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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Johan M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space, Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space, Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology; RISE Research Institute of Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space, Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology.
    Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites: Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 206, p. 1590-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry’s increasing demand for liquefied natural gas could be met in the future by liquefied methane produced from biomass feedstock (LBG - liquefied biogas). This study presents results from an investigation of value chains for integrated production of LBG at a generic sawmill site, based on gasification of sawmill waste streams and forest residues. The objective was to investigate the cost for, as well as the carbon footprint reduction associated with, production and use of LBG as a fuel. Five different LBG plant sizes were investigated in combination with three different sawmill sizes. The resulting cases differ regarding biomass feedstock composition, biomass transportation distances, LBG plant sizes, how efficiently the excess heat from the LBG plant is used, and LBG distribution distances. Pinch technology was used to quantify the heat integration opportunities and to design the process steam network. The results show that efficient use of energy within the integrated process has the largest impact on the performance of the value chain in terms of carbon footprint. The fuel production cost are mainly determined by the investment cost of the plant, as well as feedstock transportation costs, which mainly affects larger plants. Production costs are shown to range from 68 to 156 EUR/MW hfuel and the carbon footprint ranges from 175 to 250 kg GHG-eq/MW hnet biomass assuming that the product is used to substitute fossil LNG fuel. The results indicate that process integration of an indirect biomass gasifier for LBG production is an effective way for a sawmill to utilize its by-products. Integration of this type of biorefinery can be done in such a way that the plant can still cover its heating needs whilst expanding its product portfolio in a competitive way, both from a carbon footprint and cost perspective. The results also indicate that the gains associated with efficient heat integration are important to achieve an efficient value chain.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Dimensioning of value chains for production of liquefied bio-SNG2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Alfieri, Luisa
    et al.
    Department of Engineering, University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale of Naples.
    Bracale, Antonio
    Department of Engineering, University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale of Naples.
    Carpinelli, Guido
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A Wavelet-Modified ESPRIT Hybrid Method for Assessment of Spectral Components from 0 to 150 kHz2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waveform distortions are an important issue in distribution systems. In particular, the assessment of very wide spectra, that include also components in the 2-150 kHz range, has recently become an issue of great interest. This is due to the increasing presence of high-spectral emission devices like end-user devices and distributed generation systems. This study proposed a new sliding-window wavelet-modified estimation of signal parameters by rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) method, particularly suitable for the spectral analysis of waveforms that have very wide spectra. The method is very accurate and requires reduced computational effort. It can be applied successfully to detect spectral components in the range of 0-150 kHz introduced both by distributed power plants, such as wind and photovoltaic generation systems, and by end-user equipment connected to grids through static converters, such as fluorescent lamps.

  • 4.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Steel industry environmental objectives: stakeholder preference assessment using conjoint analysis2013In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 605-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish steel industry has combined traditional methods such as life cycle analysis with less traditional methods such as preference analysis in order to move towards a closed steel eco cycle. The paper describes the use of conjoint analysis to study preferences of six different stakeholder groups regarding four environmental objectives (reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, reduced use of non-renewable resources, reduced use of non-renewable energy and weight reduction in products) and to identify gaps in preferences between the stakeholder groups. Our results suggested that there was a difference in preference between the stakeholder groups: respondents that were closer to the steel industry favoured all four environmental objectives, while members of public and political decision makers preferred a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. One of the conclusions of our study is that there is a need of improved information to clients and public on the environmental benefits of product weight reduction.

  • 5.
    Amoignon, Olivier
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pressure losses and temperatures in pressurised cyclone gasifier1995Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Anderson, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Westerlund, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Analysis of the heat demand in batch kilns2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the production of lumber more than half of the entering timber to the sawmill becomes biomass. About 12 %wt of the entering timber is combusted to supply heat for the sawmill. Major part of the heat is supply the kilns. Due to the high evacuation losses the energy efficiency in a traditional drying kiln is only 13 %. This makes the lumber drying to a low and ineffective process in an energy point of view.Forced drying technologies are a compromise between high lumber quality, low lead time and decreased energy use. Often is the quality and lead time prioritised. This paper advises an appropriate method to simulate the energy efficiency when drying lumber in a batch kiln. To ensure real life drying conditions, with sufficient quality and lead time the initial conditions were made from simulated drying schemes, from simulation program called Torksim. By combine thermodynamics and psychrometric relationship, the energy streams and losses during the drying scheme were established. The program can be used to compare several drying conditions and clarify the magnitude of losses. Different types of technologies affecting the kiln energy efficiency and to compare drying conditions to each other. For instance heat exchanger, heat pumps, condense walls, absorption system etc.The used drying conditions are suitable for north European lumber and climate, but the initial conditions can be changed for analyses of other types of drying conditions. The program is a usable tool to analyses different types of technologies effect on the kiln energy efficiency and to compare drying conditions and different drying scheme to each other.

