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  • 1.
    A. Oliveira, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    S. Salles, Rafael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Rönnberg, Sarah K.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Deep Learning for Power Quality with Special Reference to Unsupervised Learning2023Inngår i: 27th International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2023), IEEE, 2023, s. 935-939, artikkel-id 10417Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Aamir, Muhammad Haseeb
    et al.
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Gonçalves, Pedro Pereira
    Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile.
    Otsuki, Akira
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile; Neutron Beam Technology Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
    Complementary results of non-destructive elemental assay and liberation analysis of waste printed circuit boards2024Inngår i: Non-Destructive Material Characterization Methods / [ed] Otsuki, Akira; Jose, Seiko; Mohan, Manasa; Thomas, Sabu, Elsevier , 2024, s. 767-782Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Abid, Fahim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Intermodulation due to interaction of photovoltaic inverter and electric vehicle at supraharmonic range2016Inngår i: 2016 17th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, Piscataway. NJ, 2016, s. 685-690, artikkel-id 7783471Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advent of power electronic switching is introducing more and more non-linear loads in the low voltage grid. Besides harmonic current generation in the frequency range below 2 kHz, these non-linear loads are also responsible for current emission in the range of 2 kHz to 150 kHz, commonly known as supraharmonic emission. Supraharmonic currents mainly flow between nearby appliances and heavily influence the overall emission of neighboring devices. This paper presents an analysis of supraharmonic interaction between a photovoltaic inverter and an electric vehicle. It has been noticed that intermodulation distortion arises as a result of interaction between different switching frequencies used by the devices. Later, additional household equipment were added to photovoltaic and electric vehicle to observe their effect on intermodulation distortion. All the measurements were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment imitating a domestic customer.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    AC cables strengthening low frequency AC railway with purely active power loads2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), IEEE, 2018, , s. 5Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Converter-fed railway power systems traditionally use high voltage AC overhead transmission lines in the railway grid for increased loadability. An increased resistance to overhead high voltage AC transmission lines, may motivate cables as one alternative for the future. The focus of this paper is to compare a non-strengthened system with two cable solutions for comparing loadability, voltages, and reactive powers for different levels of load scaling. The studies confirmed that the obstacle of reactive power produced in lowly utilized cables is, even if less significant for low frequency AC, still present. A simplified load model is used representing trains with VSC-converters and three-phase motors as purely active loads regardless of motoring or regenerating. A previous study has been done on thyristor-based trains. The voltage levels while regenerating are higher than in the thyristor-train case study. Besides that the loadability for motoring and regenerating is higher with modern VSC-trains.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Optimal drift och dimensionering avbanmatningssystem: Slutrapport Elektraprojekt2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Belea, Radu
    Atkins Sverige AB, Kopparbergsvägen 8, Västerås, 72213, Sweden.
    Klerfors, Bertil
    Chalmers Technical University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schütte, Thorsten
    STRI AB, Ingenjör Bââths gata 11, Plan E, Västerås, 72212, Sweden.
    Modern methods for balancing of single phase loads when feeding a.c. Electrified railways2017Inngår i: Eb - Elektrische Bahnen, ISSN 0013-5437, Vol. 115, nr 6-7, s. 378-384Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional compensation circuits for phase balancing of single phase AC railways for 50 or 60 Hz have high cost for the associated transformers. A new version of the classical Steinmetz scheme, using three single phase transformers connected as a W with the phase angles -60°, 0° and +60°, can reuse the two standard single phase transformers of a V-connected feeding station with a third identical transformer added. Power factor compensation can easily be included. For neutral sections between different feeding systems, a neutral section converter is proposed.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Belea, Radu
    Transilvania University, Kopparbergsvagen 8, Vasteras, Brasov, 72213, Romania.
    Klerfors, Bertil
    Chalmers Technical University, Hockeygatan 5, Vasteras, Gothenburg, 72240, Sweden.
    Schütte, Thorsten
    Kiel and Uppsala Universities, Ingenjor Baaths gata 11, Vasteras, 72212, Sweden.
    Warner, Bruce
    University of Cape Town, ABB Switzerland Ltd, Bruggerstr. 72, Baden, 5400, Switzerland.
    Modern methods for balancing of single phase loads when feeding a.c. Electrified railways2017Inngår i: Eb - Elektrische Bahnen, ISSN 0013-5437, Vol. 115, s. 13-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional compensation circuits for phase balancing of single phase AC railways for 50 or 60 Hz have high cost for the associated transformers. A new version of the classical Steinmetz scheme, using three single phase transformers connected as a W with the phase angles -60°, 0° and +60°, can reuse the two standard single phase transformers of a V-connected feeding station with a third identical transformer added. Power factor compensation can easily be included. For neutral sections between different feeding systems, a neutral section converter is proposed.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Laury, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Evaluating a constant-current load model through comparative transient stability case-studies of a synchronous-synchronous rotary frequency converter-fed railway2019Inngår i: 2019 Joint Rail Conference, ASME Press, 2019, artikkel-id V001T09A003Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper continues the pursuit of getting a deeper understanding regarding the transient stability of low-frequency AC railway power systems operated at 16 2/3 Hz synchronously to the public grid. The focus is set on the impact of different load models. A simple constant-current load model is proposed and compared to a previously proposed and studied load model in which the train’s active power is regulated.

    The study and comparison is made on exactly the same cases as and grid as with the already proposed and more advanced load model. The railway grid is equipped with a low-frequency AC high-voltage transmission line which is subjected to a fault. The study is limited to railways being fed by different distributions of RFC (Rotary Frequency Converter) types. Both AT (auto transformer) and BT (booster transformer) catenaries are considered.

    The RFC dynamic models are essentially Anderson-Fouad models of two synchronous machines coupled mechanically by their rotors being connected to the same shaft.

    The differences in load behaviour between the proposed constant-current load model and the previously proposed and studied voltage-dependent active power load model are analyzed and described in the paper.

  • 9.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    An SBU fully additive production approach for Board-level Electronics Packaging (SBU-CBM Method)2021Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide electronics market is focusing on developing innovative technologies that can lead to denser, more resilient, and tighter board-level integration. The consumer electronics market is trending toward miniaturization, with HDI-PCBs dominating. Electronics shrinking and scaling technology is the prime concern of all manufacturers. The PCBA industry is transforming its production practices which can reduce the solder joints, limit the usage of discrete and bulky components, reduce the packaging factor of printed boards by accommodating the maximum number of ICs, minimize the assembly span, optimize the latency, and so on. However, developments in production processes in the PCB manufacturing industry need more attention than those in  Silicon-based (ICs) fabrications. One of the issues in PCB fabrication is utilizing conventional metallization approaches. The majority of manufacturers continue to use standard Copper(Cu) laminates on the base substrate and lithography methods to shape the structures.In recent manufacturing technologies, semi-Additive process (SAP) or modified-SAP (mSAP) methods are being adopted to replace traditional subtractive print-and-etch procedures. To scale down the Lines and Spaces (L\&S) on PCBs comparable to that of IC-level, most smartphone makers use Substrate-like PCB (SLP) using mSAP methods. However, subtractive patterning has been used in the intermediate stages of fabrication in those methods. This thesis demonstrates a fully additive selective metallization-based production approach to bridge this technology gap between IC-level and board-level fabrications. The fabrication process has given the name 'Sequential Build-Up Covalent Bonded Metallisation' (SBU-CBM) method.

    This dissertation presents a new approach to Cu metallization using a significant step reducing-pattern-transfer process. The patterning method activates a seed layer of CBM polymer chains on a polymer surface with optimal UV-Laser settings. This surface modification enables a strong Copper (Cu) bonding onto the modified surface by Cu-plating. The suggested approach generated a 2.5D surface pattern using a micrometer via laser ablation and subsequent sub-micrometer laser lithography. Furthermore, the surface characterization of each step involved in the fabrication process is analysed and presented to show the sequential growth of layers on top of each other. To investigate the mechanism of the process at the interfaces, characterizations such as EDS, SEM, and XRD characterizations were performed. This PCB manufacturing method can selectively add metallic layers to the finest feature sizes at considerably lower temperatures. Overall, the thesis has addressed two critical aspects i.e. miniaturization of interconnects at board-level and the feasibility of a fully-additive production approach for electronics packaging.

