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  • 1.
    Abdul-Jalbar, Beatriz
    et al.
    Dpto. de Matemáticas, Estadística e Investigación Operativa, Universidad de La Laguna, Spain.
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A note on “A new heuristic for one warehouse and N retailers problem” by Ercan Senyigit and Hakan Akkan in Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62, p. 656 – 660, 20122019Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Rask, Kjell
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Projekt: LUPO - globala länkar2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3. Ahmadi, Alireza
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Risk of operational consequences of aircraft system failure2010Inngår i: International Journal of Pedagogy, Innovation and New Technologies, ISSN 0973-1318, E-ISSN 2392-0092, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 149-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology for identifying different operational consequences and associated costs caused by aircraft system failure, in order to facilitate and enhance the capability of taking correct and efficient decisions when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of maintenance tasks. The paper focuses on the operational consequences of failures that lead to delay. To identify the operational consequences of aircraft system failures, Empirical studies of possible scenarios involving aircraft failures and their operational consequences for a commercial airline have been performed. Empirical data were extracted through document studies and interviews, guided by the application of an Event Tree Analysis (ETA). In order to effectively utilize the knowledge of field experts in the assessment process, a pairwise comparison technique was adopted for quantifying the contribution of different factors to the operational. The work was performed together with experienced practitioners from both an aircraft manufacturer and commercial airlines, which contributed to a continuous verification of the outcome of the study.The study shows that the proposed methodology based on ETA and pairwise comparison can be used to identify and quantify the cost of operational consequences of failures in aircraft operation, when there is no sufficient and reliable data.

  • 4. Akersten, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Dependability management as a management system based on core values, methodologies and tools2001Inngår i: Safety and reliability: towards a safer world : proceedings of the European Conference and Reliability, ESRel 2001, Torino, Italy 16 - 20 September / [ed] Enrico Zio ; Micaela Demichela; Norberto Piccinini, Torino: Politecnica , 2001, s. 245-252Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Aldenlov, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle. Luleå Technical University.
    Public Procurement of Railway Infrastructure Maintenance: A Linear Regression Analysis2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish railway infrastructure maintenance has been outsourced through gradualexposure since 2002. The idea behind outsourcing was to reduce cost and improveefficiency. However, railway maintenance cost has increased faster than railwaymaintenance operations, resulting in neglected railway maintenance. Since railwayoperation is governed by the contract design the purpose of this paper was to explore therelationship between contract design and maintenance outcome within Swedish railwayinfrastructure maintenance. To explore this relationship linear regression analysis wasused. The result indicates that asset knowledge and accessibility to the track areimportant to consider for improving maintenance operations.

  • 6.
    Aldenlöv, Jens
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Exploring Public Procurement of Swedish Railway Infrastructure Maintenance2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2002, Sweden started to outsource its railway infrastructure maintenance. Through gradual exposure (i.e. outsourcing one contract area at a time), the Swedish Transport Administration has developed its competence of being a client towards its contractors. The last contract was outsourced in 2014. In the last decade, the development of governance techniques and maintenance cost has not matched the increase in traffic. Due to an increased awareness in environmentally friendlier transportation, traffic is only expected to increase further in the coming years. Governance techniques and maintenance cost ultimately depends on the client-contractor relationship through public procurement. Hence, there is a need to understand public procurement of railway infrastructure maintenance. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge of public procurement of railway infrastructure maintenance. Three separate studies were conducted. Study 1 was a literature review to explore and determine the state-of-the-art for the field of public procurement of railway maintenance. Study 2 was a linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between contract design and the output of maintenance in Sweden. Study 3 was an interview study in Sweden that explored what factors that supports or hinders collaboration in railway maintenance.

    The main results of these studies are that asset knowledge is important for both the client and the contractor. Through reliable asset knowledge, incentives and contracts can be designed to support governance and collaboration. Today, railway infrastructure maintenance is dominated by informal relationships that lack the support of formal partnering activities. When an informal relationship is supported by a formal structure it provides a basis for innovation. This formal structure should be centralized around gaining and sharing asset knowledge. By establishing such a system to increase the asset knowledge and supporting collaboration, public organizations of maintenance can provide a basis for the improvement of maintenance.