  • 7.
    Andersson, H.M.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Synnergren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Application of digital speckle photography to measure thickness variations in the vacuum infusion process2003In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 448-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method to measure the movement of the flexible bag used in vacuum infusion is presented. The method is based on an in-house developed stereoscopic digital speckle photography system (DSP). The advantage with this optical method, which is based on cross-correlation, is that the deflection of a large area can be continuously measured with a great accuracy (down to 10 μm. The method is at this stage most suited for research but can in the long run also be adopted in production control and optimization. By use of the method it was confirmed that a ditch is formed at the resin flow front and that there can be a considerable and seemingly perpetual compaction after complete filling. The existence of the ditch demonstrates that the stiffness of the reinforcement can be considerably reduced when it is wetted. Hence, the maximum fiber volume fraction can be larger than predicted from dry measurements of preform elasticity. It is likely that the overall thickness reduction after complete filling emanates from lubrication of the fibers combined with an outflow of the resin. Besides, the cross-linking starts and the polymer shrinks. Hence, the alteration in height will continue until complete cross-linking is reached.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Jan-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy and Resource Efficiency in Convective Drying Systems in the Process Industry2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing concern about environmental problems has increased the public’s interest in energy usage. The subsidies for biomass, together with the rising energy prices have madebiomass a desirable product on the energy market. This has led to higher biomass prices and an increased interest in improving the resource and energy efficiency associated withbiomass production. Biofuel is an interesting substitute for fossil fuels to decrease the greenhouse gas emissions. One challenge with biofuels is to find sufficient amounts of biomass since the foresting is already close to its maximum sustainable capacity. Sawmills are important suppliers to the biomass market, since the sawmill industries produce a significant part of the available biomass. This Doctoral thesis focuses on strategies to decrease biomass usage in order to increase the biomass availability at the market. This is done through mapping and system analysis of energy and material streams for process industries using convective drying techniques. The energy analysis is mainly done through thermodynamics and psychrometry. Available state-of-the-art technologies on the market are studied to determine their potential for decreasing the total energy usage in sawmills. Integration possibilities between biomass consumers are also investigated through process integration with mathematical programming and pinch analysis. Energy efficiency of berry drying in a juice plant is also studied. The main conclusions are as follows. The heat demand of drying lumber in Swedish sawmills is about 4.9 TWh/year. Using available state-of-the-art technologies (heat pumps,heat exchangers and open absorption system) it is possible to reduce the energy usagesubstantially. If the recovered heat is used for heat sinks inside, or close to, the sawmill, the energy efficiency can be improved significantly. Using mechanical heat pumps nationally could save 4.9 TWh/year ofheatandgenerate0.62 TWh/year of surplus heat, at the cost of 1TWh/year of electricity. Using open absorption systems nationally, could save 3.4 TWh/year of heat, at the cost of only 0.05 TWh/year of electricity. Saving this heat means that an even larger amount of biomass will be saved, since there are heat losses during the combustion and distribution. Another way of saving energy is to displacethe starting time between batch kilns, and recycle evacuation air between the kilns. Nationally, this could save 0.44 TWh/year of heat. Industrial site integration between sawmills and the main biomass users (pelleting plants an d CHP plants) can decrease the use of biomass in the industrial site with 43% wt compared to a standalone site with a comparable production. Nationally, this could save up to 7.1 TWh/year of biomass. Despite the significant savings in terms of resources, it is not profitable due to the currentprice ratio between district heating and biomass. Finally, drying and separationof berry press cake in a juice plant is found to be possible using only energy from the exhaust gases of the steam boiler, if the drying air is sufficientlyrecycled. Instead of composting the press cake, the dried and separated skins and seeds could then be sold.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Jan-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Improving energy use in sawmills: from drying kilns to national impact2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased concern about environmental problems has amplified the public`s interest inenergy usage. The improved subsidies for biomass, together with the rising energy priceshave made biomass a desirable product on the energy market. Energy intensive industries inthe field of wood and biomass now have nowadays an opportunity to decrease energyconsumption and to sell their biomass surplus on the energy market.This Licentiate thesis focuses on strategies to decrease biomass usage in sawmill industriesin order to increase their surplus biomass and increase their profit. This is done throughsystem analysis of sawmill industries in terms of mass and energy flows. The energyanalysis focuses on the drying kiln using psychrometric and thermodynamic relationships.State-of-the-art technologies, available on the market, have been studied to determine theirpossible effect on the total energy usage in the sawmills.This study was undertaken to determine the national use of energy due to sawmills and thepotential magnitude of improvements. Sawmills are important suppliers to the biomassmarket, since medium to large capacity sawmills contribute with 95% of the Swedish annuallumber (sawn boards) production (17.3 Mm3) with a lumber interchange of only 47%. Therest of the timber (unsawn logs) is transformed into biomass through the lumber productionprocesses. An essential part (12%) of the timber is used for supplying heat to the productionprocesses, mainly to the drying process which is the most time and heat consuming processin the sawmill. The main conclusions are that the heat demand for drying lumber in Swedishsawmills was found to be 4.9 TWh per year and the drying process can be made moreeffective by use of state-of-the-art technologies. Hence the internal use of biomass insawmills can be decreased, thereby increasing the biomass that can be sold to the marketand/or to generate heat and/or electricity, resulting in more profitable sawmills and asignificant increased supply of biomass to the market.It was also found that with available state-of-the-art technologies it is possible to recycle theheat in the evacuated air from the dryer, and if the recovered heat is used for heat sinksinside or close to the sawmill a large decrease of the energy usage can be achieved. If thetechnologies are implemented up to 5.56 TWh of equivalent biomass can be saved,depending on the technology, the specific sawmill conditions, kiln settings and dryingsystem operation. However, some of the considered technologies consume a substantialamount of electricity, so the economic benefit should be carefully evaluated.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Elfgren, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Improved energy efficiency in juice production through waste heat recycling2013In: International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global demand for Nordic wild berries has increased steadily, partly due to their healthy properties and their good taste. Juice concentrate is produced by pressing berries and heating up the juice. The by-products are berry skins and seeds. Traditionally, the by-products have been composted. Higher competiveness can be achieved by decreasing the production cost and increasing the product values. The berry skins and seeds have a commercial value since they are rich in vitamins and nutrients. To use and sell these by-products, they need to be separated from each other and dried to a moisture content of less than 10 %wt. A berry juice industry in the north of Sweden has been studied in order to increase the energy and resource efficiency and optimize the quality and yield of different berry fractions. This was done by means of process integration with thermodynamics and psychrometry along with measurements of the berry juice production processes. Our calculations show that the drying system could be operated at full without any external heat supply. This could be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the dryer by recirculating 80 % of the drying air and by heating the air with heat from the flue gases from the industrial boiler. This change would decrease the need for heat in the dryer with about 64 %. The total heat use for the plant could thereby be decreased from 1204 kW to 1039 kW. The proposed changes could be done without compromising the production quality or the lead time.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Elfgren, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Westerlund, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Improved energy efficiency in juice production through waste heat recycling2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 130, no S1, p. 757-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Berry juice concentrate is produced by pressing berries and heating up the juice. The by-products are berry skins and seeds in a press cake. Traditionally, these by-products have been composted, but due to their valuable nutrients, it could be profitable to sell them instead. The skins and seeds need to be separated and dried to a moisture content of less than 10 %wt (on dry basis) in order to avoid fermentation. A berry juice plant in the north of Sweden has been studied in order to increase the energy and resource efficiency, with special focus on the drying system. This was done by means of process integration with mass and energy balance, theory from thermodynamics and psychrometry along with measurements of the juice plant. Our study indicates that the drying system could be operated at full capacity without any external heat supply using waste heat supplied from the juice plant. This would be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the dryer by recirculation of the drying air and by heat supply from the flue gases of the industrial boiler. The recirculation would decrease the need of heat in the dryer with about 52%. The total heat use for the plant could thereby be decreased from 1262 kW to 1145 kW. The improvements could be done without compromising the production quality.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Improving energy efficiency of sawmill industrial sites by integration with pellet and CHP plants2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 111, p. 791-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential strategy to lower energy and resources consumption is the development of highly integrated industrial sites including different kind of plants complementing one another. Sawmills are huge biomass suppliers to other industries, such as pulp and paper mills, pellet plants and CHP plants, and part of the biomass is also used for the internal heat requirement. In this paper the integration of a sawmill with a pellet plant and a CHP plant is investigated using advanced process integration techniques, so that the thermal energy and the electricity produced in the CHP plant by burning part of the sawmill biomass output are used for the heat and power requirements of the other two industries. The results show that up to 18% of the biomass by-products from the sawmill can be saved, but from the economic point of view the ratio between prices of the thermal energy sold for district heating and the low quality biomass has to be lower than the present one to make the integrated design solution more attractive than separate plant operation.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Westerlund, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Improved energy efficiency in sawmill drying system2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 113, p. 891-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide use of biomass has increased drastically during the last decade. At Swedish sawmills about half of the entering timber becomes lumber, with the remainder considered as by-product (biomass). A significant part of this biomass is used for internal heat production, mainly for forced drying of lumber in drying kilns. Large heat losses in kilns arise due to difficulties in recovering evaporative heat in moist air at low temperatures. This paper addresses the impact of available state-of-the-art technologies of heat recycling on the most common drying schemes used in Swedish sawmills. Simulations of different technologies were performed on an hourly basis to compare the heat and electricity demand with the different technologies. This was executed for a total sawmill and finally to the national level to assess the potential effects upon energy efficiency and biomass consumption. Since some techniques produce a surplus of heat the comparison has to include the whole sawmill. The impact on a national level shows the potential of the different investigated techniques. The results show that if air heat exchangers were introduced across all sawmills in Sweden, the heat demand would decrease by 0.3 TWh/year. The mechanical heat pump technology would decrease the heat demand by 5.6 TWh/year and would also produce a surplus for external heat sinks, though electricity demand would increase by 1 TWh/year. The open absorption system decreases the heat demand by 3.4 TWh/year on a national level, though at the same time there is a moderate increase in electricity demand of 0.05 TWh/year. Introducing actual energy prices in Sweden gives an annual profit (investment cost excluded) on national level for the open absorption system of almost 580 million SEK. For the mechanical heat pump technology the profit is 204 million SEK and for the traditional heat exchanger the profit is significant lower. It has been found that a widespread implementation of available energy recovery technologies across Swedish sawmills would result in substantial savings of biomass for other purposes in the society