    First, a subtractive method is shown to achieve Copper interconnects with feature size 3.0$\mu$m. This miniaturization corresponds to 70\% reduction in the feature size from 20 $\mu$m to 3 $\mu$m. Next, the proposed additive production process has produced Cu interconnects with feature sizes of 2.5 $\mu$m L\&S and via of diameter 10 $\mu$m. The scaling of the interconnects was achieved by optimizing the process parameters involved in the proposed fabrication recipe.

    Second, the sequential build-up (SBU) procedure is adopted to realize the embedded passives with the minimum possible feature size ($<$ 10 $\mu$m). An embedded capacitor and a planar inductor were fabricated. The proposed method can be employed to achieve any desirable pattern on FR-4, and a few of them are shown in the thesis. This additive technique can further be investigated through electrical and reliability assessment to make it an industrially accepted method.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    An Additive Production approach for Microvias and Multilayered polymer substrate patterning of 2.5μm feature sizes2020Inngår i: IEEE 70th Electronic Components and Technology Conference: ECTC 2020, IEEE, 2020, s. 1304-1308Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer electronics market is escalating towards the miniaturization and the use of HDI-PCBs is dominating. Thus, the production technologies are adapting the Semi-Additive process (SAP) or modified-SAP (mSAP) methods over conventional subtractive print-and-etch methods. Most of the Smartphone manufacturers are using Substrate-like PCB (SLP) with mSAP techniques to scale down the Lines and Spaces (L&S) on PCBs equivalent to ICs. However, those processes still involve subtractive patterning in the intermediate stages of fabrication. In this paper, a fully additive multi-layer patterning process using an electroless copper plating has been investigated. This patterning process is based on modifying a polymer surface by activating a seed layer of grafting polymer chains on it using optimized UV-Laser parameters. This surface modification enables a strong bonding of Copper (Cu) onto the modified surface by Cu-plating. Using a micrometer via laser ablation and subsequent sub-micrometer laser lithography a 2.5D surface pattern has been achieved with the proposed technique.So far, using the proposed additive production process the feature sizes of 2.5 μm L&S and via of diameter 10 μm have been achieved.The via ablation and pattering were done by using 266nm and 375nm laser sources respectively.The substrates used are standard FR4 material and a layer of polyurethane of thickness 35μm coated on top of it. Analysis of the process parameters and their optimization has been done by factorial design method using Design Expert 12.0 software to show their contribution and significance in the production process.

  • 11.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. Department of Information Technology & Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Fabrication Process for On-Board Geometries Using a Polymer Composite-Based Selective Metallization for Next-Generation Electronics Packaging2021Inngår i: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id 1634Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in production techniques in PCB manufacturing industries are still required as compared to silicon-ICs fabrications. One of the concerned areas in PCBs fabrication is the use of conventional methodologies for metallization. Most of the manufacturers are still using the traditional Copper (Cu) laminates on the base substrate and patterning the structures using lithography processes. As a result, significant amounts of metallic parts are etched away during any mass production process, causing unnecessary disposables leading to pollution. In this work, a new approach for Cu metallization is demonstrated with considerable step-reducing pattern-transfer mechanism. In the fabrication steps, a seed layer of covalent bonded metallization (CBM) chemistry on top of a dielectric epoxy resin is polymerized using actinic radiation intensity of a 375 nm UV laser source. The proposed method is capable of patterning any desirable geometries using the above-mentioned surface modification followed by metallization. To metallize the patterns, a proprietary electroless bath has been used. The metallic layer grows only on the selective polymer-activated locations and thus is called selective metallization. The highlight of this production technique is its occurrence at a low temperature (20–45 °C). In this paper, FR-4 as a base substrate and polyurethane (PU) as epoxy resin were used to achieve various geometries, useful in electronics packaging. In addition, analysis of the process parameters and some challenges witnessed during the process development are also outlined. As a use case, a planar inductor is fabricated to demonstrate the application of the proposed technique.

  • 12.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Realization of Embedded Passives using an additive Covalent bonded metallization approach2019Inngår i: 2019 22nd European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference & Exhibition (EMPC): Technical Papers, IEEE, 2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Miniaturization is the call of the day. Electronics shrinking and scaling technology is the priority of all manufacturers. PCBA Industry is working towards the elimination of solder joints, reduction in use of discrete and bulky components, lowering of assemble span, minimized latency etc. Embedded passive technology is playing a significant role in this roadmap by providing better signal performance, reduced parasitic and crosstalk. In this work, the primary focus is to develop a cost-efficient and flexible fabrication methodology that will be suitable for bulk production. A sequential build up (SBU) procedure is adopted with an additive lithography process to realize the passives with minimum possible feature size (<; 10 μm). A low cost insulating material, promising grafting solution and Laser assisted writing machine with optimized fabrication parameters are the highlights of this production method. A Computer Aided Design (CAD) software i.e. clewin is used during this process to pattern the mask for the entire process. Covalent bonded metallization (CBM) is the key process for the adhesion of copper layer on the desired site of the pattern. In the CBM process, a polymer surface is modified by grafting. The position of the surface modification is optically defined using a laser lithography system. Such surface modified samples are, then treated in an electroless copper process. Resulting in copper metallization only at the locations with a CBM modified surface. The verification of the copper deposition on the substrate is investigated using a high-resolution microscope followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The confirmation of passive formation has been checked using kethley's source (electrical two-probe measurement). The first-order measured results showed the capacitance formed in the range of 0.3-8 pF. Further concrete measurements using standard methods are undergoing. One of the key advantage of this proposed process is its easiness and feasibility of at room temperature.

  • 13.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Scalability of Copper-Interconnects down to 3μm on Printed Boards by Laser-assisted-subtractive process2019Inngår i: IMAPS 2019 NordPac Conference – Lyngby, Denmark, International Microelectronics and Packaging Society (IMAPS), 2019, s. 17-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Acharya, Sarthak
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Scalability of Copper-Interconnects down to 3μm on Printed Boards by Laser-assisted-subtractive process2019Inngår i: Proceedings of: 2019 IMAPS Nordic Conference on Microelectronics Packaging (NordPac), IEEE, 2019, s. 17-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As per the latest roadmap of iNEMI, the global electronics market is emphasizing to identify disruptive technologies that can contribute towards denser, robust and tighter integration on the board level. Therefore, reduction in packaging factor of printed board can accommodate greater number of ICs to support miniaturization. This paper has shown an experimental method to pattern the metallic layer on a Printed circuit Board (PCB) to the smallest feature size. To investigate this, a commercially available FR-4 PCB with photosensitive material coat and a Copper (Cu) layer on it, is used. A reverse-mode Laser assisted writing is implemented to pattern the desired copper tracks. Soon after, a well-controlled development and chemical etching of the Laser-activated regions are done using Sodium Hydroxide solution followed by an aqueous solution of Sodium Persulfate. Current PCB interconnects used by the industries are of the order (~20 μm). Whereas the present work is a contribution towards achieving Copper interconnects with feature size 3.0μm. This miniaturization corresponds to 70% reduction in the feature size from 20 μm to 3μm. The natural adhesion of the Cu layer has remained intact even after the etching, shows the efficiency of the method adopted. Also, variation in the parameters such as etching time, etchant solution concentrations, temaperature, gain and exposure time of Laser beam and their corresponding effects are discussed. Other highlights of this subtractive method includes its cost-efficiency, lesser production time and repeatability.

