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  • 1.
    Adrielsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Zedboard based platform for condition monitoring and control experiments2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New methods for monitoring the condition of roller element bearings in rotating machinery offer possibilities to reduce repair- and maintenance costs, and reduced use of environmentally harmful lubricants. One such method is sparse representation of vibration signals using matching pursuit with dictionary learning, which so far has been tested on PCs with data from controlled tests. Further testing requires a platform capable of signal processing and control in more realistic experiments. This thesis focuses on the integration of a hybrid CPU-FPGA hardware system with a 16-bit analog-to-digital converter and an oil pump, granting the possibility of collecting real-time data, executing the algorithm in closed loop and supplying lubrication to the machine under test, if need be. The aforementioned algorithm is implemented in a Zynq-7000 System-on-Chip and the analog-to-digital converter as well as the pump motor controller are integrated. This platform enables portable operation of the matching pursuit with dictionary learning in the field under a larger variety of environmental and operational conditions, conditions which might prove difficult to reproduce in a laboratory setup. The platform developed throughout this project can collect data using the analog-to-digital converter and operations can be performed on that data in both the CPU and the FPGA. A test of the system function at a sampling rate of 5 kHz is presented and the input and output are verified to function correctly.

  • 2.
    Aittamaa, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Programming embedded real-time systems: implementation techniques for concurrent reactive objects2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An embedded system is a computer system that is a part of a larger device with hardware and mechanical parts. Such a system often has limited resources (such as processing power, memory, and power) and it typically has to meet hard real-time requirements. Today, as the area of application of embedded systems is constantly increasing, resulting in higher demands on system performance and a growing complexity of embedded software, there is a clear trend towards multi-core and multi-processor systems. Such systems are inherently concurrent, but programming concurrent systems using the traditional abstractions (i.e., explicit threads of execution) has been shown to be both difficult and error-prone. The natural solution is to raise the abstraction level and make concurrency implicit, in order to aid the programmer in the task of writing correct code. However, when we raise the abstraction level, there is always an inherent cost. In this thesis we consider one possible concurrency model, the concurrent reactive object approach that offers implicit concurrency at the object level. This model has been implemented in the programming language Timber, which primarily targets development of real-time systems. It is also implemented in TinyTimber, a subset of the C language closely matching Timber’s execution model. We quantify various costs of a TinyTimber implementation of the model (such as context switching and message passing overheads) on a number of hardware platforms and compare them to the costs of the more common thread-based approach. We then demonstrate how some of these costs can be mitigated using stack resource policy. On a separate track, we present a feasibility test for garbage collection in a reactive real-time system with automatic memory management, which is a necessary component for verification of correctness of a real-time system implemented in Timber

  • 3.
    Aittamaa, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Lindgren, Per
    Uniform scheduling of internal and external events under SRP-EDF2010In: Annual International Conference on Real-Time and Embedded Systems ( RTES 2010): 1-2 November 2010, Mandarin Orchard Hotel, Singapore, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing complexity of modern embedded real-time systems, scheduling and managing of resources has become a daunting task. While scheduling and resource management for internal events can be simplified by adopting a commonplace real-time operating system (RTOS), scheduling and resource management for external events are left in the hands of the programmer, not to mention managing resources across the boundaries of external and internal events. In this paper we propose a unified system view incorporating earliest deadline first (EDF) for scheduling and stack resource policy (SRP) for resource management. From an embedded real-time system view, EDF+SRP is attractive not only because stack usage can be minimized, but also because the cost of a pre-emption becomes almost as cheap as a regular function call, and the number of preemptions is kept to a minimum. SRP+EDF also lifts the burden of manual resource management from the programmer and incorporates it into the scheduler. Furthermore, we show the efficiency of the SRP+EDF scheme, the intuitiveness of the programming model (in terms of reactive programming), and the simplicity of the implementation.

  • 4.
    Birk, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Osipov, Evgeny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Riliskis, Laurynas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Road surface networks technology enablers for enhanced ITS2010In: 2010 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference, VNC 2010: Jersey City, NJ ; 13-15 Dec 2010, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2010, p. 152-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased need for mobility has led to transportation problems like congestion, accidents and pollution. In order to provide safe and efficient transport systems great efforts are currently being put into developing Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and cooperative systems. In this paper we extend proposed solutions with autonomous on-road sensors and actuators forming a wireless Road Surface Network (RSN). We present the RSN architecture and design methodology and demonstrate its applicability to queue-end detection. For the use case we discuss the requirements and technological solutions to sensor technology, data processing and communication. In particular the MAC protocol is detailed and its performance assessed through theoretical verification. The RSN architecture is shown to offer a scalable solution, where increased node density offers more precise sensing as well as increased redundancy for safety critical applications. The use-case demonstrates that RSN solutions may be deployed as standalone systems potentially integrated into current and future ITS. RSN may provide both easily deployable and cost effective alternatives to traditional ITS (with a direct impact independent of penetration rate of other ITS infrastructures - i.e., smart vehicles, safe spots etc.) as well as provide fine grain sensory information directly from the road surface to back-end and cooperative systems, thus enabling a wide range of ITS applications beyond current state of the art.