  • 14.
    Andersson, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Westerlund, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    MIND based optimisation and energy analysis of a sawmill production line2010In: PRES 2010: 13th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction, 28 August - 1 September 2010, Prague, Czech Republic, 2010, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lumber drying process uses about 80 % of the total heat consumption in sawmills. Efforts to increase energy efficiency in lumber kilns were very restricted due to the low biomass prices between the 80th and 90th. Today with higher production and biomass prices, companies want to decrease their own use of biomass and increase the heating system efficiency. The study proposes alternative ways to reduce the heat consumption at batch kilns by recirculation of the evacuation air and addresses particular problem encountered in sawmills. Which produce their own heat and suffer from bottlenecks in the heating system due to high heat load from the dryers and increased production. The study shows the possibility to recycle the evacuation air from each kiln which reduces the overall heat consumption of the kilns by 12 %. At nationally basis this corresponds to a decrease of heat consumption of 440 GWh annually, among Swedish sawmill. This will decrease the individual heat consumption of the kilns, heat load in the heating system and the bottleneck effect in the drying process. The decreased own use of biomass brings benefits of more available biomass to the market and increased profits for the sawmill.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Westerlund, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Surplus biomass through energy efficient kilns2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 12, p. 4848-4853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass in the European Union has increased since the middle of the 1990s, mostly because of high subsidies and CO2 emission regulation through the Kyoto protocol. The sawmills are huge biomass suppliers to the market; out of the Swedish annual lumber production of 16.4 Mm3, 95% is produced by medium to large-volume sawmills with a lumber quotient of 47%. The remaining part is produced as biomass. An essential part (12%) of the entering timber is used for supply of heat in their production processes, mostly in the substantial drying process. The drying process is the most time and heat consuming process in the sawmill. This study was undertaken to determine the sawmills’ national use of energy and potential magnitude of improvements. If the drying process can be made more effective, sawmills’ own use of biomass can be decreased and allow a considerably larger supply to the biomass market through processed or unprocessed biomass, heat or electricity production. The national electricity and heat usage when drying the lumber have been analysed by theoretical evaluation and experimental validation at a batch kiln. The main conclusion is that the heat consumption for drying lumber among the Swedish sawmills is 4.9 TW h/year, and with available state-of-the-art techniques it is possible to decrease the national heat consumption by approximately 2.9 TW h. This additional amount of energy corresponds to the market’s desire for larger energy supply.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Jim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Systems Analysis of Chemicals Production via Integrated Entrained Flow Biomass Gasification: Quantification and improvement of techno-economic performance2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass gasification is a promising production pathway for green chemicals, which can support the development towards a more sustainable society where fossil fuels are replaced. To be able to compete with fossil fuels, a highly efficient production of biomassbased products is required in order to maximize overall process economics and to minimizenegative environmental impact. Large production plants will likely be required to obtain favourable economy-of-scale effects and reasonable production cost. Entrained flow gasification (EFG) is a favourable technology due to its suitability for large-scale implementation and ability to produce a high quality syngas from various biomass feedstocks. In order to estimate overall energy efficiency and production costs for gasification-based biorefineries, it is important to be able to characterise the gasifiers’ performance. This in turnrequires reliable estimations of the gasification process. Integration of EFG-based biorefineries with existing pulp mills or other large-scale forestindustries can be achieved by integration of material and/or energy flows, as well as by coutilisation of process equipment. This could potentially induce both technical and economic added-values. At chemical pulp mills, an important feedstock for green chemical production may be the black liquor from the pulp production, since it provides an attractive combinationof advantages. The black liquor availability is, however, directly correlated to the pulp production (i.e. the mill size) and the potential green chemical production volume via pure black liquor gasification (BLG) is therefore limited.In this thesis, two systems are considered that expand on the BLG concept with the intent to increase the chemical production volume, since this could generate positive economy-of-scale effects and is a rather unexamined area. In addition to this, an EFG configuration entailing a lower availability related risk for the considered host pulp mill is also considered. The threeconsidered integrated systems are: (i) co-gasification of biomass-based pyrolysis oil blended with black liquor for methanol production, (ii) parallel operation of BLG and solid biomass EFG for methanol or ammonia production, and (iii) replacing the bark boiler with solid biomass EFG for methanol or ammonia production. These system solutions establish a combination of material, energy and equipment integration. The main aim of this thesis is to increase the knowledge of the characteristics of entrained flow biomass gasification systems and their opportunities for integration in existing industries for production of green chemicals (methanol and ammonia). An appropriate modelling framework that combines chemical modelling on a high level of detail with holistic industrial site modelling is designed and used to identify and quantify energetic and economic addedvalues for the integrated biorefineries. Mathematical process integration models based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) of pulp mills are used to study integration of the biomass gasification systems with the mills. An iterative modelling approach is applied between the process integration model and the detailed biomass gasification models based on Aspen Plus or a Matlab-based thermodynamic equilibrium model. As a complement to themodelling framework, a multi-scale equivalent reactor network (ERN) solid biomass-based EFG model is developed to be able to identify and study influential parameters on the gasifiers’ performance in the Aspen Plus platform. This is approached by considering the effect of mass and heat transfer as well as chemical kinetics. The results show that replacing a recovery or a bark boiler with EFG for green chemicals production improves the overall energy system efficiency and the economic performance,compared to the original operation mode of the mill as well as compared to a stand-alone gasification plant. Significant economy-of-scale effects can be obtained from co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil. Co-gasification will add extra revenue per produced unit of methanol and reduces the production cost significantly compared to gasification of pure pyrolysis oil. In general, integrated EFG systems producing methanol sold to replace fossilgasoline are shown to constitute attractive investments if the product is exempted from taxes. Ammonia produced via EFG is per unit of produced chemical significantly more capital intense than the corresponding system producing methanol. The economic viability in the considered ammonia configurations is therefore found to be lower compared to methanol.The ERN model is shown to be able to estimate key performance indicators such as carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, syngas composition, etc. for a real gasification process, showing good agreement with experimental results obtained from a pilot scale gasifier. This simulation tool can in future work be implemented in more global models to study and use to improve the techno-economic performance of EFG-based biorefineries, by quantifying theinfluence of important operational parameters. The main conclusion from this work is that production of green chemicals from biomass EFG integrated with a pulp mill is techno-economically advantageous compared to stand-alonealternatives. It is also concluded that the pulp mill size will be decisive for what integration route is the most favourable. Integration of an individual BLG plant with a pulp mill of maximum size would be the most economically beneficial alternative. However, the possibility to increase the green chemical production from a given black liquor volume improves the viability for integration in smaller mills. Increasing the production volume would therefore result in the highest efficiency and economic benefits given mill sizes up to300 kADt/y. From a resource perspective, this would however lead to an increased demand for biomass import to the mill, and this expansion could be limited by the overall availability of biomass resources.Keywords: Pulp mills, integration, biomass, gasification, green chemicals, methanol, ammonia.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Jim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Techno-economic analysis of integrated biomass gasification for green chemical production2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of renewable motor fuels and green chemicals is important in the development towards a more sustainable society where fossil fuels are replaced. The global annual production of methanol and ammonia from fossil fuels is very large. Alternative production pathways are therefore needed to reduce emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and to reduce the fossil fuel dependency. Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is one promising renewable alternative for that purpose. However, to be able to compete with fossil feedstocks, a highly efficient production of biomass-based products is required to maximize overall process economics and to minimize negative environmental impact. In order to reach reasonable production costs, large production plants will likely be required to obtain favourable economy-of-scale effects.Integrating large scale biofuel or green chemical production processes in existing pulp mills or in other large forest industries may provide large logistical and feedstock handling advantages due to the already existing biomass handling infrastructure. In addition, there are large possibilities to make use of different by-products. In chemical pulp mills, black liquor, a residue from pulp making, provides a good feedstock for the production of chemicals. It has previously been shown that investment in a black liquor gasification plant is advantageous regarding efficiency and economic performance compared to investment in a new recovery boiler. The potential production volume of green chemicals from black liquor is however limited since the availability of black liquor is strongly connected to pulp production. Increased chemical production volumes and thereby potential positive scale effects can be obtained either by adding other types of raw material to the gasification process or by increasing the syngas production by other gasification units operating in parallel. Several publications can be found regarding biomass gasification using one single feedstock and/or gasifier, but only a few consider cogasification of different fuels and dual gasification units. The overall aim of this thesis has therefore been to investigate technoeconomically the integration of biomass gasification systems in existing pulp and paper mills for green chemical production with the focus on creating economy-of-scale effects. The following system configurations