  • 15.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    et al.
    STRI AB, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    Falbygdens Energi AB, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    STRI, Sweden.
    Regulatory Aspects of Energy Storage in Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Adjrad, M.
    et al.
    University of Leeds.
    Aguado, L.E.
    Advanced Digital Institute.
    Daly, M.
    University of Leeds.
    Kemp, A.
    University of Leeds.
    Junered, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindström, J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Akos, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Mangin, F.
    France Developpement Conseil.
    Interference monitoring for GNSS bands in indoor and urban environments2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation: ION GNSS 2007, Institute of Navigation, The , 2007, Vol. 4, s. 1211-1220Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A collaborative research project between the University of Leeds and Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, has taken place aiming to characterize the man-made noise in urban and indoor environments in the Galileo allocated frequency bands: E5 (1191.795 ± 25.575 MHz), E6 (1278.75 ± 20 MHz), and L1 (1575.42 ± 16 MHz), obviously, also covering the GPS L1 and L5 bands. This project has been co-funded by the European GNSS Supervisory Authority (EGSA), with funding from the 6th Framework Program of the European Community for research and technological development. The project includes the development of two receiver systems: the first instrument is based on the use of a spectrum analyzer (SA-based instrument), a wideband GNSS antenna, and a front-end capable of capturing each Galileo band separately using appropriate filtering and switches. The second instrument addresses the issues of cost and portability, providing interference detection and alarm triggering without the need for complex instrument. This is accomplished using low cost components in a small form factor where the instrument is based on a core GNSS front-end. This instrument will only cover the L1/E1 band. The interference measurement is obtained by combining the information from the automatic gain control (AGC) voltage that controls the AGC amplifier gain and the spectrum analysis of the analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) output raw data. The AGC information will be very important for detecting the presence of wideband interference signals where this will be difficult using spectrum analysis (in contrast to the case to narrowband interference signals). Control and data logging from both instruments are performed using a laptop computer where the spectrum analyzer traces and the FE-based instrument data are recorded for offline analysis via a suite of MATLAB® scripts. This paper describes the spectrum survey conducted at various indoor and urban locations, operationally significant to GNSS, in the North of the UK. The survey sites were selected to obtain geographically diverse measurement results and provide a general representation of the spectral environment. In addition, the temporal variation of man-made noise (MMN) is considered, this latter being correlated with the human activity at the measurement site, by performing the measurements day and night, weekdays and weekends.

  • 17.
    Agües Paszkowsky, Núria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. Research Institutes of Sweden, Unit for Data Center Systems and Applied Data Science, Sweden.
    Brännvall, Rickard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB. Research Institutes of Sweden, Unit for Data Center Systems and Applied Data Science, Sweden.
    Carlstedt, Johan
    Research Institutes of Sweden, Unit for Data Center Systems and Applied Data Science, Sweden.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Kovács, György
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Vegetation and Drought Trends in Sweden’s Mälardalen Region – Year-on-Year Comparison by Gaussian Process Regression2020Inngår i: 2020 Swedish Workshop on Data Science (SweDS), IEEE, 2020Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes analytical work carried out in a pilot project for the Swedish Space Data Lab (SSDL), which focused on monitoring drought in the Mälardalen region in central Sweden. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Moisture Stress Index (MSI) – commonly used to analyse drought – are estimated from Sentinel 2 satellite data and averaged over a selection of seven grassland areas of interest. To derive a complete time-series over a season that interpolates over days with missing data, we use Gaussian Process Regression, a technique from multivariate Bayesian analysis. The analysis show significant differences at 95% confidence for five out of seven areas when comparing the peak drought period in the dry year 2018 compared to the corresponding period in 2019. A cross-validation analysis indicates that the model parameter estimates are robust for temporal covariance structure (while inconclusive for the spatial dimensions). There were no signs of over-fitting when comparing in-sample and out-of-sample RMSE.

  • 18.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    On the Energy Efficiency and Reliability of Data Centers in Operation2023Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The new generation information technology (IT) services like mobile Internet, Internet of things (IoT), cloud computing, processing of big data, applications of artificial intelligence, etc. are becoming popular with the development of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry. In this industry, the dependency on the data centers is also increasing to ensure the quality of services (QoS). Thus, the energy consumption of the data centers is increasing with the increasing demand for computational resources in it because the load sections of the data center with sensitive equipment run $24$ hours a day, $365$ days of the year. Regarding data center operation, it is becoming a technical challenge to make a trade-off between reducing the energy consumption to limit the operational costs and ensuring higher reliability of the data center.

    A way to help data center operators to cope with the posed challenges is by identifying the ``right size of the computational resource'', considering the power losses and service availability of the data center. This endeavor requires power consumption models that can consider different load sections with different types of equipment. The power consumption models of the load sections can address the electrical load demand and the power losses, especially losses in the internal power conditioning system (IPCS). On the other hand, the service availability of the data center mainly depends on the availability of the computational resources like servers and on the availability of the power supply through the IPCS. It is important to characterize the servers' failure and repair times to develop the stochastic model of the server unavailability in operation. The availability of adequate power supply through the IPCS depends on its component failures and the power supply capacity of its components. The bottleneck of the power supply capacity of the IPCS is subjected to the power losses of the equipment in the IPCS. Additionally, the voltage disturbances like voltage dips and swells in the IPCS also interrupt the power supply units (PSUs) of the servers, which also degrades the QoS of the data center.

    The outcomes of this thesis can be synthesized as follows: 1) A comparative analysis of the energy consumption models of the major load sections in the data center, and an analysis of the impact of the power losses in the IPCS on the outage probability of the servers. 2) Reliability indices to assess the adequacy of the computational resources in the data center considering the outages of power supplies and the servers in operation. 3) The impacts of voltages disturbances in the IPCS on the power supply outages, hence on the interruptions of servers. 4) An analysis of the trade-off between the energy efficiency and reliability in operational planning of the data center.

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  • 19.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    A Novel Reliability Index to Assess the Computational Resource Adequacy in Data Centers2021Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, s. 54530-54541Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy demand of data centers is increasing globally with the increasing demand for computational resources to ensure the quality of services. It is important to quantify the required resources to comply with the computational workloads at the rack-level. In this paper, a novel reliability index called loss of workload probability is presented to quantify the rack-level computational resource adequacy. The index defines the right-sizing of the rack-level computational resources that comply with the computational workloads, and the desired reliability level of the data center investor. The outage probability of the power supply units and the workload duration curve of servers are analyzed to define the loss of workload probability. The workload duration curve of the rack, hence, the power consumption of the servers is modeled as a function of server workloads. The server workloads are taken from a publicly available data set published by Google. The power consumption models of the major components of the internal power supply system are also presented which shows the power loss of the power distribution unit is the highest compared to the other components in the internal power supply system. The proposed reliability index and the power loss analysis could be used for rack-level computational resources expansion planning and ensures energy-efficient operation of the data center.

  • 20.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Characterizing Failure and Repair Time of Servers in a Hyper-scale Data Center2020Inngår i: Proceedings of 2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe) 26-28 October, 2020, IEEE, 2020, s. 660-664Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyper-scale data centers are used to host cloud computing interfaces to support the increasing demand for storage and computational resources. For achieving specific service level agreements (SLA), this infrastructure demands highly available cloud computing systems. It is necessary to analyze the server failure incidents to determine the way of improving the reliability of the system since the computational interruption causes financial losses for the data center owners. Regarding the reliability analysis, it is important to characterize the time to failure and time to repair of the servers. In this paper, a publicly available data set from Google cloud-cluster data center will be analyzed to find the distribution function for the time to failure and the time to repair for the servers in a cloud based data centers.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math H.J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Reliability Analysis of Internal Power Supply Architecture of Data Centers in Terms of Power Losses2021Inngår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 193, artikkel-id 107025Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of data centers and the energy demand are increasing globally with the development of information and communication technology (ICT). The data center operators are facing challenges to limit the internal power losses and the unexpected outages of the computational resources or servers. The power losses of the internal power supply system (IPSS) increase with the increasing number of servers that causes power supply capacity shortage for the devices in IPSS. The aim of this paper is to address the outage probability of the computational resources or servers due to the power supply capacity shortage of the power distribution units (PDUs) in the IPSS. The servers outage probability at rack-level defines the service availability of the data center since the servers are the main computational resource of it. The overall availability of the IPSS and the power consumption models of the IPSS devices are also presented in this paper. Quantitative studies are performed to show the impacts of the power losses on the service availability and the overall availability of the IPSS for two different IPSS architectures, which are equivalent to the Tier I and Tier IV models of the data center.