  • 5.
    Blaschke, D.
    et al.
    University of Wroclaw.
    Klähn, T.
    University of Wroclaw.
    Łastowiecki, R.
    University of Wroclaw.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    How strange are compact star interiors?2010In: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, ISSN 0954-3899, E-ISSN 1361-6471, Vol. 37, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL)-type quantum field theoretical approach to the quark matter equation of state with color superconductivity and construct hybrid star models on this basis. It has recently been demonstrated that with increasing baryon density, the different quark flavors may occur sequentially, starting with down-quarks only, before the second light quark flavor and at highest densities the strange quark flavor also appears. We find that color superconducting phases are favorable over non-superconducting ones, which entails consequences for thermodynamic and transport properties of hybrid star matter. In particular, for NJL-type models no strange quark matter phases can occur in compact star interiors due to mechanical instability against gravitational collapse, unless a sufficiently strong flavor mixing as provided by the Kobayashi-Maskawa-'t Hooft determinant interaction is present in the model. We discuss observational data on mass-radius relationships of compact stars which can put constraints on the properties of the dense matter equation of state.

  • 6.
    Blech, Jan Olaf
    et al.
    RMIT University, Melbourne.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Pereira, David
    ISEP, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Zoitl, Alois
    fortiss GmbH, Munich.
    A Comparison of Formal Verification Approaches for IEC 614992016In: 2016 IEEE 21st International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA): Berlin, 6-9 Sept. 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, article id 7733636Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering and computer science have come up with a variety of techniques to increase the confidence in systems, increase reliability, facilitate certification, improve reuse and maintainability, improve interoperability and portability. Among them are various techniques based on formal models to enhance testing, validation and verification. In this paper, we are concentrating on formal verification both at runtime and design time of a system. Formal verification of a system property at design time is the process of mathematically proving that the property indeed holds. At runtime, one can check the validity of the property and report deviations by monitoring the system execution. Formal verification relies on semantic models, descriptions of the system and its properties. We report on ongoing verification work and present two different approaches for formal verification of IEC 61499-based programs. We provide two examples of ongoing work to exemplify the design and the runtime verification approaches

  • 7. Borg, Johan
    et al.
    Hyyppä, Kalevi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Projekt: ESIS2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Samlingsprojekt för alla ESIS-projekt

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Midroc Automation AB.
    Puñal Pereira, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ahmad, Bilal
    Automation Systems Group, WMG, the University of Warwick Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Harrison, Robert
    Automation Systems Group, WMG, the University of Warwick Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Jansson, Ove
    Abelko Innovation.
    Configuration Service in Cloud based Automation Systems2016In: IECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 5238-5245, article id 7793489Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current challenges in production automation requires the involvement of new technologies like Internet of Things (IoT), Systems of Systems and local automation clouds. The objective of this paper is to address one of the challenges involved in establishing and managing a cloud based automation system. Three key capabilities have been identified as required to create the expected benefits of local automation clouds; 1) capturing of plant design 2) capturing and distributing configuration and deployment information 3) coordinating information exchange.

    This paper addresses the capturing and distribution of configuration and deployment information. For this purpose a system service is proposed, the ConfigurationStore, following the principles of the Arrowhead Framework. The service is accompanied by a deployment methodology and a bootstrapping procedure. These are discussed for several types of automation technology, e.g. controllers, sensors, actuators. A qualitative evaluation of the proposed approach is made for four use cases; Building automation, Manufacturing automation, Process automation and IoT devices. Concluding the usability for large-scale deployment and configuration of Industrial Internet of Things.

  • 9.
    Charlier, Maximilien
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, University of Mons.
    Quoitin, Bruno
    Computer Science Department, University of Mons.
    Bette, Sebastien
    Engineering Faculty, University of Mons.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Support for IEEE 802.15.4 Ultra Wideband Communications in the Contiki Operating System2016In: IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, article id 7797662Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of UWB for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications benefits from the following four main properties; 1) scalability due to the inherent short transmissions times of the UWB radio, 2) bandwidth-consuming applications such as condition monitoring with vibration sensing, 3) applications with real-time positioning (RTLS) requirements, and 4) wireless communication in electromagnetically harsh environments with a high level of multipath fading. In this paper, we present a UWB-based 6LoWPAN implementation in the Contiki OS as a step towards incorporating UWB in the industrial IoT domain.

  • 10.
    Chu, Tianxing
    et al.
    University of Colorado, Boulder.
    Vinande, Eric
    University of Colorado, Boulder.
    Akos, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Weinstein, Brian
    University of Colorado, Boulder.
    GNSS receiver evaluation: record-and-playback test methods2010In: GPS World, ISSN 1048-5104, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers at the university of Colorado have successfully used radio frequency record-and-playback systems (RPS) have gathered importance commercially because it offers the best way to test hardware receivers. RPS constitutes a stark contrast to more traditional signal simulators that use pre-defined trajectories and mathematical models to determine appropriate RF output. Positioning performance of a satellite navigation receiver under test (RUT) is coupled with its RF front-end system and local oscillator quality. The required equipment and connections are minimal when performing RPS drive testing, as no RUTs are included. It overcomes the fidelity limits of simulator-based testing, especially when considering the difficult-to-model urban environment. During receiver development, it requires only a single drive test for each location, as sampled RF data can be replayed from disk

  • 11.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    IoT Automation: Arrowhead Framework2017Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Gustafsson, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mcload, Stuart
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Harrison, Robert
    University of Warwick, Coventry.
    Colombo, Armando W.
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Mendes, J Marco
    Schneider Electric, Marktheidenfeld.
    Building System of Systems with SOA Technology: A Smart House Use Case2014In: Industrial Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems: The IMC-AESOP Approach, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 219-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IMC-AESOP architecture has been used to implemente a smart house demonstration. Six different systems has been integrated with local (802.11, 802.15.4) and global (telecom) communication. The six systems integrated are: Car arrival detection system, Garage door opening system, House security system, External house lightning system, External electrical outlet system, House energy control system. The SOA technologies used are CoAP and EXI using SenML to encode the services. Engineering tools have been used to simulate the usage scenario and provide prediction of system behaviour.

