layer approaches and a testing platform2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of the internet has made the use of web applications ubiquitous and essential to the daily lives of people, businesses and governments. Web servers and web applications are commonly used to handle tasks and data that can be critical and highly valuable, making them a very attractive target for attackers and a vector for successful attacks that are aimed at the application layer. Existing misuse and anomaly-based detection and prevention techniques fail to cope with the volume and sophistication of new attacks that are continuously appearing, which suggests that there is a need to provide new additional layers of protection.

    This work aims to design a new layer of defense based on deception that is employed in the context of web application-layer traffic with the purpose of detecting and preventing attacks. The proposed design is composed of five deception strategies: Deceptive Comments, Deceptive Request Parameters, Deceptive Session Cookies, Deceptive Status Codes and Deceptive JavaScript.

    The strategies were implemented as a software artifact and their performance evaluated in a testing environment using a custom test script, the OWASP ZAP penetration testing tool and two vulnerable web applications.

    Deceptive Parameter strategy obtained the best security performance results, followed by Deceptive Comments and Deceptive Status Codes. Deceptive Cookies and Deceptive JavaScript got the poorest security performance results since OWASP ZAP was unable to detect and use deceptive elements generated by these strategies.

    Operational performance results showed that the deception artifact could successfully be implemented and integrated with existing web applications without changing their source code and adding a low operational overhead.

  • 47.
    Jansson Högberg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Data Acquisition using Arrowhead Framework for Condition Based Maintenance of Industrial Equipment2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As Industry 4.0 and Internet of Things are established across factories and enterprises, the interest for learning more about these concepts and the possibilities they provide for condition based maintenance is expressed by a factory in Sweden. By addressing the aspects of Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, a system for performing data acquisition from sensors in an industrial environment is developed using Arrowhead Framework. This framework is evaluated around its suitability for this kind of application, and regarding what the framework may provide to the factory compared to other solutions and systems. A solution featuring a system based on Arrowhead Framework is developed, implemented, and briefly tested. The system is successful in performing data acquisition, and Arrowhead Framework is considered a viable option that may be used to provide a system tailored for different purposes, presumed that the factory is prepared to allocate resources on developing a solution around it.

  • 48.
    Jean Paul, Bambanza
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    iSEE:A Semantic Sensors Selection System for Healthcare2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The massive use of Internet-based connectivity of devices such as smartphones and sensors has led to the emergence of Internet of Things(IoT). Healthcare is one of the areas that IoT-based applications deployment is becoming more successful. However, the deployment of IoT in healthcare faces one major challenge, the selection of IoT devices by stakeholders (for example, patients, caregivers, health professionals and other government agencies) given an amount of available IoT devices based on a disease(for ex-ample, Asthma) or various healthcare scenarios (for example, disease management, prevention and rehabilitation). Since healthcare stakeholders currently do not have enough knowledge about IoT, the IoT devices selection process has to proceed in a way that it allows users to have more detailed information about IoT devices for example, Quality of Service (QoS) parameters, cost, availability(manufacturer), device placement and associated disease. To address this challenge, this thesis work proposes, develops and validates a novel Semantic sEnsor sElection system(iSEE) for healthcare. This thesis also develops iSEE system prototype and Smart Healthcare Ontology(SHO). A Java application is built to allow users for querying our developed SHO in an efficient way.The iSEE system is evaluated based on query response time and the result-set for the queries. Further, we evaluate SHO using Competency Questions(CQs). The conducted evaluations show that our iSEE system can be used efficiently to support stakeholders within the healthcare domain.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Mobilitet och säkerhet i ett litet företag2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport beskriver en enklare implementering av en IT-strategi i ett litet företag inom områdena mobilitet, säkerhet och säkerhetskopiering. Målet var att ordna ett sätt attfjärransluta till en dator på kontoret på ett säkert sätt från vilket nätverk som helst. Samtidigt ha i åtanke vilka behov företaget har när det gäller antalet anställda och få en kostnadseffektiv och användarvänlig lösning. Det här uppnåddes genom att utvärdera olika lösningar som använder sig av VPN, RPD och VNC teknologier. Förbättra den allmänna datorsäkerheten på olika enheter och utforma en redundant lösning för säkerhetskopiering som även använder sig av kryptering som AES.

  • 50.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    3D modeling of mineshaft using autonomous quad rotor2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this master's thesis a multirotor with the ability to scan its surroundingswas built. To be able to produce these scans the multirotor will be equippedwith a custom built 3D LIDAR. In the future, the scans will be used togenerate a 3D map to visualize mineshafts in a well suited way for inspections.This multirotor is designed with the purpose to map mineshafts that areinaccessible to humans, due to safety reasons. To produce a 3D map of themultirotor surroundings the absolute position is needed. Since the multirotorwill be used in an environment where GPS is unavailable, the positioning issolved by utilizing an IMU and Computer Vision technology with a Rangingdevice.The functionality has been tested in a lab environment resembling real lifeoperational conditions, and conrms that it is possible to use this approachto scan an environment where it is possible to have the multirotor in line-ofsightfor the camera.The 3D scanning is relaying on a stable Wi-Fi connection and absolute positionand as long as this is established it is possible to use this point cloudfor inspection.The positioning of the multirotor is tested up to a range of 40 m, with amaximum measured accuracy of 5 cm, which is well within the range ofthe requirements of the application.

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