  • 22.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Letha, Shimi Sudha
    Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technical Teachers, Chandigarh, India.
    The Impacts of Voltage Disturbances Due to Faults In the Power Supply System of A Data Center2022Inngår i: 2022 20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP) Proceedings: “Power Quality in the Energy Transition”, IEEE, 2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal power condition system (IPCS) in data centers is prone to have cable faults that cause voltage dips and swells. The voltage dips and swells impact the power supply units (PSUs) with the servers. The servers connected with the PUSs restart or turn-off when the input voltage comes out of the voltage-tolerance range. This paper analyses the impact of such voltage disturbances on server outages due to a single-phase fault in the IPCS. The voltage-tolerance range of the PSUs is considered according to the guideline of the Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC). The voltage dip propagates to the healthy load sections from the fault location, while voltage swells are also observed due to sudden load reduction. Moreover, the current limitation mode of the inverter in the uninterrupted power supply (UPS) is identified as a cause of voltage dip to almost zero experienced by the PSUs. The reliability of the data center considering the outage probability of the servers are finally quantified to show the impacts of the voltage dips and swells in the IPCS.

  • 23.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    de Oliveira, Roger Alves
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Risk Assessment of Server Outages Due To Voltage Dips In the Internal Power Supply System of a Data Center2021Inngår i: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, s. 708-712, artikkel-id 0090Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The data centers host sensitive electronic devices like servers, memory, hard disks, network devices, etc., which are supplied by the power supply units. The regulated direct current (DC) output of the power supply units fluctuates with input voltage variation since they typically contain single phase switch-mode power supplies. The voltage dips caused by faults in the internal power supply system of the data center can be large enough to violate the Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC) proposed voltage-tolerance guideline. The output of the power supplies, hence the operation of the servers will be interrupted due to such voltage dips. In this paper, the outage probability of the servers caused by the voltage dips are analyzed for different fault location in the internal supply system of a data center.

  • 24.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Sutaria, Jil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Electrical Energy Consumption Model of Internal Components in Data Centers2019Inngår i: Proceedings of: 2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe), IEEE, 2019, artikkel-id 331Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of modern information technology (IT) industry, cloud computing is gaining popularity for big data handling. Therefore, IT service providers like Google, Facebook and Amazon are expanding their technical resources by building data centers to improve the data processing and data storage facilities under cloud service pattern. However, data centers consume a large amount of electrical energy. In recent years, a lot of research has been done to reduce the electrical energy consumption of data centers by high performance computing. However, very few researchers have focused on the electrical energy consumption by the electrical components inside the data center. In this paper, a component based electrical energy consumption modelling approach is presented to identify the losses of different components as well as their interactions to the total electrical energy consumption of the data center. The electrical energy consumption models of servers and other components are presented as a function of server utilization.

  • 25.
    Ahmer, Muhammad
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. AB SKF.
    Intelligent fault diagnosis and predictive maintenance for a bearing ring grinder2023Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting the failure of any structure is a difficult task in a mechanical system. However complicated and difficult the prediction might be, the first step is to know the actual condition of the system. Given the complexity of any machine tool, where a number of subsystems of electro-mechanical structures interact to perform the machining operation, failure diagnostics become more challenging due to the high demand for performance and reliability. In a production environment, this results in maintenance costs that the management always strives to reduce. Condition-based machine maintenance (CBM) is considered to be the maintenance strategy that can lead to failure prediction and reducing the maintenance cost by knowing the actual condition of the asset and planning the maintenance activities in advance.

    Grinding machines and grinding processes have come a long way since the inception of the centuries old grinding technique. However, we still have a number of challenges to overcome before a completely monitored and controlled machine and process can be claimed. One such challenge is to achieve a machine level CBM and predictive maintenance (PdM) setup which is addressed in this thesis. A CBM implementation framework has been proposed which combines the information sampled from sensors installed for the purpose of the process as well as condition monitoring. Accessing the machine's controller information allows the data to be processed with respect to different machine states and process stages. The successful implementation is achieved through a real-time and synchronized data acquisition setup that allows data from multiple sources to be acquired, stored, and consolidated. The dataset thus generated is used in a significant part of this project and is also published in Swedish National Data Service (SND).

    The thesis also presents the failure diagnostic model based on two step classification approach using benchmarked random forest models. The binary classifier predicts if there is a fault present in the machine based on crucial sensors data from the Idle segment of the grinding cycle. Multi-class random forest classifier diagnosis the fault condition. PdM, knowing when to trigger maintenance action, is achieved through predicting the overall quality of the produced parts from the feature set extracted from sensor data of the Spark-out segment of the grinding cycle. Combining fault diagnosis with the predicted quality information resulted in reliable and actionable maintenance decisions for the bearing ring grinder. The demonstrated setup, based on a production bearing ring grinder, is adaptable to similar machines in production.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 26.
    Ahmer, Muhammad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. AB SKF, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Gustafsson, Martin
    AB SKF, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Kim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Dataset Concerning the Process Monitoring and Condition Monitoring Data of a Bearing Ring Grinder2022Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    In the manuscript, we have investigated the effective use of sensors in a bearing ring grinder for failure classification in the condition-based maintenance context. The proposed methodology combines domain knowledge of process monitoring and condition monitoring to successfully achieve failure mode prediction with high accuracy using only a few key sensors. This enables manufacturing equipment to take advantage of advanced data processing and machine learning techniques.

    The grinding machine is of type SGB55 from Lidköping Machine Tools and is used to produce functional raceway surface of inner rings of type SKF-6210 deep groove ball bearing. Additional sensors like vibration, acoustic emission, force, and temperature sensors are installed to monitor machine condition while producing bearing components under different operating conditions. Data is sampled from sensors as well as the machine's numerical controller during operation. Selected parts are measured for the produced quality.

  • 27.
    Ahmer, Muhammad
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Manufacturing and Process Development, AB SKF, 415 50 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Gustafsson, Martin
    Manufacturing and Process Development, AB SKF, 415 50 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Kim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Using Multivariate Quality Statistic for Maintenance Decision Support in a Bearing Ring Grinder2022Inngår i: Machines, E-ISSN 2075-1702, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikkel-id 794Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grinding processes’ stochastic nature poses a challenge in predicting the quality of the resulting surfaces. Post-production measurements for form, surface roughness, and circumferential waviness are commonly performed due to infeasibility in measuring all quality parameters during the grinding operation. Therefore, it is challenging to diagnose the root cause of quality deviations in real-time resulting from variations in the machine’s operating condition. This paper introduces a novel approach to predict the overall quality of the individual parts. The grinder is equipped with sensors to implement condition-based maintenance and is induced with five frequently occurring failure conditions for the experimental test runs. The crucial quality parameters are measured for the produced parts. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) and Hotelling’s T-squared (T2) have been evaluated to generate quality labels from the multi-variate quality data. Benchmarked random forest regression models are trained using fault diagnosis feature set and quality labels. Quality labels from the T2 statistic of quality parameters are preferred over FCM approach for their repeatability. The model, trained from T2 labels achieves more than 94% accuracy when compared to the measured ring disposition. The predicted overall quality using the sensors’ feature set is compared against the threshold to reach a trustworthy maintenance decision.