  • 13.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Punal, Pablo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mäkitaavola, Henrik
    Larsmark, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Project: Arrowhead2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Leijon, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Latency and packet loss of an interferred 802.15.4 channel in an industrial environment2010In: Fourth International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, SENSORCOMM, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2010, p. 33-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a rapid development of new types of wireless communication channels for industrial automation. This paper aims to provide some experimental data and theoretical justification on packet latency and packet loss for a wireless communication channel exposed to intentional radio interference. The intentional radio interference used in the experiments is an attempt to simulate possible future co-existence scenarios in a dense wireless communication environment at an industrial site. For the cases tested packet loses of less than 10% was obtained. Latency is shown to depend on channel access and will has a deterministic behaviour.

  • 15.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindblom, Jerry
    Sjölund, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Real time wireless measurement of mechanical data for a javelin throw2005In: Proceedings of the 13th Nordic-Baltic Conference of BioMedical Engineering and Medical Physics: NBC'05 / [ed] R Lundström; B Andersson; H Grip, Swedish Society for Medical Engineering and Medical Physics , 2005, p. 134-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology for the real time measurement of mechanical data from a javelin throw has been developed. The javelin is instrumented with an ineartial measurement unit measuring, IMU, acceleration, angle speed and direction to the earth magnetic field all in three dimensions i.e. in total nine parameters. The IMU is buildt into the javelin still maintaining the javelin properties and keeping it within the IAAF specifications. The instrumentation is build using the EIS architecture thus incorporating TCP/IP support including an Internet server. The wireless communication technology choosen is Bluetooth that connects to Internet through either a Bluetooth enabled mobile phone or a stationary Bluetooth accesspoint

  • 16.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Mobile Internet enabled sensors using mobile phones as access network2003In: Concurrent Engineering: the vision for the future generation in research and applications : proceedings of the 10th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering : research and applications / [ed] R. Jardim-Gonçalves; Jianzhong Cha; Adolfo Steiger-Garção, Lisse: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2003, p. 741-746Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We envision ambient intelligent environments with an infrastructure based on heterogeneous sensor and actuator devices accessible over the Internet. Initial steps to realize this concept have been taken by developing an Embedded Internet System (EIS) architecture for Internet protocol enabled devices. In many cases these devices will be in close proximity to a person. Such applications are found in for example sport and wellness. The mobile connection of such devices to the global Internet in a simple and cheap way is of particular interest. It is here proposed that such connection will make use of the existing and wide spread mobile phone networks. Since a few years most new mobile phones are equipped with Bluetooth technology making a mobile phone capable of connecting to 7 other Bluetooth devices. Thus by giving EIS devices a Bluetooth communication channel it will become possible to tunnel the EIS sensor communication through a mobile phone nearby the sensor. The proposed architecture will be described with discussion on limitations due to existing infrastructures and business models in the telecom networks.

  • 17.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sensor communication technology towards ambient intelligence2005In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 16, no 4, p. R37-R46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a review of the fascinating development of sensors and the communication of sensor data. A brief historical introduction is given, followed by a discussion on architectures for sensor networks. Further, realistic specifications on sensor devices suitable for ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing are given. Based on these specifications, the status and current frontline development are discussed. In total, it is shown that future technology for ambient intelligence based on sensor and actuator devices using standardized Internet communication is within the range of possibilities within five years.

  • 18.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Östmark, Åke
    Mobile Internet enabled sensors using mobile phones as access network2004In: Electronic journal of information technology in construction, ISSN 1403-6835, E-ISSN 1400-6529, Vol. 9, no Special Issue Mobile Computing in Construction, p. 381-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We envision ambient intelligent environments with an infrastructure based on heterogeneous sensor and actuator devices accessible over the Internet. Initial steps to realize this concept have been taken by developing an Embedded Internet System (EIS) architecture for Internet protocol enabled devices. In many cases these devices will be in close proximity to a person. Such applications are found in for example sport and wellness. The mobile connection of such devices to the global Internet in a simple and cheap way is of particular interest. It is here proposed that such connection will make use of the existing and wide spread mobile phone networks. Since a few years most new mobile phones are equipped with Bluetooth technology making a mobile phone capable of connecting to 7 other Bluetooth devices. Thus by giving EIS devices a Bluetooth communication channel it will become possible to tunnel the EIS sensor communication through a mobile phone nearby the sensor. The proposed architecture will be described with discussion on limitations due to existing infrastructures and business models in the telecom networks.