were selected: i) a solid biomass gasifier that replaces the bark boiler in a pulp mill for methanol or ammonia production, ii) a solid biomass gasifier operated in parallel with a black liquor gasifier for methanol production, and iii) methanol production from gasification of black liquor blended with biomass-based pyrolysis oil. The main objectives were to find possible and measurable technically and economically added values for different integrated system solutions.The gasifier, the gas conditioning and synthesis were modelled in the commercial software Aspen Plus for material and energy balance calculations. A thermodynamic model developed for gasification of black liquor was used to simulate co-gasification of black liquor blended with pyrolysis oil. The outputs served as inputs for the process integration studies, where models based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) were used. An iterative modelling approach between the two models was adopted to ensure that all constraints of the pulp and paper mill as well as for the gasification plant were met. The resulting material and energy balances were used to analyze the different system configurations in terms of overall energy efficiency and process economics. The results show that replacing the recovery or bark boiler with a biomass gasifier for green chemical production improves the overall energy system efficiency and the economic performance compared to the original operation mode of the mill and a non-integrated standalone gasification plant. Significant economy-of-scale effects were obtained when co-gasifying black liquor and pyrolysis oil. This adds extra revenue per produced unit of methanol compared to gasification of pure black liquor, even for pyrolysis oil prices that are considerably higher than projected future commercial scale production costs. Ingeneral, methanol sold to replace fossil gasoline showed good investment opportunities if exempted from taxes. Ammonia produced via gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is per unit of produced chemical significantly more capital intensive than methanol. The investment opportunity of the ammonia configuration is therefore diminished in comparison to methanol production.The main conclusion is that production of green chemicals via biomass gasification integrated in a pulp and paper mill is advantageous compared to stand-alone alternatives. Highest efficiencies and economic benefits are obtained for the systems where co-utilization of upstream (air separation unit) as well as downstream process equipment (gas conditioning units and synthesis loop) is possible.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 110, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed.It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment requirement to meet the total biofuel demand in the system. The main conclusion is that PO/BL co-gasification is a technically and economically attractive production route for production biomethanol.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Techno-economic analysis of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Techno-economic analysis of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 130, no S1, p. 484-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia (NH3) can be produced by synthesis of nitrogen and hydrogen in the Haber–Bosch process, where the economic challenge is the hydrogen production. Currently, substantial amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted from the ammonia industry since the hydrogen production is almost exclusively based on fossil feedstocks. Hydrogen produced via gasification of lignocellulosic biomass is a more environmentally friendly alternative, but the economic performance is critical. The main objective of this work was to perform a techno-economic evaluation of ammonia production via integrated biomass gasification in an existing pulp and paper mill. The results were compared with a stand-alone production case to find potential technical and economic benefits deriving from the integration. The biomass gasifier and the subsequent NH3 production were modelled using the commercial software Aspen Plus. A process integration model based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) was used to analyze the effects on the overall energy system of the pulp mill. Important modelling constraints were to maintain the pulp production and the steam balance of the mill. The results showed that the process economics and energy performance are favourable for the integrated case compared to stand-alone production. The main conclusion was however that a rather high NH3 selling price is required to make both production cases economically feasible.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor for methanol production2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor for methanol production2015In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 158, p. 451-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One alternative to reduce the motor fuel production cost and improve the operational flexibility of a black liquor gasification (BLG) plant is to add pyrolysis oil to the black liquor feed and co-gasify the blend. The objective of this study was to investigate techno-economically the possibility to increase methanol production at a pulp mill via co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor. Gasifying a blend consisting of 50% pyrolysis oil and 50% black liquor on a wet mass basis increases the methanol production by more than 250%, compared to gasifying the available black liquor only. Co-gasification would add extra revenues per produced unit of methanol (IRR > 15%) compared to methanol from unblended BLG (IRR 13%) and be an attractive investment opportunity when the price for pyrolysis oil is less than 70 €/MW h. The economic evaluation was based on a first plant estimate with no investment credit for the recovery boiler and a methanol product value volumetric equivalent to conventional ethanol, both these conditions will not applicable when the technology has been fully commercialized.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor: Optimal feedstock mix for different raw material cost scenarios2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Malek, Laura
    Lund Universitet.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund Universitet.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    System studies on biofuel production via integrated biomass gasification2013Report (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Marklund, Magnus
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå.
    Methanol production via pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification: Techno-economic comparison of integrated vs. stand-alone production2014In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 64, p. 256-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective with this work was to investigate techno-economically the opportunity for integrated gasification-based biomass-to-methanol production in an existing chemical pulp and paper mill. Three different system configurations using the pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification (PEBG) technology were studied, one stand-alone plant, one where the bark boiler in the mill was replaced by a PEBG unit and one with a co-integration of a black liquor gasifier operated in parallel with a PEBG unit. The cases were analysed in terms of overall energy efficiency (calculated as electricity-equivalents) and process economics. The economics was assessed under the current as well as possible future energy market conditions. An economic policy support was found to be necessary to make the methanol production competitive under all market scenarios. In a future energy market, integrating a PEBG unit to replace the bark boiler was the most beneficial case from an economic point of view. In this case the methanol production cost was reduced in the range of 11–18 Euro per MWh compared to the stand-alone case. The overall plant efficiency increased approximately 7%-units compared to the original operation of the mill and the non-integrated stand-alone case. In the case with co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers, an equal increase of the system efficiency was achieved, but the economic benefit was not as apparent. Under similar conditions as the current market and when methanol was sold to replace fossil gasoline, co-integration of the two parallel gasifiers was the best alternative based on received IRR.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Multiscale Reactor Network Simulation of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier: Model Description and Validation2017In: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 1484-1494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a multiscale equivalent reactor network model for pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification to quantify the effect of operational parameters on the gasification process, including carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, and syngas methane content. The model, implemented in the commercial software Aspen Plus, includes chemical kinetics as well as heat and mass transfer. Characteristic aspects of the model are the multiscale effect caused by the combination of transport phenomena at particle scale during heating, pyrolysis, and char burnout, as well as the effect of macroscopic gas flow, including gas recirculation. A validation using experimental data from a pilot-scale process shows that the model can provide accurate estimations of carbon conversion, concentrations of main syngas components, and cold gas efficiency over a wide range of oxygen-to-biomass ratios and reactor loads. The syngas methane content was most difficult to estimate accurately owing to the unavailability of accurate kinetic parameters for steam methane reforming.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    The Swedish flex-fuel failure2016In: BEHAVE 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Why flex-fuel failed?: A household perspective2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29. Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Långström, R.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Development of guidelines for the vacuum infusion process2000In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Fibre Reinforced Composites, FRC 2000: Centre for Composite Materials Engineering, University of Newcastle, UK, 13 - 15 September 2000 / [ed] A. G. Gibson, Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Materials , 2000, p. 113-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend towards increased use of vacuum infusion moulding for large surface area parts has increased the interest for an advanced modelling of the process. This paper presents a detailed experimental investigation of laminate thickness and out-of-plane flow front shape during impregnation of high permeability reinforcement on top of a non-crimp fabric reinforcement lay-up. The goal with the experiments is to increase the understanding of the process and to provide accurate data that can later be used for validation of numerical models. The laminate thickness was measured during impregnation with a stereoscopic digital speckle photography system and the flow front shape was determined by tracking of colour marks in the stacking. The laminate lay-ups studied are different combinations of non-crimp fabrics and flow layers while the resin used was a polyester developed specifically for vacuum infusion moulding. Results are presented both for the instantaneous thickness and the flow front shape for several different material combinations. It was found that the skewness of the flow front became more pronounced with increasing number of flow layers when the number of non-crimp fabric layers was kept constant. As a first step towards a complete numerical model of the impregnation process a simplified model for the compressibility and a proven model for permeability was implemented in a commercial CFD package that can handle moving boundaries and moving flow fronts. Only a qualitative comparison with experiments was done but the conclusion was that the overall behaviour of the model was encouraging. A validation of the numerical model based on the measurements in this paper is under development.