  • 28.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Online fibre property measurements: foundations for a method based on ultrasound attenuation2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the foundations of a method for estimating fibre properties of pulp suitable for online application in the pulp and paper industry. In the pulp and paper industry, increased efficiency and greater paper quality control are two of the industry's main objectives. It is proposed that online fibre property measurements are a means of achieving progress in both of these objectives. Optical based systems that provide valuable geometric data on the fibres and other pulp characteristics are commercially available. However, measurements of the elastic properties of the fibres are not currently implemented using these systems. To fill this gap an ultrasound based system for measuring the elastic properties of the wood fibres in pulp is proposed. Ultrasound propagation depends on the elastic properties of a solid. Hence attenuation measurements from suspensions of fibres depend on their elastic properties. The method is based on solving the inverse problem where the output is known and the objective is to establish the inputs. In this case, attenuation is measured and a model of attenuation based on ultrasound scattering is developed. A search algorithm is used for finding elastic properties that minimize the error between the model and measured attenuation. The results of the search are estimates of the elastic properties of the fibres in suspension. The results show resonance peaks in the attenuation, in the frequency region tested, for fibres with radii of the order of 10 microns. These peaks are found in both the measured and modelled attenuation spectra. Further investigation of these resonances suggests that they are due to modes of vibration in the fibre where the fibre modelled as an infinitely long cylinder. These resonances are shown to aid in the identification of the elastic properties. The attenuation is found to depend heavily on the geometry of the fibres. Hence fibre geometry, which can be obtained from online optical fibre measurement system, provides the key to extracting the elastic properties from the attenuation signal. Studies are also carried out on the effect of viscosity on attenuation as well as the differences in attenuation between hollow and solid synthetic fibres in suspensions. The measurement method is also applied to hardwood and softwood Kraft pulps. The results of these studies show that using the model derived in the thesis and attenuation measurements, estimates of the elastic properties can be obtained. The elastic property estimates for synthetic fibres agree well with values from other methods. The elastic property estimates for pulps require further validation due to the difficulty in comparing between different testing methods and different types of pulp. The conclusions, based on the work so far and under three realisable conditions, are that the shear modulus and the transverse Young's modulus of pulp fibres can be measured. Once these conditions are met a system based on this method can be implemented. By doing this the industry would benefit from the increase in paper quality control and energy saving such system could provide.

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  • 29.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Towards a measurement of paper pulp quality: ultrasonic spectroscopy of fibre suspensions2006Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For the paper and pulp industry in Sweden and Finland to remain competitive against countries with lower overheads, they have to constantly strive to improve the quality and the efficiency of the manufacturing processes. One of the ways of doing this is to introduce sensors that will provide valuable online feedback on the characteristics of the pulp so that adjustments can be made to optimise the manufacturing process. The measurement method proposed in this thesis is based on ultrasound, since it is rapid, inexpensive, non-destructive and non-intrusive. Thus could be done online. Since ultrasound propagation and attenuation depends on the material properties through which is propagates, it has the potential to provide measurements of material properties such as pulp fibre density and elasticity. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the possibility of using ultrasound to measure pulp fibre material properties. The idea is to solve the inverse problem of estimating these properties from attenuation measurements and to establish the degree of accuracy to which this can be done. Firstly a model is developed and is tested with synthetic fibres to establish is validity. It is then used to solve the inverse problem of estimating material properties from attenuation measurements, again with synthetic fibres, to test the accuracy to which these properties can be estimated. Resonance peaks in the frequency response of the attenuation were found. On closer investigation it was established that the location of these peaks in the frequency domain is sensitive to the diameter of the fibres and their material properties. If the diameter is known, these peaks improve the accuracy of the estimation process. The results of the estimation process for synthetic fibre suspensions show values for the shear modulus are within known ranges but the estimation of Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus is poor. Improving the model or the estimation procedure may lead to better results. For the method as it is to have application in the paper and pulp industry there are certain conditions that need to be fulfilled. These are that we find peaks in the frequency response of the attenuation in pulp, know the diameter distribution of the fibres and the hollow nature of the fibres does not significantly alter the results. We can then, potentially, be able to establish the shear modulus of the pulp fibres. If the shear modulus is a factor in paper quality, we may be close to an online measurement of paper pulp quality using ultrasonic spectroscopy. Improving the model may allow us to estimate further properties and take into account the fibres being hollow. The thesis consists of two parts. The first part includes an overview of the pulp and paper industry and current testing methods, background theory on which the model is based and an overview of the model that is used in predicting ultrasound attenuation. There then follows a summary of the work done, some addition points are raised in the discussion before drawing conclusions. Finally we discuss what needs to be done to take this further. The second part contains a collection of four papers describing the research.

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  • 30.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Noël, Maxime
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Linder, Tomas
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Light scattering in cellulose nanofibre suspensions: Model and experiments2016Inngår i: Computers in Chemistry Proceeding from ACS National Meeting San Diego: Proceeding from ACS National Meeting San Diego, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2016, s. 122-, artikkel-id CELL 235Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Here light scattering theory is used to assess the size distribution in a suspension of cellulose as it is fibrillated from micro-scaled to nano-scaled fibres. A model based on Monte carlo simulations of the scattering of photons by different sizes of cellulose fibres was used to predict the UV-IF spectrum of the suspensions. Bleached cellulose hardwood pulp was tested and compared to the visually transparent tempo-oxidised hardwood cellulose nanofibres (CNF) suspension. The theoretical results show that different diameter size classes exhibit very different scattering patterns. These classes could be identified in the experimental results and used to establish the size class dominating the suspension. A comparison to AFM/microscope size distribution was made and the results indicated that using the UV-IF light scattering spectrum maybe more reliable that size distribution measurement using AFM and microscopy on dried CNF samples. The UV-IF spectrum measurement combined with the theoretical prediction can be used even at this initial stage of development of this model to assess the degree of fibrillation when processing CNF.

  • 31. Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Estimating suspended fibre material properties by modelling ultrasound attenuation2006Inngår i: Mathematical Modeling of Wave Phenomena: conference on mathematical modeling of wave phenomea, Växjö, Sweden, 14 - 19 August 2005 / [ed] Börje Nilsson; Louis Fishman, Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2006, s. 250-259Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical model for use in the inverse problem of estimating material properties of suspended fibres from ultrasonic attenuation has been developed. The ultrasound attenuation is derived theoretically from the energy losses arising when a plane wave is scattered and absorbed off an infinitely long, isotropic, viscoelastic cylinder. By neglecting thermal considerations and assuming low viscosity in the suspending fluid, we can make additional assumptions that provide us with a tractable set of equations that can be solved analytically. The model can then be to used in inverse methods of estimating material properties. We verify the model with experimentally obtained values of attenuation for saturated Nylon fibres. The experimental results from Nylon fibres show local peaks in the attenuation which are thought to be due to the resonant absorption at the eigenfrequencies of the fibres. The results of the experiments show that the model is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in different types of Nylon. Applications for suspended fibre characterization can be found in the paper manufacturing industry.

  • 32. Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Material property estimates from ultrasound attenuation in fibre suspensions2009Inngår i: Ultrasonics, ISSN 0041-624X, E-ISSN 1874-9968, Vol. 49, nr 4-5, s. 432-437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of a new method for measuring fibre material properties from ultrasonic attenuation in a dilute suspension of synthetic fibres of uniform geometry is presented. The method is based on inversely solving an ultrasound scattering and absorption model of suspended fibres in water for the material properties of the fibres. Experimental results were obtained from three suspensions of nylon 66 fibres each with different fibre diameters. A forward solution to the model with reference material values is compared to experimental data to verify the model's behaviour. Estimates of the shear and Young's modulus, the compressional wave velocity, Poisson's ratio and loss tangent from nylon 66 fibres are compared to data available from other sources. Experimental data confirms that the model successfully predicts that the resonance features in the frequency response of the attenuation are a function of diameter. Consistent estimated values for the compressional wave velocity and the Poisson's ratio were found to be difficult to obtain but in combination gave values of shear modulus within previously reported values and with low sensitivity to noise. Young's modulus was underestimated by 54% but was consistent and had low sensitivity to noise. The underestimation is believed to be caused by the assumption of isotropic material used in the model. Additional tests on isotropic fibre would confirm this. Further analysis of the model sensitivity and the reasons for the resonance features are required.