  • 19.
    Delsing, Jerker
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Derhamy, Hasan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Varga, Pal
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Dept. of Telecommunications and Media Informatics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Enabling IoT automation using local clouds2016In: Proceedings IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2016, p. 501-507, article id 7845474Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various forms of cloud computing principles and technologies are becoming important recently. This paper ad- dresses cloud computing for automation and control applications. It’s argued that the open Internet cloud idea has such limitations that its not appropriate for automation.

    Since automation is physically and geographically local, it is inevitable to introduce the concept of local automation clouds. It’s here proposed that local automation clouds should be self contained an be able to execute the intended automation func- tionalities without any external resources. Thus providing a fence at the rim of the local cloud preventing any inbound or outbound communication. Such a local cloud provides possibilities to address key requirements of both todays and future automation solutions. Adding mechanisms for secure inter-cloud administra- tion and data tranfere enables local automation cloud to meet IoT automation system requirements as: 1) Interoperability of a wide range of IoT and legacy devices 2) Automation requirement on latency guarantee/prediction for communication and control computations. 3) Scalability of automation systems enabling very large integrated automation systems 4) Security and related safety of automation systems 5) Ease of application engineering 6) Multi stakeholder integration and operations agility.

    How these requirements can be met in such a local automation cloud is discussed with references to proposed solutions. The local automation cloud concept is further verified for a compartment climate control application. The control application included an IoT controller, four IoT sensors and actuators, and a physical layer communication gateway. The gateway acted as host for local cloud core functionalities. The climate control application has successfully been implemented using the open source Arrowhead Framework and its supports for design and implementation of self contained local automation clouds.

  • 20.
    Drabent, Wlodek
    et al.
    University of Linköping.
    Maluszynski, Jan
    University of Linköping.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Locating type errors in untyped CLP programs2000In: Analysis and Visualization Tools for Constraint Programming: Constraint Debugging, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2000, p. 121-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a static diagnosis tool that locates type errors in untyped CLP programs without executing them. The existing prototype is specialised for the programming language CHIP [4.10], but the idea applies to any CLP language. The tool works with approximated specifications which describe types of procedure calls and successes. The specifications are expressed as a certain kind of term grammars. The tool automatically locates at compile time all the errors (with respect to a given specification) in a program. The located erroneous program fragments are (prefixes of) clauses. The tool aids the user in constructing specifications incrementally; often a fragment of the specification is already sufficient to locate an error. The presentation is informal. The focus is on the motivation of this work and on the functionality of the tool. Some related formal aspects are discussed in [4.15, 4.29]. The prototype tool is available from http://www.ida.liu.se/~pawpi/Diagnoser/diagnoser.html.

  • 21.
    Drabent, Wlodek
    et al.
    University of Linköping.
    Maluszynski, Jan
    University of Linköping.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Parametric descriptive types for CLP2001In: Programmation en logique avec contraintes: actes des JFPLC'2001 [10e Journées francophones de programmation logique et programmation par contraintes], 24 avril-27 avril 2001, Cité des sciences et de l'industrie, Paris / [ed] Philippe Codognet, Paris: Hermés Science Publications , 2001, p. 239-256Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Drabent, Wlodek
    et al.
    University of Linköping.
    Maluszynski, Jan
    University of Linköping.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Type-based diagnosis of CLP programs2000In: WLPE'99: Tenth Workshop on Logic Programming Environments, in connection with ICLP'99, International Conference on Logic Programming, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA, 29 November 1999, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a diagnosis tool for CLP programs. It deals with partial correctness w.r.t. specifications which describe procedure calls and successes. The space of possible specifications is restricted to a kind of regular types; we propose a generalization of the concept of types used in so called descriptive typing of logic programs. In particular we distinguish ground types from those containing non-ground elements.The tool is able to automatically locate at compile time all errors in a program, this means all the clauses or clause prefixes responsible for the program being incorrect w.r.t. a given specification. The tool aids the user in constructing specifications incrementally; often a fragment of the specification is already sufficient to locate an error.Our prototype is specialized for the programming language CHIP, but the idea is applicable to any untyped CLP (and LP) language. We believe that the presented approach makes it possible to combine the advantages of typed and untyped programming languages.

  • 23.
    Drabent, Wlodek
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Maluszynski, Jan
    Linköping University.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Using parametric set constraints for locating errors in CLP programs2002In: Theory and Practice of Logic Programming, ISSN 1471-0684, E-ISSN 1475-3081, Vol. 2, no 4-5, p. 549-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a framework of parametric descriptive directional types for Constraint Logic Programming (CLP). It proposes a method for locating type errors in CLP programs, and presents a prototype debugging tool. The main technique used is checking correctness of programs w.r.t. type specifications. The approach is based on a generalization of known methods for proving the correctness of logic programs to the case of parametric specifications. Set constraint techniques are used for formulating and checking verification conditions for (parametric) polymorphic type specifications. The specifications are expressed in a parametric extension of the formalism of term grammars. The soundness of the method is proved, and the prototype debugging tool supporting the proposed approach is illustrated on examples. The paper is a substantial extension of the previous work by the same authors concerning monomorphic directional types.