  • 7.
    Aldenlöv, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Gustavsson Kärrbom, Tina
    KTH, Depteartment of Real Estate & Construction Management.
    Public procurement of railway infrastructure maintenance: a literature review2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Buser, M; Lindahl, G; Raisanen, C, Lyngby: Polyteknisk Boghandel og Forlag, 2017, s. 10-21Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of railway infrastructure has in several instances been changed from government-based to being based on public procurement, with varying degrees of flexibility for the contractor to design their maintenance work. The purpose of-giving contractors a larger freedom of choice of how to perform maintenance is to stimulate them to innovate and develop their maintenance processes. Since the contracts differ in between and there are changes in government policies over time that affects both existing and new contracts, a comparison between different contracts becomes challenging. A literature review has been conducted to understand the change in procurement strategy and how to encourage contractors to innovate. The research questions include: What procurement strategies are there? How is maintenance evaluated? How does procurement affect the innovation opportunities for entrepreneurs? The literature review focuses on railway maintenance and contract design between client and contractor. In total, 17 articles matched the search criteria and were selected for the review. To have successful maintenance service, five articles suggested partnering as a strategy with common goals in combination with good communication during the entirety of the contract. When selecting incentive plan, four articles mentions that a focus on performance-based incentives in combination with risk management is better rather than actual payment schemes. The reason being that payment is often the main cause of conflicts between client and contractor. The scientific literature suggests that improvement in incentives improves quality of maintenance, decreases delays and technical failures. The conclusion from the literature review is that partnering in railway maintenance is considered successful. With accurate knowledge about railway assets the incentive plan becomes accurate which reduces costs. The literature review is a part of a research project with an overall goal to develop a model to guide the selection of appropriate type of procurement strategy, contract and control of maintenance for a more sustainable railway system.

  • 8.
    Aldenlöv, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Real Estate and Construction Management .
    Public procurement of railway infrastructuremaintenance: a literature review2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of railway infrastructure has in several instances been changed from government-based to being based on public procurement, with varying degrees of flexibility for the contractor to design their maintenance work. The purpose of-giving contractors a larger freedom of choice of how to perform maintenance is to stimulate them to innovate and develop their maintenance processes. Since the contracts differ in between and there are changes in government policies over time that affects both existing and new contracts, a comparison between different contracts becomes challenging. A literature review has been conducted to understand the change in procurement strategy and how to encourage contractors to innovate. The research questions include: What procurement strategies are there? How is maintenance evaluated? How does procurement affect the innovation opportunities for entrepreneurs?

    The literature review focuses on railway maintenance and contract design between client and contractor. In total, 17 articles matched the search criteria and were selected for the review. To have successful maintenance service, five articles suggested partnering as a strategy with common goals in combination with good communication during the entirety of the contract. When selecting incentive plan, four articles mentions that a focus on performance-based incentives in combination with riskmanagement is better rather than actual payment schemes. The reason being that payment is often themain cause of conflicts between client and contractor. The scientific literature suggests that improvement in incentives improves quality of maintenance, decreases delays and technical failures. The conclusion from the literature review is that partnering in railway maintenance is considered successful. With accurate knowledge about railway assets the incentive plan becomes accurate which reduces costs.

    The literature review is a part of a research project with an overall goal to develop a model to guide the selection of appropriate type of procurement strategy, contract and control of maintenance for a moresustainable railway system.

  • 9.
    Al-Douri, Yamur
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Two-Level Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm for Risk-Based Life Cycle Cost Analysis2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the fields in science and engineering and encompasses a wide variety of subfields, ranging from general areas (learning and perception) to specific topics, such as mathematical theorems. AI and, specifically, multi-objective genetic algorithms (MOGAs) for risk-based life cycle cost (LCC) analysis should be performed to estimate the optimal replacement time of tunnel fan systems, with a view towards reducing the ownership cost and the risk cost and increasing company profitability from an economic point of view. MOGA can create systems that are capable of solving problems that AI and LCC analyses cannot accomplish alone.

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a two-level MOGA method for optimizing the replacement time of reparable system. MOGA should be useful for machinery in general and specifically for reparable system. This objective will be achieved by developing a system that includes a smart combination of techniques by integrating MOGA to yield the optimized replacement time. Another measure to achieve this purpose is implementing MOGA in clustering and imputing missing data to obtain cost data, which could help to provide proper data to forecast cost data for optimization and to identify the optimal replacement time.