  • 33.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Sounding Out Paper Pulp: Ultrasound Spectroscopy of Dilute Viscoelastic Fibre Suspensions Acoustics and Ultrasonics2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A model of attenuation of ultrasound in fibre suspensions is compared to a model of backscattering pressure from submersed cylinders subjected to a sound wave. This analysis is carried out in the region where the wavelength is of the same order as that of the diameter of the fibre. In addition we assume the cylinder scatterer to have no intrinsic attenuation and the longitudinal axis of the scatterer is assumed to be perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the incident wave. Peaks in the frequency response of both the backscattering pressure, expressed in the form of a form function, and the attenuation are shown to correspond. Similarities between the models are discussed. Since the peaks in the form function are due to resonance of the cylinder, we infer that the peaks in the attenuation are also due to resonance. The exact nature of the waves causing the resonance are still unclear however the first resonance peaks are related to the shear wave and hence the shear modulus of the material. The aim is to use the attenuation model for solving the inverse problem of calculating paper pulp material properties from attenuation measurements. The implications of these findings for paper pulp property estimation is that the supporting fluid could, if possible, be matched to density of that of pulp fibres and that the estimation of material properties should be improved by selecting a frequency range that in the region of the first resonance peaks.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Estimating material properties of solid and hollow fibers in suspension using ultrasonic attenuation2013Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, ISSN 0885-3010, E-ISSN 1525-8955, Vol. 60, nr 7, s. 1424-1434Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of the material properties of hollow fibers suspended in a fluid using ultrasound measurements and a simple, computationally efficient analytical model are made. The industrial application is to evaluate the properties of wood fibers in paper pulp. The necessity of using a layered cylindrical model (LCM) as opposed to a solid cylindrical model (SCM) for modeling ultrasound attenuation in a suspension of hollow fibers is evaluated. The two models are described and used to solve the inverse problem of estimating material properties from attenuation in suspensions of solid and hollow polyester fibers. The results show that the measured attenuation of hollow fibers differs from that of solid fibers. Elastic properties estimates using LCM with hollow-fiber suspension measurements are similar to those using SCM with solid-fiber suspension measurements and compare well to block polyester values for elastic moduli. However, using the SCM with the hollow-fiber suspension did not produce realistic estimations. In conclusion, the LCM gives reasonable estimations of hollow fiber properties and the SCM is not sufficiently complex to model hollow fibers. The results also indicate that the use of a distributed radius in the model is important in estimating material properties from fiber suspensions.

  • 35.
    Akos, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Ene, A.
    Stanford University.
    Thor, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    A prototyping platform for multi-frequency GNSS receivers2003Inngår i: ION GPS/GNSS Proceedings, Institute of Navigation, The , 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The future satellite positioning/navigation systems (i.e. GPS and Galileo) will provide civil signals on multiple frequencies, similar to those currently available for military purposes only. This paper presents a direct RF sampling front end design well suited for multiple frequency satellite navigation receiver design. No frequency downconversion is necessary; rather the particular frequency bands of interest are intentionally aliased using a wide band analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The resulting samples are passed to the memory space of a host PC for storage, and are saved to disk for eventual processing of the multiple frequency transmissions. The present paper describes the design of the front-end, validates its concept with collected data, and discusses the variations on the design of a generic multiple frequency GPS front end. Methods for processing the data obtained by the front end design are also presented.

  • 36.
    Akos, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    From, Markus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Receiver measured time in the VDL mode 4 system2000Inngår i: IEEE 2000 Position Location and Navigation Symposium: San Diego, California, March 13 - 16, 2000, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2000, s. 309-316Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details an investigation into the receiver measured time (RMT) concept of VDL Mode 4, basically the ability to derive estimates of time from the transmission of the VDL Mode 4 signals themselves. The RMT concept is based on determining the accurate time of transmission by measuring the time of arrival (TOA) of a received signal. The reverse aspect, or that of user position, can also be computed in the same manner and all computed simulations hold for errors in position. If synchronized time is available, or can be derived, then the user position can be computed based on signals from known transmitter locations. A complete, end-to-end RMT simulation model for the Gaussian filtered frequency shift keying (GFSK) and differential 8-phase shift keying (D8PSK) modulation techniques has been developed in which various transmitters, channels and receiver models as well as an RMT measurement system have been included. The timing results, which are included, are described in terms of two-sigma errors as a function of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The performance varies for the different receiver structures over the typical operation region and for a 1-bit differential GFSK detector the two-sigma error is as low as 0.40 microseconds, corresponding to a ranging error of approximately 120 meters. When incorporating co-channel interference (CCI), multipath and Doppler frequency shifts the RMT performance has been shown to decrease in terms of higher two-sigma errors

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Akos, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Stockmaster, Michael
    Rockwell Collins, Cedar Wells.
    Tsui, James B.Y.
    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton.
    Caschera, Joe
    Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton.
    Direct bandpass sampling of multiple distinct RF signals1999Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 47, nr 7, s. 983-988Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A goal in the software radio design philosophy is to place the analog-to-digital converter as near the antenna as possible. This objective has been demonstrated for the case of a single input signal. Bandpass sampling has been applied to downconvert, or intentionally alias, the information bandwidth of a radio frequency (RF) signal to a desired intermediate frequency. The design of the software radio becomes more interesting when two or more distinct signals are received. The traditional approach for multiple signals would be to bandpass sample a continuous span of spectrum containing all the desired signals. The disadvantage with this approach is that the sampling rate and associated discrete processing rate are based on the span of spectrum as opposed to the information bandwidths of the signals of interest. Proposed here is a technique to determine the absolute minimum sampling frequency for direct digitization of multiple, nonadjacent, frequency bands. The entire process is based on the calculation of a single parameter-the sampling frequency. The result is a simple, yet elegant, front-end design for the reception and bandpass sampling of multiple RF signals. Experimental results using RF transmissions from the US Global Positioning System-Standard Position Service (GPS-SPS) and the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) are used to illustrate and verify the theory

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Akpotor Scott, Johnson
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Integrating Trust-Based Adaptive Security Framework with Risk Mitigation to enhance SaaS User Identity and Access Control based on User Behavior2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the emerging trends in cloud computing technologies have given rise to different computing services through the Internet. Organizations across the globe have seized this opportunity as a critical business driver for computing resource access and utilities that will indeed support significant business operations. Embracing SaaS as a crucial business factor enhances corporate business strategy through economies of scale, easy manageability, cost-effectiveness, non-geographical dependence, high reliability, flexible resources, and fast innovation. However, this has also come with various risks due to the limitation of traditional user identity and access control solutions’ inability to effectively identify and manage cloud users’ authorization process when interacting with the cloud. The limit can result in a legitimate user account's impersonation to carry out malicious activities after the user account is compromised to go undetected since traditional solutions seldom function based on user behavior trust level behind any account.

    Furthermore, the limitation is a significant vulnerability to the cloud environment. This vulnerability is known to be exploited by threats that can eventually lead to substantial unacceptable risks that can undermine security principles or requirements such as confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Significant consequences of this risk are categorized into financial damages, legal implications, reputational damages, and regulatory implications to the cloud environment. As a result, a solution that could contribute to the remediation of these potential risks incurred due to the limitation of user identity and access control management was proposed and designed as User Behavior Trust-Based Adaptive Security framework. The design aims to enhance how cloud users' identity and access control might be managed effectively based on a user behavior trust context and adaptation of corresponding access control measures through adaptive security. The design capability was manifested by integrating it into the standard ISO/2705:2018 Risk Management process. Although, there have been several good information security frameworks such as ISO/IEC 27005:2018 and other technical countermeasures such as SaaS Identity & Access Management (IDaaS) to deal with this risk on the public cloud services. However, they are based on static mitigation approaches, so there is a solid need to shift towards a more dynamic strategical approach.

    The presented design work, User Behavior Trust-Based Adaptive Security framework, intends to serve as a proposed guideline for risk mitigation that would enhance user identity and access control limitations across the cloud. The solution functions by a trust modeling process that evaluates cloud user activities to compute a user behavior comprehensive trust degree. The resulting data is further used as input feeds parameters into a policy decision point process. The policy decision point process adapts the input parameters to user behavior trust level and behavior risk rating to determine the appropriate access control decision. Ultimately, the adaptive security solution consults the policy decision points to dynamically enforce the corresponding controls measures based on the access control decision received as input feed. The report also conducts a risk assessment process to identify vulnerabilities, threats, and risks related to user behavior trust level and risk rating regarding SaaS resources. Then adapt the mitigation solution, User Behavior Trust-Based Adaptive Security framework, as a possible risk treatment within the risk management process ISO/2705:2018.