  • 24.
    Drabent, Wlodek
    et al.
    University of Linköping.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Type analysis for CHIP1999In: Algebraic Methodology and Software Technology: 7th International Conference, AMAST'98 Amazonia, Brazil, January 4-8, 1999 Proceedings / [ed] Armando Martin Haeberer, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 1999, p. 389-405Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a tool to support reasoning about (partial) correctness of constraint logic programs. The tool infers a specification that approximates the semantics of a given program. The semantics of interest is an operational "call-success" semantics. The main intended application is program debugging. We consider a restricted class of specifications, which are regular types of constrained atoms. Our type inference approach is based on bottom-up abstract interpretation, which is used to approximate the declarative semantics (c-semantics). By using "magic transformations" we can describe the call-success semantics of a program by the declarative semantics of another program. We are focused on CLP over finite domains. Our prototype program analyzer works for the programming language CHIP.

  • 25.
    Dreschler, Rolf
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Bremen.
    Kerttu, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Thornton, Mitchell
    Low-power optimization techniques for BDD mapped circuits using temporal correlation2002In: Canadian journal of electrical and computer engineering, ISSN 0840-8688, Vol. 27, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power optimization techniques for BDD mapped circuits using temporal correlation Techniques d'optimisation pour les faibles puissances pour des diagrammes de décision binaire utilisant la corrélation temporelle Rolf Drechsler, Mikael Kerttu, Per Lindgren, and Mitchell Thornton £ In modern design flows low-power aspects should be considered as early as possible to minimize power dissipation in the resulting circuit. A new binary decision diagram-based design style that considers switching activity optimization using temporal correlation information is presented. The technique is based on an approximation method for switching activity estimation. In the case of finite state machines, the presented method extracts signal statistics by means of Markov chain analyses. Experimental results on a set of MCNC and ISCAS89 benchmarks show the estimated reduction in power dissipation. Les aspects relatifs aux faibles puissances devraient être pris en compte dès les premières phases du design en vue de minimiser la dissipation de puissance du circuit résultant. Cet article présente une méthode de design basée sur un diagramme de décision binaire qui traite l'optimisation des commutations via l'information de corrélation temporelle. L'approche repose sur une approximation de l'estimation de l'activité decommutation. Dans le cas des machines àétats finis, la méthode extrait les statistiques du signal via une analyse par chaînes de Markov. Des résultats expérimentaux obtenus avec des données de banc d'essai MCNC et ISCAS89 montrent la réduction estimée de la dissipation de puissance

  • 26.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Borg, Johan
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    De Lauretis, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindner, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Nilsson, Joakim
    Projekt: Frekvensomriktares funktion i beredskapskritiska system2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid dödnätstart av produktionsanläggningar och drift av svaga nät eller ö-drift är frekvensomriktare som driver pumpar och fläktar kritiska komponenter. Om frekvensomriktare påverkas av störningar i nätet kan elproduktion kopplas bort och det svaga nätet eller ö-driften kollapsa. Projektet ska studera frekvensomriktare ur ett antal aspekter såsom uppbyggnad, styrning och implementering i syfte att utveckla mer robusta frekvensomriktare och implementering av dessa för att säkerställa drift av svaga nät och ö-drift och minimera ytterligare driftstörningar vid svåra påfrestningar på elnätet.

  • 27.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Borg, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Variable-Frequency Drives: Three perspectives2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Kyusakov, Rumen
    Project: Architecture for Service-Oriented Process – Monitoring and Control2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A bluetooth-based sensor node for low-power ad hoc networks2008In: Journal of Computers, ISSN 1796-203X, E-ISSN 1796-203X, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TCP/IP has recently taken promising steps toward being a viable communication architecture for networked sensor nodes. Furthermore, the use of Bluetooth can enable a wide range of new applications, and in this article, an overview of the performance and characteristics of a networked sensor node based on TCP/IP and Bluetooth is presented. The number of Bluetooth-enabled consumer devices on the market is increasing, which gives Bluetooth an advantage compared to other radio technologies from an interoperability point of view. However, this excellent ability to communicate introduces disadvantages since neither TCP/IP nor Bluetooth were designed with resource-constrained sensor nodes in mind. We, however, argue that the constraints imposed by general purpose protocols and technologies can be greatly reduced by exploiting characteristics of the communication scheme in use and efficient and extensive use of available low-power modes. Furthermore, we claim that a Bluetooth-enabled networked sensor node can achieve an operating lifetime in the range of years using a total volume of less than 10 cm3. The Mulle Embedded Internet System (EIS), along with its advanced power management architecture, is presented as a case-study to support the claims.

  • 30.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Thompson, Simon J.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Cheng, Yi-Bing
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    A power management architecture for sensor nodes2007In: IEEE Wireless Communications & Networking Conference: WCNC 2007 ; 11 - 15 March 2007, [Hong Kong], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2007, p. 3008-3013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor nodes are a versatile, generalpurpose technology capable of measuring, monitoring and controlling their environment. Even though sensor nodes are becoming ever smaller and more power efficient, there is one area that is not yet fully addressed; Power Supply Units (PSUs). Standard solutions that are efficient enough for electronic devices with higher power consumption than sensor nodes, such as mobile phones or PDAs, may prove to be ill suited for the extreme low-power and size requirements often found on wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a system-level design of a Power Management Architecture (PMA) is presented. The PMA is an integration of PSU hardware and various software components, and is capable of supplying a sensor node with energy from multiple sources, as well as providing status information from the PSU. The heart of the architecture is a context- and power-aware Task manager, which controls when the nodes low-power modes are activated, and is highly integrated with PSU hardware as well as other software components in the system. Its main responsibility is to schedule when energy consuming tasks can be dispatched. Depending on the task priority and system configuration, a task can be either dispatched, discarded or delayed. This approach ensures that only critical tasks will be allowed to use the battery, and that the system will be powered by renewable energy when performing other non-critical tasks.