  • 30. Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Numerical model for vacuum infusion manufacturing of polymer composites2003In: International journal of numerical methods for heat & fluid flow, ISSN 0961-5539, E-ISSN 1758-6585, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 383-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus is set on the development and evaluation of a numerical mgodel describing the impregnation stage of a method to manufacture fibre reinforced polymer composites, namely the vacuum infusion process. Examples of items made with this process are hulls to sailing yachts and containers for the transportation industry. The impregnation is characterised by a full 3D flow in a porous medium having an anisotropic, spatial- and time-dependent permeability. The numerical model has been implemented in a general and commercial computational fluid dynamic software through custom written subroutines that: couple the flow equations to the equations describing the stiffness of the fibre reinforcement; modify the momentum equations to account for the porous medium flow; remesh the computational domain in each time step to account for the deformation by pressure change. The verification of the code showed excellent agreement with analytical solutions and very good agreement with experiments. The numerical model can easily be extended to more complex geometry and to other constitutive equations for the permeability and the compressibility of the reinforcement.

  • 31. Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Långström, R.
    Swedish Institute of Composites, Piteå.
    Flow-enhancing layers in the vacuum infusion process2002In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 895-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend towards increased use of vacuum infusion molding for large surface-area parts has increased the interest in an advanced modeling of the process. Because the driving pressure is limited to 1 atmosphere, it is essential to evaluate possible ways to accelerate the impregnation. One way of doing this is to use layers of higher permeability within the reinforcing stack, i.e. flow-enhancing layers. We present an experimental investigation of the flow front shape when using such layers. The through-thickness flow front was observed by making a number of color marks on the glass-mats forming the reinforcing stack, which became visible when the resin reached their position. The in-plane flow front was derived from observations of the uppermost layer. It turned out that existing analytical models agree very well with the experiments if effective permeability data is used, that is, permeability obtained from vacuum infusions. However, the fill-time was nearly twice as long as predicted from permeability data obtained in a stiff tool. This rather large discrepancy may be due to certain features of a flexible mold half and is therefore a topic for further research. The lead-lag to final thickness ratio is dependent on the position of the flow front and ranges form 5 to 10 for the cases tested. Interestingly the lead-lag has a miximum close to the inlet.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Larsson, Anders
    Wahlberg, Mats
    Bollen, Math
    Interfering signals and attenuation: potential problems with communication via the power grid2006In: Proceedings of Nordic Distribution and Asset Management Conference: NORDAC 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will give a general overview of the potential problems associated with remote-meter reading via the power grid and describe some of the technologies available. A comparison will be made between the power grid as a communication channel and other, dedicated and shared, channels. Examples will be given of practical cases in which the communication channel does not function in the intended way.