    In the first stage, a two-level MOGA is proposed to optimize clustering to reduce and impute missing cost data. Level one uses a MOGA based on fuzzy c-means to cluster cost data objects based on three main indices. The first is cluster centre outliers; the second is the compactness and separation ( ) of the data points and cluster centres; the third is the intensity of data points belonging to the derived clusters. Level two uses MOGA to impute the missing cost data by using a valid data period from that are reduced data in size. In the second stage, a two-level MOGA is proposed to optimize time series forecasting. Level one implements MOGA based on either an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model or a dynamic regression (DR) model. Level two utilizes a MOGA based on different forecasting error rates to identify proper forecasting. These models are applied to simulated data for evaluation since there is no control of the influenced parameters in all of the real cost data. In the final stage, a two-level MOGA is employed to optimize risk-based LCC analysis to find the optimal replacement time for reparable system. Level one uses a MOGA based on a risk model to provide a variation of risk percentages, while level two uses a MOGA based on an LCC model to estimate the optimal reparable system replacement time.

    The results of the first stage show the best cluster centre optimization for data clustering with low  and high intensity. Three cluster centres were selected because these centres have a geometry that is suitable for the highest data reduction of 27%. The best optimized interval is used for imputing missing data. The results of the second stage show the drawbacks of time series forecasting using a MOGA based on the DR model. The MOGA based on the ARIMA model yields better forecasting results. The results of the final stage show the drawbacks of the MOGA based on a risk-based LCC model regarding its estimation. However, the risk-based LCC model offers the possibility of optimizing the replacement schedule.

    However, MOGA is highly promising for allowing optimization compared with other methods that were investigated in the present thesis.

  • 10.
    Al-Douri, Yamur K.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Hamodi, Hussan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Zhang, Liangwei
    Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, 523808 Dongguan, China.
    Data clustering and imputing using a two-level multi-objective genetic algorithms (GA): A case study of maintenance cost data for tunnel fans2018Inngår i: Cogent Engineering, ISSN 2331-1916, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 1-16, artikkel-id 1513304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data clustering captures natural structures in data consisting of a set of objects and groups similar data together. The derived clusters can be used for scale analysis and to posit missing data values in objects, as missing data have a negative effect on the computational validity of models. This study develops a new two-level multi-objective genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize clustering in order to redact and impute missing cost data for fans used in road tunnels by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket). The first level uses a multi-objective GA based on fuzzy c-means to cluster cost data objects based on three main indices. The first is cluster centre outliers; the second is the compactness and separation ( ) of the data points and cluster centres; the third is the intensity of data points belonging to the derived clusters. Our clustering model is validated using k-means clustering. The second level uses a multi-objective GA to impute the missing cost redacted data in size using a valid data period. The optimal population has a low , 0.1%, and a high intensity, 99%. It has three cluster centres, with the highest data reduction of 27%. These three cluster centres have a suitable geometry, so the cost data can be partitioned into relevant contents to be redacted for imputing. Our model show better clustering detection and evaluation compared with k-means. The amount of missing data for the two cost objects are: labour 57%, materials 81%. The second level shows highly correlated data (R-squared 0.99) after imputing the missing data objects. Therefore, multi-objective GA can cluster and impute data to derive complete data that can be used for better estimation of forecasting.

  • 11.
    Almimi, Ashraf A.
    et al.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Informatics and Mathematical Modeling, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby.
    Montgomery, Douglas C.
    Division of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Arizona State University, Department of Industrial, Systems and Operations Engineering Arizona State University.
    Checking the adequacy of fit of models from split-plot designs2009Inngår i: Journal of QualityTechnology, ISSN 0022-4065, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 272-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main features that distinguish split-plot experiments from other experiments is that they involve two types of experimental errors: the whole-plot (WP) error and the subplot (SP) error. Taking this into consideration is very important when computing measures of adequacy of fit for split-plot models. In this article, we propose the computation of two R2, R 2-adjusted, prediction error sums of squares (PRESS), and R 2 -prediction statistics to measure the adequacy of fit for the WP and the SP submodels in a split-plot design. This is complemented with the graphical analysis of the two types of errors to check for any violation of the underlying assumptions and the adequacy of fit of split-plot models. Using examples, we show how computing two measures of model adequacy of fit for each split-plot design model is appropriate and useful as they reveal whether the correct WP and SP effects have been included in the model and describe the predictive performance of each group of effects.