  • 31.
    Eliasson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lundberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Time synchronous bluetooth sensor networks2006In: IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference: CCNC 2006, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, p. 336-340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bluetooth-equipped wireless sensor nodes can be quickly integrated in small home networks. These networks can be utilized e.g. for surveillance, home monitoring and automation. Accurate time is an important factor for time-stamping of sensor data, encryption/authentication and it can also to used to implement time synchronous schemes for low power radio communication. We argue that IP-based time synchronization, such as various flavors of the NTP protocol, can be used with Bluetooth networks. This in combination with an activation schedule allows an efficient trade-off between energy consumption and communication delay, and provides easy integration with available infrastructure. The proposed approach in this paper is well suited for smaller wireless home networks, typically singlehop networks with access points that are always available. Our approach is verified by experiments performed on a COTS-based platform using Bluetooth.

  • 32.
    Eng, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. david.eng@trw.com.
    Efficient MultiCore Communication in AutoSAR2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The AutoSAR specification provides a common development standard for automotive software. The functionality was initially aimed at single-core processors, and as the paradigm shifted to multiple cores in the automotive industry, new performance challenges arose. Performance is the main reason for the shift, yet the industry is competing to overcome obstacles stemming from peripherals and memory sharing. Many optimization algorithms on single-core processors do not apply to the multi-core platforms and this thesis presents a solution in the form of improvement with predictability in the multi-core AutoSAR model, including the communication time between software components. Investigated here are the scheduling policy and the priority inversion caused by scheduling inter-communicating tasks on a multi-core processor. Several problems with resource sharing and mutual locks, used in concurrent execution of the AutoSAR tasks, are explored.

     Due to the scale of these models, a tool has additionally been developed to assist with the integration to fit solutions into the final production workflow. The tool makes use of the Artop framework, based on the Eclipse Technologies, and includes the necessary function to handle the AutoSAR model. This thesis begins with a detailed introduction of the AutoSAR software development tools used in the industry and its adaption to multi-core processors in automotive application.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Embedded real-time software using TinyTimber: reactive objects in C2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems are often operating under hard real-time constraints. Such systems are naturally described as time-bound reactions to external events, a point of view made manifest in the high-level programming and systems modeling language Timber. In this licensiate thesis we demonstrate how the Timber semantics for parallel reactive objects translates to embedded real-time programming in C. This is accomplished through the use of a minimalistic Timber Run-Time system, TinyTimber. The TinyTimber kernel ensures state integrity, and performs scheduling of events based on given time-bounds in compliance with the Timber semantics. In this way, we avoid the volatile task of explicitly coding parallelism in terms of traditional processes/threads/semaphores/monitors, and side-step the delicate task to encode time-bounds into process/thread priorities. Moreover, a simulation environment is developed that enables the behaviour of a heterogeous distributed system, consisting of both the hardware and the Timber based embedded software to be observed under a model of the environment. Furthermore, pedagogic issues of reactive objects have been studied in the context of higher education. First results indicate that the use of TinyTimber give students an increased ability to understand and solve embedded programming assignments. Finally, the TinyTimber kernel implementation is discussed. Performance metrics are given for a number of representative platforms, showing the applicability of TinyTimber to small embedded systems. A comparison to a traditional system tick driven, thread based, real-time kernel shows that TinyTimber provides tighter timing and a simpler (yet comprehensive) API. In conclution we find that the use of Reactive Objects in C, realized through TinyTimber is a viable alternative for Embedded Real-Time Programming.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Enabling Reactive Design of Robust Real-Time Embedded Systems2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Aittamaa, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Wiklander, Jimmie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Pietrzak, Pawel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    SRP-DM scheduling of component-based embedded real-time software2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model and component based design is an established means for the development of large software systems, and is starting to get momentum in the realm of embedded software development. In case of safety critical (dependable systems) it is crucial that the underlying model and its realization captures the requirements on the timely behavior of the system, and that these requirements can be preserved and validated throughout the design process (from specification to actual code execution). To this end, we base the presented work on the notion of Concurrent Reactive Objects (CRO) and their abstraction into Reactive Components.In many cases, the execution platform puts firm resource limitations on available memory and speed of computations that must be taken into consideration for the validation of the system.In this paper, we focus on code synthesis from the model, and we show how specified timing requirements are preserved and translated into scheduling information. In particular, we present how ceiling levels for Stack Resources Policy (SRP) scheduling and analysis can be extracted from the model. Additionally, to support schedulability analysis, we detail algorithms that for a CRO model derives periods (minimum inter-arrival times) and offsets of tasks/jobs. Moreover, the design of a micro-kernel supporting cooperative hardware- and software-scheduling of CRO based systems under Deadline Monotonic SRP is presented.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Aittamaa, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Kruglyak, Andrey
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Real-time for the masses: Step 1: programming API and static priority SRP kernel primitives2013In: 2013 8th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial and Embedded Systems (SIES 2013): 19-21 June 2013, Porto, Portugal, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 110-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lightweight Real-Time Operating Systems have gained widespread use in implementing embedded software on lightweight nodes. However, bare metal solutions are chosen, e.g., when the reactive (interrupt-driven) paradigm better matches the programmer’s intent, when the OS features are not needed, or when the OS overhead is deemed too large. Moreover, other approaches are used when real-time guarantees are required. Establishing real-time and resource guarantees typically requires expert knowledge in the field, as no turn-key solutions are available to the masses.In this paper we set out to bridge the gap between bare metal solutions and traditional Real-Time OS paradigms. Our goal is to meet the intuition of the programmer and at the same time provide a resource-efficient (w.r.t. CPU and memory) implementation with established properties, such as bounded memory usage and guaranteed response times. We outline a roadmap for Real-Time For the Masses (RTFM) and report on the first step: an intuitive, platform-independent programming API backed by an efficient Stack Resource Policy-based scheduler and a tool for kernel configuration and basic resource and timing analysis.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A comprehensive approach to design of embedded real-time software for controlling mechanical systems2007In: Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference Technical Papers, Society of Automotive Engineers, Incorporated , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive approach to design of embedded real-time software for electrically controlled mechanical systems in automotive applications. As a case study, we implement a Gear change and Clutch controller for a Formula SAE car. This includes a generic communication interface and protocol for CAN bus communication, I/O interfaces for A/D conversion and PWM output, together with a PID controller for clutch actuation. Under our framework, the embedded software is developed using Timber, a programming language and formalism that provides executable models for embedded real-time systems. The case study shows how a complete control system can be straightforwardly modeled, simulated and transformed into executable code. The system has been realized and tested onto a lightweight, 8-bit AVR-5, embedded platform. Compared to the raw C code design flow, the proposed framework has in our case study showed increased efficiency with respect to development time. We boldly conclude that our Timber based framework offers true "work with the work".