  • 33.
    Andrews, David David
    et al.
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Tzimas, Evangelos
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Serpa, Joana
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Carlsson, Johan
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Pardo-Garcia, Nico
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Papaioannou, Ioulia
    European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Energy and Transport.
    Background Report on EU-27 District Heating and Cooling Potentials, Barriers, Best Practice and Measures of Promotion2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to provide background information on potentials, barriers, best practices, state of the art and measures of promotion of District Heating and Cooling to aid policy making.

  • 34. Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Lindeberg, Johanna
    Rådin, Åsa
    Öhrström, Anna
    Backman, R
    Öhman, Marcus
    Boström, D
    Gasbildning i aska2006Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Arthur, Rohan
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University.
    Nguyen, Jeffery H.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University.
    Truong, T.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University.
    Wagstaff, Kiri L.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University.
    Wielechowski, Daniel P.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University.
    Wong, M.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University.
    Hoadley, Andrew F.A.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University.
    Garnier, Gil I.L.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University.
    Stenvall, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Optimising the production cost of urea from black liquor2014In: Pulp & paper, bioenergy, bioproducts: Fibre Value Chain Conference & Expo 2014, October 15 - 17, 2014, Distinction Hotel Rotorua, New Zealand ; conference proceedings ; [including abstracts of the 5th Advanced Biofuels Research Network symposium (ABRN)], Bundoora: Appita Inc , 2014, p. 91-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual design of an integrated facility for the co-production of ammonia and electricity from black liquor gasification has been studied. The integrated process exchanges black and green liquor, steam, electricity and sulfur with the adjacent Kraft pulp mill. A triple bottom line analysis has indicated that a competitive ammonia price (A$516/t) can be realized for a relatively small scale production 20ktpa of NH3 with an internal rate of return of 13.7%. This is achieved through a novel process design which also produces electricity and steam for the pulp mill. The plant has a carbon footprint at 50% of the average and 33% below world best practice for NH3. Social benefits are also predicted for the regional community.

  • 36.
    Audhav, Tove
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Viklund, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    HV Battery thermal system for Electric Vehicles: CFD Investigation on New Design Concept2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heat transfer enhancement concepts for a battery thermal management system in an electrical vehicle has been evaluated and discussed in this master’s thesis project. The evaluated battery thermal system contains of cooling plates with cooling channels which are placed underneath battery modules to remove heat from the battery cells in the module. The project is split into three parts. Part 1 evaluates different concepts to improve heat transfer within the cooling plate. Part 2 considers placing fins between the cells in the module to increase heat transfer to the cooling plate, part 2 also evaluates how different cells optimizations effect the heat generation in the module and evaluates how the best plate concepts effect the module. Part 3 evaluates how different number of fins effect the module. Part 1 and part 2 are using 3D-CFD models while part 3 is a simplified model based on a thermal circuit. A number of different concepts were found that can improve heat transfer fromthe battery cells. The different heat transfer enhancement concepts has in some cases been found to effect other aspects of the vehicle, for example system pressure drop, weight, cost, range and driveability. An optimal case (from a thermal perspective) is able to lower the average temperature of the module with 16.9% and increase the conductance with 62.2%.

  • 37.
    Axelberg, Peter
    et al.
    Unipower AB, Alingsås.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gu, Irene Y.H.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    A measurement method for determining the direction of propagation of flicker and for tracing a flicker source2005In: CIRED: 18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution Turin, 6-9 June 2005, 2005, p. 505-508Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a new and highly efficient measurement method (algorithm) that determines how flicker propagates throughout the network and also traces the dominant flicker source. The fundamental principle of the method is to use the fact that a flicker source produces an amplitude modulation in the voltage and current waveforms. The low frequency variations in voltage and current that cause flicker are retrieved in a demodulation and filtering process. By first multiplying the low frequency variations in voltage and current and then integrate, a new quantity, flicker power, is achieved. The sign and the magnitude of flicker power give the direction to the flicker source as well as tracing the dominating flicker source.

  • 38.
    Axelberg, Peter G V
    et al.
    Unipower.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gu, Irene Y H
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Efficient trace of flicker sources by using the quantity of flicker power2008In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 465-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industries that produce flicker are often placed close to each other and connected to the same power grid system. This implies that the measured flicker level at the point of common coupling (PCC) is a result of contribution from a number of different flicker sources. In a mitigation process it is essential to know which one of the flicker sources is the dominant one. Therefore this paper proposes a method to determine the flicker propagations and trace the flicker sources by using flicker power measurements. Flicker power is considered as a quantity containing both sign and magnitude. The sign determines if a flicker source is placed downstream or upstream with respect to a given monitoring point and the magnitude is used to determine the propagation of flicker power throughout the power network and to trace the dominant flicker source. This paper covers the theoretical background of flicker power and describes a novel method for calculation of flicker power that can be implemented in a power network analyzer. Also a conducted field test based on the proposed method is described in the paper.

  • 39.
    Axelberg, P.G.V.
    et al.
    Unipower AB, Alingsås.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    An algorithm for determining the direction to a flicker source2006In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 755-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an algorithm for calculating the direction to a flicker source with respect to a monitoring point. The proposed algorithm is based on sampling of both the voltage and current. The low-frequency fluctuations in voltage and current are recovered from the input signals by demodulation, and passed through a bandpass filter as described in IEC 61000-4-15. A new quantity - flicker power - is defined from the output signals of the two filters. The direction to a flicker source is obtained from the sign of this flicker power. The proposed algorithm has been validated by simulations and several field measurements

  • 40. Axelberg, P.G.V
    et al.
    Gu, I.Y.H
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Automatic classification of voltage events using the support vector machine method2007In: Conference proceedings: 19th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution : Vienna, 21 - 24 May 2007, Liege: AIM , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41. Axelberg, P.G.V
    et al.
    Gu, I.Y.H
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Performance test of a support vector machine used for classification of voltage disturbances2006In: 12th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Axelberg, P.G.V
    et al.
    University College of Borås.
    Gu, I.Y.H
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Support vector machine for classification of voltage disturbances2007In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 1297-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The support vector machine (SVM) is a powerful method for statistical classification of data used in a number of different applications. However, the usefulness of the method in a commercial available system is very much dependent on whether the SVM classifier can be pretrained from a factory since it is not realistic that the SVM classifier must be trained by the customers themselves before it can be used. This paper proposes a novel SVM classification system for voltage disturbances. The performance of the proposed SVM classifier is investigated when the voltage disturbance data used for training and testing originated from different sources. The data used in the experiments were obtained from both real disturbances recorded in two different power networks and from synthetic data. The experimental results shown high accuracy in classification with training data from one power network and unseen testing data from another. High accuracy was also achieved when the SVM classifier was trained on data from a real power network and test data originated from synthetic data. A lower accuracy resulted when the SVM classifier was trained on synthetic data and test data originated from the power network.