    This report uses a design methodology derived from User Behavior Trust Modelling scientific research work, Gartner Adaptive Security Architecture Model, and eXtensible Access Control Markup Language's policy decision point concept. The design evaluates user behavior trust level by the trust modeling, while the integrated policy decision point processes the trust level to make the access control decision which is later enforced by the adaptive security solution. The report further adapts the risk management procedure ISO/2705:2018 to identify risk from user behavior and trust level, then implements the design solution as a possible risk treatment. The research findings were documented as Results and Discussion, where the functional and operational aspects of the designed framework were provided. In addition, the effects of applying the framework as a possible risk treatment solution were observed through conducting an ISO/2705:2018 risk management procedure. The notable outcome of a reduction of identified risk levels was an improvement in user attitude or behavior, which eventually increased user behavior trust level and reduced associated behavior risk. At the same time, the discussion detailed the interpretation of the results, implications, and limitation of the research, why the framework could be considered a remediation solution beyond the state-of-the-art for cloud user identity and access management—precisely by integrating user behavior, trust, policy decision making with adaptive security into risk management process to reduce IDM-associated risk in the SaaS.

    Finally, this study has outlined the significance of adopting the designed framework as a possible mitigation solution to enhance the shortcomings of user identity and access control management in the cloud. It has demonstrated that SaaS identified risk can be reduced to an acceptable level when user behavior and activities are taken seriously. Insight into the current trust state and associated risk level of cloud users are vital for continuous risk monitoring and reduction. The solution is to be used as a recommended guideline that might significantly contribute to the research community and information security field of cloud security. Future research direction to consider the possibility of simulating and transforming this conceptual and abstract framework into a real-world working solution due to research work limitations. The framework was designed based on recognized and accepted scientific and technological principles and concepts, from user behavior trust modeling, eXtensible access control markup language, and adaptive security architecture. In addition, to extend this concept to a future research area that will focus exclusively on application-processes behavior.

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    fulltext
  • 39.
    Albano, Michele
    et al.
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Barbosa, Paulo Miguel
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Silva, Jose
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Duarte, Roberto
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Ferreira, Luis Lino
    CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC Polytechnic Institute of Porto.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Quality of Service on the Arrowhead Framework2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE 13th International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, artikkel-id 7991959Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of Service (QoS) is an important enabler for communication in industrial environments. The Arrowhead Framework was created to support local cloud functionalities for automation applications by means of a Service Oriented Architecture. To this aim, the framework offers a number of services that ease application development, among them the QoSSetup and the Monitor services, the first used to verify and configure QoS in the local cloud, and the second for online monitoring of QoS. This paper describes how the QoSSetup and Monitor services are provided in a Arrowhead-compliant System of Systems, detailing both the principles and algorithms employed, and how the services are implemented. Experimental results are provided, from a demonstrator built over a real-time Ethernet network.

  • 40.
    Albertsson, Kim
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Gleyzer, Sergei
    University of Florida.
    Zapata, Omar
    OProject and University of Antioquia.
    Machine Learning in High Energy Physics Community White Paper2018Inngår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 1085, artikkel-id 022008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning is an important applied research area in particle physics, beginning with applications to high-level physics analysis in the 1990s and 2000s, followed by an explosion of applications in particle and event identification and reconstruction in the 2010s. In this document we discuss promising future research and development areas in machine learning in particle physics with a roadmap for their implementation, software and hardware resource requirements, collaborative initiatives with the data science community, academia and industry, and training the particle physics community in data science. The main objective of the document is to connect and motivate these areas of research and development with the physics drivers of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider and future neutrino experiments and identify the resource needs for their implementation. Additionally we identify areas where collaboration with external communities will be of great benefit.

  • 41.
    Alepuz, Javier Pérez
    et al.
    University of Alicante, POBox 99, 03080, Alicante, Spain.
    Emami, Reza
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T6, Canada.
    Pomares, Jorge
    University of Alicante, POBox 99, 03080, Alicante, Spain.
    Direct image-based visual servoing of free-floating space manipulators2016Inngår i: Aerospace Science and Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, E-ISSN 1626-3219, Vol. 55, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an image-based controller to perform the guidance of a free-floating robot manipulator. The manipulator has an eye-in-hand camera system, and is attached to a base satellite. The base is completely free and floating in space with no attitude control, and thus, freely reacting to the movements of the robot manipulator attached to it. The proposed image-based approach uses the system's kinematics and dynamics model, not only to achieve a desired location with respect to an observed object in space, but also to follow a desired trajectory with respect to the object. To do this, the paper presents an optimal control approach to guiding the free-floating satellite-mounted robot, using visual information and considering the optimization of the motor commands with respect to a specified metric along with chaos compensation. The proposed controller is applied to the visual control of a four-degree-of-freedom robot manipulator in different scenarios.

  • 42.
    Alfieri, Luisa
    et al.
    Department of Engineering, University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale of Naples.
    Bracale, Antonio
    Department of Engineering, University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale of Naples.
    Carpinelli, Guido
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Accurate assessment of waveform distortions up to 150 kHz due to fluorescent lamps2017Inngår i: 2017 6th International Conference on Clean Electrical Power: Renewable Energy Resources Impact, ICCEP 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 636-644, artikkel-id 8004756Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescent lamps are among the most diffuse electrical components that introduce significant waveform distortions in low voltage distribution systems. These distortions involve a wide range of frequencies (i.e., from 0 kHz to 150 kHz), and spectral components characterized by a non-uniform behavior in time and frequency domains. Early IEC standards covered formally only the range from 0 kHz to 9 kHz, defining grouping and group total harmonic distortion both for the low-frequencies (i.e., from 0 kHz to 2 kHz) and for frequencies ranging from 2 kHz to 9 kHz. Recently, the IEC standards have suggested to extend the grouping, previously defined for the range from 2 kHz to 9 kHz, also to the range from 9 kHz to 150 kHz. In this paper, the waveform distortions of a variable number of fluorescent lamps were quantified by applying the main Power Quality indices currently available for such devices. Indices are evaluated using both the IEC method and an hybrid method proposed recently in the relevant literature, i.e., the sliding-window Wavelet-Modified ESPRIT method. Numerical applications on measured data show the waveform distortion levels versus the number of lamps, quantifying also the different performances of the aforesaid spectral analysis methods

  • 43.
    Alfieri, Luisa
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Bracale, Antonio
    Department of Engineering, University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale of Naples.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    New Power Quality Indices for the Assessment of Waveform Distortions from 0 to 150 kHz in Power Systems with Renewable Generation and Modern Non-Linear Loads2017Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 10, artikkel-id 1633Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of power electronics converters, e.g., to interface renewable generation systems with the grid or to supply some high-efficiency loads, has caused increased levels of waveform distortions in the modern distribution system. Voltage and current waveforms include spectral components from 0 kHz to 150 kHz, characterized by a non-uniform time-frequency behavior. This wide interval of frequencies is currently divided into "low-frequency" (from 0 kHz to 2 kHz) and "high-frequency" (from 2 kHz to 150 kHz). While the low-frequencies have been exhaustively investigated in the relevant literature and are covered by adequate standardization, studies for the high-frequencies have been addressed only in the last decade to fill current regulatory gaps. In this paper, new power quality (PQ) indices for the assessment of waveform distortions from 0 kHz to 150 kHz are proposed. Specifically, some currently available indices have been properly modified in order to extend their application also to wide-spectrum waveforms. In the particular case of waveform distortions due to renewable generation, numerical applications prove that the proposed indices are useful tools for the characterization of problems (e.g., overheating, equipment malfunctioning, losses due to skin effects, hysteresis losses or eddy current losses) in cases of both low-frequency and high-frequency distortions

  • 44.
    Alhamwi, Mouaz
    et al.
    Vattenfall R&D, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall R&D, Sweden.
    Mulenga, Enock
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Empirical Analysis of Voltage Variations in Low Voltage Distribution Grids from Photovoltaic2019Inngår i: Solar Integration Workshop 2019, Energynautics GmbH , 2019, artikkel-id 216Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid expansion of photovoltaic (PV) systems has raised voltage concerns. This paper investigates voltage variations measured at four hundred on-line PV installations in Sweden. Small (<10 kW inverter size) three phase residential PV systems had the least impact whereas single phase systems had the most impact for the same amount of power injected per phase. PV systems were grouped based on post code location into urban and rural areas. Urban areas were found to be more resilient to PV induced  voltage fluctuations with a narrower back-ground voltage band in comparison to rural areas, indicating that PV inverter measurements can be an efficient method to empirically determine grid strength.