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    van Deventer, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    A distributed engine management system for formula SAE2007In: Electronic Engine Controls: [held during the SAE 2007 world congress, April 16 - 19, 2007, Cobo Center, Detroit, MI, USA], Warrendale, Pa: Society of Automotive Engineers, Incorporated , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a distributed system for engine management is presented. The system is in use on the 2006 and 2005 Formula SAE cars from Luleå University of Technology. The purpose of building such a system from scratch is to have a comprehensive, predictable and easily extendable platform, giving the possibility to add extra features even at the racetrack. This allows the system to serve as a research platform for embedded real-time systems and vehicle dynamics. Another motivation is to get low weight on the complete system, and to integrate the electronics in such a way that the total cabling required will be minimal. The initial requirements are that the system should implement launch control, traction control, electric gear shift and clutch control. To control the engine the system must implement sequential fuel injection, direct fire ignition and closed loop lambda control. Moreover to remotely tune and monitor the system parameters in real-time - even on the racetrack, the system should facilitate wireless communication. To achieve these goals a system consisting of five units communicating over a standard automotive bus (CAN1) was developed. In this paper we will describe the systems functionality and the units developed.

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Using Timber in a multi-body design environment to develop reliable embedded software2008In: Intelligent vehicle iniative (IVI) technology controls and navigation systems, 2008: [held during the SAE 2008 world congress, held April 14 - 17, 2008 in Detroit, Michigan, USA], Warrendale, Pa.: Society of Automotive Engineers, Incorporated , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for the automotive industry is to reduce the development time while meeting quality assessments for their products. This calls for new design methodologies and tools that scale with the increasing amount and complexity of embedded systems in today's vehicles.In this paper we undertake an approach to embedded software design based on executable models expressed in the high-level modelling paradigm of Timber. In this paper we extend previous work on Timber with a multi-paradigm design environment, aiming to bridge the gap between engineering disciplines by multi-body co-simulation of vehicle dynamics, embedded electronics, and embedded executable models. Its feasibility is demonstrated on a case study of a typical automotive application (traction control), and its potential advantages are discussed, as highlighted below:shorter time to market through concurrent, co-operative distributed engineering, andreduced cost through adequate system design and dimensioning, andimproved efficiency of the design process through migration and reuse of executable software components, andreduced need for hardware testing, by specification verification on the executable model early in the design process, andimproved quality, by opening up for formal methods for verification.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, William
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Evaluation of wireless acquisition of vibration data over Bluetooth in harsh environments2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Ferreira, Luis Lino
    et al.
    ISEP, Polytechnic of Porto – School of Engineering.
    Albano, Michele
    ISEP, Polytechnic of Porto – School of Engineering.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    QoS-as-a-Service in the local cloud2016In: 2016 IEEE 21st International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA): Berlin, 6-9 Sept. 2016, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, article id 7733699Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an architecture that supports Quality of Service (QoS) in an Arrowhead-compliant System of Systems (SoS). The Arrowhead Framework supports local cloud functionalities for automation applications, provided by means of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), by offering a number of services that ease application development. On such applications the QoS guarantees are required for service fruition, and are themselves requested as services from the framework. To fulfil this objective we start by describing the Arrowhead architecture and the components needed to dynamically in run-time negotiate a system configuration that guarantees the QoS requirements between application services