  • 43.
    Babler, Matthaus U.
    et al.
    Department Chemical Engineering and Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Amovic, Marko
    Cortus Energy AB.
    Ljunggren, Rolf
    Cortus Energy AB.
    Engvall, Klas
    Department Chemical Engineering and Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Modeling and pilot plant runs of slow biomass pyrolysis in a rotary kiln2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 207, p. 123-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyrolysis of biomass in a rotary kiln finds application both as an intermediate step in multistage gasification as well as a process on its own for the production of biochar. In this work, a numerical model for pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a rotary kiln is developed. The model is based on a set of conservation equations for mass and energy, combined with independent submodels for the pyrolysis reaction, heat transfer, and granular flow inside the kiln. The pyrolysis reaction is described by a two-step mechanism where biomass decays into gas, char, and tar that subsequently undergo further reactions; the heat transfer model accounts for conduction, convection and radiation inside the kiln; and the granular flow model is described by the well known Saeman model. The model is compared to experimental data obtained from a pilot scale rotary kiln pyrolyzer. In total 9 pilot plant trials at different feed flow rate and different heat supply were run. For moderate heat supplies we found good agreement between the model and the experiments while deviations were seen at high heat supply. Using the model to simulate various operation conditions reveals a strong interplay between heat transfer and granular flow which both are controlled by the kiln rotation speed. Also, the model indicates the importance of heat losses and lays the foundation for scale up calculations and process optimization.

  • 44.
    Bach Oller, Albert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Fuel conversion and activity of alkali compounds2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification using entrained flow reactors generates syngas that can be upgraded tochemicals with little gas cleaning. Black liquor (BL) is a by-product from pulping industrythat consists of residual wood constituents and spent pulping chemicals. Currently, it iscombusted to recycle the pulping chemicals and at the same time generate steam and power.Alternatively, BL is one of the most attractive fuels for entrained flow gasification due to thecatalytic activity of alkali compounds inherent in BL, possibility for pressurized feeding andthe shared logistics with the pulping plant. However, the high content of ash in BL is also anenergy penalty. Therefore the efficiency of BL gasification can be improved by co-gasifyingit with more energy rich fuels.The current work investigates the gasification characteristics of BL and pyrolysis oil(PO) blends by means of laboratory experiments. Experiments with varying BL/PO blendingratios were conducted using three different devices. An isothermal thermogravimetric reactorwas used to measure the reactivity of char under varying temperature and gas compositions. Asingle particle reactor was used to investigate the conversion of single droplets when exposedto high temperature reactive gas flow using lean, stoichiometric and rich CH4-air flames.Finally, a drop tube furnace was used to study the effect of temperature, gas composition andparticle size on gas, tar, and gasification residues at high temperature (800-1400 °C).Char reactivity of mixture samples was more than 30 times that of PO and comparableto that of pure BL, thereby indicating that catalytic activity was still very high after theaddition of PO. High temperatures enhanced alkali release in the gas phase; however, theconcentration of alkali left in the particles remained high at any temperature and for anymixing ratio. Additionally the blends showed better carbon conversion than pure BL. Theconversion rate of large particles (500-630μm) was controlled by mass diffusion and completecarbon conversion was never reached even at T =1400 °C. In comparison with pine-wood thatwas used as a reference, BL-based samples showed much lower tar concentrations in thesyngas. The difference was attributed to alkali elements. Remarkably, the addition of PO toBL further promoted tar reforming in the presence of CO2. The addition of PO alsosignificantly increased the yields of CH4 and CO.

  • 45.
    Bach Oller, Albert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil at high temperature: Part 1. Fate of alkali elements2017In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 202, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalytic activity of alkali compounds in black liquor (BL) enables gasification at low temperatures with high carbon conversion and low tar and soot formation. The efficiency and flexibility of the BL gasification process may be improved by mixing BL with fuels with higher energy content such as pyrolysis oil (PO). The fate of alkali elements in blends of BL and PO was investigated, paying special attention to the amount of alkali remaining in the particles after experiments at high temperatures. Experiments were conducted in a drop tube furnace under different environments (5% and 0% vol. CO2 balanced with N2), varying temperature (800–1400 °C), particle size (90–200 µm, 500–630 µm) and blending ratio (0%, 20% and 40% of pyrolysis oil in black liquor). Thermodynamic analysis of the experimental cases was also performed.

    The thermodynamic results qualitatively agreed with experimental measurements but in absolute values equilibrium under predicted alkali release. Alkali release to the gas phase was more severe under inert conditions than in the presence of CO2, but also in 5% CO2 most of the alkali was found in the gas phase at T = 1200 °C and above. However, the concentration of alkali in the gasification residue remained above 30% wt. and was insensitive to temperature variations and the amount of PO in the blend. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental mass balances indicated that elemental alkali strongly interacted with the reactor’s walls (Al2O3) by forming alkali aluminates. The experience indicated that adding PO into BL does not lead to alkali depletion during high temperature gasification.

  • 46.
    Bach Oller, Albert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil at high temperature: Part 2. Fuel conversion2017In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 197, p. 240-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency and flexibility of the BL gasification process may improve by mixing BL with more energy-rich fuels such as pyrolysis oil (PO). To improve understanding of the fuel conversion process, blends of BL and PO were studied in an atmospheric drop tube furnace. Experiments were performed in varying atmosphere (5% and 0% CO2, balanced by N2), temperature (800–1400 °C), particle size (90–200 μm and 500–630 μm) and blending ratio (0%, 20% and 40% of PO in BL on weight basis). Additionally, pine wood was used as a reference fuel containing little alkali. The addition of PO to BL significantly increased the combined yield of CO and H2 and that of CH4. BL/based fuels showed much lower concentration of tar in syngas than pine wood. Remarkably, the addition of PO in BL further promoted tar reforming in presence of CO2. Unconverted carbon in the gasification residue decreased with increasing fractions of PO. Small fuel particles showed complete conversion at 1000 °C but larger particles did not reach complete conversion even at T = 1400 °C.