  • 45.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Hajlane, Abdelghani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Materials Science and Nano-engineering, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Benguerir, Morocco.
    Renbi, Abdelghani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Ouarga, Ayoub
    Materials Science and Nano-engineering, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Benguerir, Morocco.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers by Electroless Plating2019Inngår i: Fibers, ISSN 2079-6439, Vol. 7, nr 5, artikkel-id 38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous metallized regenerated cellulose fibers for advanced applications (e.g. multi-functional composites) are produced by electroless copper plating. Copper is successfully deposited on the surface of cellulose fibers using commercial cyanide-free electroless copper plating package commonly available for manufacturing of printed wiring boards. The deposited copper is found to enhance the thermal stability, electrical conductivity and resistance to moisture uptake of the fibers. On the other hand, involved chemistry results in altering the molecular structure of the fibers as is indicated by the degradation of their mechanical performance (tensile strength and modulus).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Alonso-Rosa, Manuel
    et al.
    University of Cordoba.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    University of Cordoba.
    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio
    University of Cordoba.
    Garrido-Zafra, Joaquin
    University of Cordoba.
    Gutierrez-Ballesteros, Elena
    University of Cordoba.
    Cañete-Carmona, Eduardo
    University of Cordoba.
    An IoT based mobile augmented reality application for energy visualization in buildings environments2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikkel-id 600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented reality (AR) improves how we acquire, understand, and display information without distracting us from the real world. These technologies can be used in different applications and industries as they can incorporate domain-specific visualizations on a real-world screen. Mobile augmented reality (MAR) essentially consists of superimposing virtual elements over real objects on the screen, to give added value and enrich the interaction with reality. In numerous plants, it is being used for maintenance and repair tasks, as well as training. The Internet of Things (IoT) is increasingly pervading every aspect of our lives, including the power infrastructure of our buildings. IoT-enabled devices offer many connectivity options for helping supervise all-important energy assets. Aggregating data to cloud-based platforms enables operations teams to have on-time information access to make fast decisions and have a fast response regarding energy use, while maintenance teams keep on top of the appliance power quality and reliability needed by using MAR. This paper presents a novel approximation for visualizing appliance-related power quality to enhance awareness about the consumed electricity. A combined solution of MAR with IoT technologies is employed. Engineered solutions’ hands-free way to get data about surrounding appliances reduces the complexity, saves energy, and speeds up the operations. An innovative way to measure things at the right time leads to a competitive advantage.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Alrifaiy, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system. Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section of physiology, Gothenburg University - Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg, 405 30, Sweden; CMTF, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Luleå and Umeå, Sweden.
    Borg, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Lindahl, Olof A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik. CMTF, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Luleå and Umeå, Sweden; Department of Radiation Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Umeå, 901 87, Sweden.
    Ramser, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Signaler och system. CMTF, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Luleå and Umeå, Sweden.
    A lab-on-a-chip for hypoxic patch clamp measurements combined with optical tweezers and spectroscopy: first investigations of single biological cells2015Inngår i: Biomedical engineering online, E-ISSN 1475-925X, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The response and the reaction of the brain system to hypoxia is a vital research subject that requires special instrumentation. With this research subject in focus, a new multifunctional lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with control over the oxygen content for studies on biological cells was developed. The chip was designed to incorporate the patch clamp technique, optical tweezers and absorption spectroscopy. The performance of the LOC was tested by a series of experiments. The oxygen content within the channels of the LOC was monitored by an oxygen sensor and verified by simultaneously studying the oxygenation state of chicken red blood cells (RBCs) with absorption spectra. The chicken RBCs were manipulated optically and steered in three dimensions towards a patch-clamp micropipette in a closed microfluidic channel. The oxygen level within the channels could be changed from a normoxic value of 18% O 2 to an anoxic value of 0.0-0.5% O 2. A time series of 3 experiments were performed, showing that the spectral transfer from the oxygenated to the deoxygenated state occurred after about 227 ± 1 s and a fully developed deoxygenated spectrum was observed after 298 ± 1 s, a mean value of 3 experiments. The tightness of the chamber to oxygen diffusion was verified by stopping the flow into the channel system while continuously recording absorption spectra showing an unchanged deoxygenated state during 5400 ± 2 s. A transfer of the oxygenated absorption spectra was achieved after 426 ± 1 s when exposing the cell to normoxic buffer. This showed the long time viability of the investigated cells. Successful patching and sealing were established on a trapped RBC and the whole-cell access (Ra) and membrane (Rm) resistances were measured to be 5.033 ± 0.412 M Ω and 889.7 ± 1.74 M Ω respectively.

  • 48.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Distribution Network Planning Considering Capacity Mechanisms and Flexibility2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) has posed challenges to the distribution system operator (DSO) from the operation and regulatory point of view. High penetration of DERs could have negative impacts on the performance of the distribution grid, and depending on the regulatory framework, the DSO's remuneration as well. In liberalized electrical systems, the focus on promoting eciency has led to the implementation of an incentive-based regulation that exerts additional pressure on the DSOs to reduce costs. Additionally, the European Parliament Directive 2009/72/EC establishes a regulatory unbundling among the distribution, production, and retailing activities within the same vertically integrated electric utility.

    A way of helping the DSO to cope with the posed challenges is by providing it with exibility. This exibility can be acquired from the planning stage, and later be used during the system operation. This exibility can stem from the DSO's ability to exert control on the demand and the supply side to balance the system and correct its operational state.

    Based on the European DSOs' current situation at facing the increasing penetration of DERs, this thesis investigates in non-wired exible grid tools to solve the distribution network expansion problem. The investigation focuses on exibility providers, in particular on energy storage systems and hydropower, and also on capacity mechanisms to translate the capacity from DERs into the grid's capacity for planning purposes.

    Given that the share of renewable sources among the DERs is increasing, and considering the importance of energy storage systems in providing exibility to balance renewable energy production, the eort has been turned on to developing a hydropower model and a generic storage model that t both planning and operational studies.

    Given the need for gearing the DERs' behavior into the DSO's decision making process during the planning and operational timescales, the design and implementation of a distribution capacity mechanism have been developed. The design of the capacity mechanism has been conceived considering its integration within the distribution network expansion problem.

    The outcomes of this thesis can be synthesized as follows: 1) A generic hydraulic/storage model provided with an equivalent marginal cost that aids in considering the impact of present decisions in the future costs. 2) A market oriented distribution capacity mechanism that gears DERs and the DSOs to benefit mutually. 3) A distribution network expansion planning formulation that integrates the capacity resource from DERs through the distribution capacity mechanism.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 49.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    et al.
    Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas.
    Bermúdez, Juan
    Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas.
    Marginal pricing via penalty factors in the Venezuelan hydrothermal system2006Inngår i: 2006 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition: Latin America, TDC'06, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2006, artikkel-id 4104756Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The work shown next deals with the definition of nodal marginal prices, in the context of an economic dispatch solution with transmission losses. The losses are incorporated through penalty factors obtained from line distribution factors, using a linearization process. This study is applied to the hydrothermal venezuelan system, considering plants with regulation capability and run-of-river dams. The objective function to be minimized includes present and future thermal costs. In addition, a discussion is given about the correct location of the slack node, in order to get similar results to these associated to an OPF solution. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 50.
    Alvarez, Manuel
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Zhong, Jin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Gil-de-Castro, Aurora
    University of Cordoba, Electronics and Electronic Technology Area, University of Cordoba.
    A Smart Distribution Toolbox for Distribution System Planning2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution system planner should be able to coordinate smart grid solutions in order to find cost effective expansions plans. These plans should be able to deal with new added system uncertainties from renewable production and consumers while guaranteeing power quality and availability of supply. This paper proposes a structure for distribution systems planning oriented to help the planner in deciding how to make use of smart solutions for achieving the described task. Here, the concept of a system planning toolbox is introduced and supported with a review of relevant works implementing smart solutions. These are colligated in a way that the system planner can foresee what to expect with their combined implementation. Future developments in this subject should attempt to theorize a practical algorithm in an optimization and decision making context.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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