  • 42.
    Hallberg, Josef
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Svensson, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Östmark, Åke
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Synnes, Kåre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Enriched media-experience of sport events2004In: Proceedings: Sixth IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, WMCSA 2004 : 2 - 3 December 2004, Windermere, Cumbria, United Kingdom, Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Communications Society, 2004, p. 2-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a system where Internet-enabled sensor technology was integrated into a context-aware platform to give viewers of sport events an enriched media experience. The system was developed as a proof of concept and was evaluated during real-life use at the Vasaloppet cross-country ski event. Using Bluetooth wireless ad-hoc networking and GPRS technology, sensor data was transmitted from contestants to the context-aware platform Alipes, which in turn presented the sport event viewer with a personalized, context-aware view. In this paper we discuss the system architecture and integration of components. The system was evaluated both from technical and user perspectives, where the evaluation results confirm our approach to be technically feasible and that the system provide an enriched media-experience for the majority of viewers.

  • 43.
    Huber, Nikolaus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Porting Zephyr RTOS to the LEON/GRLIB SoC SPARC v8 architecture2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to create a port of the Zephyr realtime operating systemfor the LEON processor platform. The LEON is a frequently used computing corefor spaceflight applications, with ample flight heritage. It is based upon the wellestablished SPARC v8 instruction set, and offers many extensions to ease softwaredevelopment and increase overall processor performance. An overview of the nec-essary steps towards a functional architecture port is given in this report. Specialemphasis is put upon the interrupt handling and context switching. One LEONspecific feature introduced with the GR716 LEON3-FT microcontroller, registerwindow partitioning, is used to increase the performance of the context switchingmechanism in the operating system. By using this feature, context switching timehas shown to decrease significantly, while easing verification of the overall softwaresystem by providing dedicated partitions for tasks with hard realtime requirements.

  • 44.
    Jennings, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Isaksson, Joachim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ordered ternary decision diagrams and the multivalued compiled simulation of unmapped logic1994In: Proceedings: 27th Annual Simulation Symposium, April 11 - 15, 1994, La Jolla, California, Los Alamitos, Calif: IEEE Communications Society, 1994, p. 99-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a method for generating logic simulation code which correctly responds to any number of undefined logic values at the code inputs. The method is based on our development of the ordered ternary decision diagram, itself based on Kleenean ternary logic, which explicitly and correctly manages the unknown logic value `U' in addition to the `1' and `0' of conventional OBDDs. We describe the OTDD and how to implement its reduction, application, and restriction operations. This method avoids expensive technology mapping, producing highly efficient `U'-correct compiled logic simulation code in seconds rather than in hours. Our experiments toward confirming the validity of the method are reported

  • 45.
    Jennings, Glenn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Isaksson, Joachim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    A state machine language supporting integer inequalities implemented with ordered ternary decision diagrams1994In: Proceedings, 1994 International Conference on Simulation and Hardware Description Languages: ICSHDL'94, Society for Computer Simulation , 1994Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46. Johansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Johansson, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Öman, Joakim
    Sverige.
    Projekt: ESiS EP2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis är forskningsmålet att optimera kretskortsproduktion för små och medelstora serier. Huvudsakligen handlar det om att undersöka och modellera det termiska systemet mellan kretskort och lödugn. Modellen kommer sedan att användas för att ge bättre konfigurationsparametrar för produktionslinjen. En bra modell kommer inte bara att öka lödningskvalitén och minska antalet kasserade kretskort men kan också även användas för att hitta avvikelser redan i kretskortsdesignen.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Borg, Johan
    Larsmark, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Tore
    Lundberg Nordenvaad, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johansson, Gustav
    Ekman, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Ståbis, Joel
    Sverige.
    Project: EISCAT 3D2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Johansson, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Johansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Borg, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Larsmark, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Lindgren, Tore
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    EISCAT_3D: EISCAT 3D Radar Receiver/Antenna Subsystem Report2009Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Johansson, Jonny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Völker, M.
    Eliasson, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Östmark, Åke
    Lindgren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    MULLE: a minimal sensor networking device: implementation and manufacturing challenges2004In: Proceedings: IMAPS Nordic annual conference 2004 : Helsingør, Denmark, September 26 - 28, 2004, Helsingør: International Microelectronics and Packaging Society, Nordic chapter , 2004, p. 265-271Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    3D modeling of mineshaft using autonomous quad rotor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master's thesis a multirotor with the ability to scan its surroundingswas built. To be able to produce these scans the multirotor will be equippedwith a custom built 3D LIDAR. In the future, the scans will be used togenerate a 3D map to visualize mineshafts in a well suited way for inspections.This multirotor is designed with the purpose to map mineshafts that areinaccessible to humans, due to safety reasons. To produce a 3D map of themultirotor surroundings the absolute position is needed. Since the multirotorwill be used in an environment where GPS is unavailable, the positioning issolved by utilizing an IMU and Computer Vision technology with a Rangingdevice.The functionality has been tested in a lab environment resembling real lifeoperational conditions, and conrms that it is possible to use this approachto scan an environment where it is possible to have the multirotor in line-ofsightfor the camera.The 3D scanning is relaying on a stable Wi-Fi connection and absolute positionand as long as this is established it is possible to use this point cloudfor inspection.The positioning of the multirotor is tested up to a range of 40 m, with amaximum measured accuracy of 5 cm, which is well within the range ofthe requirements of the application.

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