  • 47.
    Bach-Oller, Albert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alkali-enhanced gasification of biomass: laboratory-scale experimental studies2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification seeks to break carbonaceous materials into synthetic gas (CO+H2) which can be subsequently upgraded into valuable products. Thus gasification can be utilized to convert low grade biomass stocks into carbon-neutral chemicals heat and power. Nonetheless, gasification produces tar and soot as a by-product, impurities which deposit on cold surfaces thereby risking operation downstream of the gasifier. Cleaning the syngas after the gasifier is a conventional way to attenuate the problem, yet a complex and expensive one. Thus, tar and soot should preferably be addressed already in the gasifier. Given that these impurities are non-equilibrium species they could be targeted by using some sort of catalytic material. Alkali elements have precisely shown to possess catalytic activity on char gasification, besides they have also been associated with a decrease in tar and soot. Yet, to design a functional alkali-catalysed gasification process we need to investigate in more detail on what exact products does alkali show an activity on, on what stage, under what circumstances and, on the measure that it is possible, the mechanism. This was investigated on the basis of experimental work that approached the topic from two opposite sides. On the one hand, we studied the effects of diluting the alkali content of a Na-rich black liquor (BL) by blending it with pyrolysis oil (PO), and on the other hand, we investigated adding various amounts of alkali on more conventional types of biomass fuels. Most of the experiments were conducted on a laminar drop tube furnace but the reactivity of BL chars was also studied through thermogravimetric analysis.

    Alkali was found to catalyse heterogeneous gasification reactions (e.g. char) and to lead to much lower yields of C2 hydrocarbons, heavy tars and soot, favouring the presence of lighter species over large aromatic clusters. Alkali was hypothesized to reduce the quantity of soot by inhibiting the formation and growth of PAH, key intermediates on the road to soot. Besides, it was found that the initial contact between the alkali and the organic matrix was not critical, neither for gas impurities nor regarding char conversion, suggesting that the activity of alkali was a gas-induced phenomenon. The latter implied the existence of a vaporization-condensation cycle that could supply alkali into the char. Nonetheless, the beneficial effects by alkali were impaired by the affinity of Si to capture K and form potassium silicates which are inert. This interaction effect was particularly noticeable on char conversion as the silicates are not only inert but also liquid and viscous and prompt to encapsulate the char particles, thereby limiting mass transfer.

    The experiments with blends of BL and PO showed that the concentration of alkali in BL could be decreased by 30% without any sign of a decrease in the catalytic activity on char gasification, thus indicating the existence a saturation threshold. Furthermore, adding PO into BL lead to a further reduction on the quantities of tar and soot, this finding was attributed to changes in the fuel composition unrelated to alkali. In any case the experiments with BL-based fuels showed lower amounts of tar and soot than those from alkali-impregnated biomass powder. The difference was partially attributed to the content of S in BL. The subsequent investigation targeting the role of S confirmed that S possessed a soot inhibiting role similar to that of alkali, yet unlike K, it did not show a catalytic effect on char gasification.

     

  • 48. Backman, R
    et al.
    Sandelin, K
    Kouvo, P
    Öhman, Marcus
    Nordin, A
    Brus, E
    Reactions between trace elements and sand bed particles in fluidized bed combustion of biomass and waste based fuels2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49. Backman, Rainer
    et al.
    Berg, Magnus
    Boström, Dan
    Hirota, Catherine
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhrström, Anna
    Metalliskt aluminium i förbränningen: Metallic aluminum in combustion2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet har visat att det är mycket svårt att få tunn aluminiumfolie, som normalt finns i bl.a. hushållsavfall, att oxidera oberoende av tid, temperatur och förbränningsatmosfärens sammansättning. Vidare har svävhastighetsmätningar visat att tunn plastbelagd aluminiumfolie lätt kan ryckas med rökgaserna vid normala rökgashastigheter (1-5 m/s).

  • 50.
    Baidar, Binaya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    A sensitivity analysis of the Winter-Kennedy method2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower is among the lowest-cost electrical energy sources due to its long lifespan and lower operation and maintenance cost. The hydro-mechanical components of hydropower plants generally last about four to five decades, then they are either overhauled or replaced. The major upgrades and refurbishments of the hydropower plants that are ongoing have also been motivated by the introduction of new rules and regulations, safety or environmentally friendly and improved turbine designs. Whatever are the drivers, the refurbishments are usually expected to increase efficiency, flexibility and more power from the plant.

    Efficiency measurement is usually performed after refurbishments. While it is relatively straightforward to measure efficiency in high head machines due to the availability of several code-accepted methods, similar measurements in low head plants remain a challenge. The main difficulty lies in the discharge/flow rate measurement. The reason is due to the continuously varying cross-section and short intake, as a result, the flow profile or parallel streamlines cannot be established. Among several relative methods, the Winter-Kennedy (WK) method is widely used to determine the step-up efficiency before and after refurbishment. The WK method is an index testing approach allowing to determine the on-cam relationship between blade and guide vane angles for Kaplan turbine as well. The method utilizes features of the flow physics in a curvilinear motion. A pair of pressure taps is placed at an inner and outer section of the spiral case (SC). The method relates discharge (Q) as Q=K(dP)^n, where K is usually called as the WK constant and n is the exponent whose value varies from 0.48 to 0.52. dP is the differential pressure from the pair of pressure taps placed on the SC.  

    Although the method has very high repeatability, some discrepancies were noticed in previous studies. The reasons are often attributed to the change in local flow conditions due to the change in inflow conditions, corrosions, or change in geometry. Paper A is a review of the WK method, which includes the possible factors that can influence the WK method. Considering the possible factors, the aim of this thesis is to study the change in flow behavior and its impact on the coefficients. Therefore, a numerical model of a Kaplan turbine has been developed. The turbine model of Hölleforsen hydropower plant in Sweden was used in the study. The plant is considered as a low head with 27-m head and a discharge of 230 m3/s. The 1:11 scale model of the prototype is used as the numerical model in this study, which has 0.5 m runner diameter, 4.5 m head, 0.522 m3/s discharge and 595 rpm at its best efficiency point. A sensitivity analysis of the WK method has been performed with the help of CFD simulations. The numerical results are compared with the previously conducted experiment on the model. The study considers four different WK configurations at seven locations along the azimuthal direction. The simulations have been performed with different inlet boundary conditions (Paper B and Paper C) and different runner blade angles (Paper C). The CFD results show that the WK coefficients are sensitive to inlet conditions. The study also concludes that to limit the impact of a change in inflow conditions, runner blade angle on the coefficients, the more suitable WK locations are at the beginning of the SC with the inner pressure tap placed between stay vanes on the top wall.

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