  • 12.
    Almimi, Ashraf A.
    et al.
    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Arizona State University, Tempe.
    Montgomery, Douglas C.
    Division of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University, Tempe.
    Follow-up designs to resolve confounding in split-plot experiments2008Inngår i: Journal of QualityTechnology, ISSN 0022-4065, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 154-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Split-plot designs are effective in industry due to time and/or cost constraints, restriction on randomization of the treatment combinations of the hard-to-change factors, and different sizes of experimental units. Some of the results of fractional factorial split-plot experiments can be ambiguous and a need may arise to conduct follow-up experiments to separate effects of potential interest by breaking their alias links with others. For completely randomized fractional factorial experiments, methods have been developed to construct follow-up experiments. In this article, we extend the foldover technique to break the alias chains of split-plot experiments. Because it is impractical or not economically possible to foldover the whole-plot factors, as their levels are often hard or expensive to change, the focus of this article is on folding over only one or more subplot factors in order to de-alias certain effects. Six rules are provided to develop foldovers for minimum aberration resolution III and resolution IV fractional factorial split-plot designs.

  • 13.
    Arranz, Miguel Castano
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, RaminLuleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop and Congress on eMaintenance: eMaintenance: Trends in Technologies & methodologies, challenges, possibilites and applications2019Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Asif, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Twente.
    Searcy, Cory
    University of the Punjab, Lahore.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Ahmad, Niaz
    National Textile University, Faisalabad.
    Including sustainability in business excellence models2011Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 773-786Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the adequacy of business excellence models (BEMs) to address corporate sustainability, which is conceptualised in terms of economic, social, and environmental bottom lines. How organisations may manage corporate sustainability in the absence of a comprehensive sustainability management system standard is also explored. A survey of literature has been carried out. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) excellence model and the Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (BCPE) are analysed with regard to their considerations of sustainability. The findings reveal that while triple bottom-line considerations are addressed to some extent in the studied BEMs, the models per se do not comprehensively address sustainability issues and economic prosperity remains a dominant consideration. Suggestions for the improvement of the EFQM excellence model and BCPE are discussed. To provide a comprehensive approach for addressing corporate sustainability, an integrated quality-sustainability framework is proposed. The essence of the framework is that sustainability indicators, such as those provided in the Global Reporting Initiative framework, could be integrated with core business processes using the structures and infrastructure provided by BEMs. The proposed improvements should be considered in future revisions of the EFQM excellence model and BCPE.

  • 15.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A project perspective on doctoral studies: a student point of view2017Inngår i: International Journal of Educational Management, ISSN 0951-354X, E-ISSN 1758-6518, Vol. 31, nr 7, s. 908-921Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Many doctoral students never obtain a doctoral degree, and many do not finish their studies in time. To promote aspects of effectiveness and efficiency in doctoral studies this article aims to explore a project perspective, more specifically how doctoral students experience their studies in terms of key dimensions of projects.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Written reflections concerning a project perspective in doctoral studies, based on 18 students at a Swedish university, have been categorised and analysed by means of the qualitative research software NVivo.

    Findings

    Main findings are: Reflections on the project manager role including both the supervisor and the doctoral student, and different views on project control parameters and the concepts goal-seeking and goal-orientation. A more comprehensive picture of project planning is presented, compared with the Individual Study Plan (ISP), including different project methods and tools that can be suitable in a doctoral project.

    Research limitations/implications

    The study is based on a limited number of doctoral students, however the aim has been to give examples of project perspectives. The findings could be valuable for increased understanding of doctoral studies and of the project management field in general.

    Practical implications

    The study can induce awareness among doctoral students and supervisors of a project perspective in doctoral studies, promoting aspects of efficiency and effectiveness.

    Originality/value

    Compared to previous research, this study explicitly tries to understand how doctoral students make sense of their doctoral studies from a project perspective.

  • 16.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Conclusions of planning and preparation for RCM implementation: a case study at a Swedish hydro power plant2002Inngår i: Proceedings: ICOMS-2002, International Conference of Maintenance Societies : Queensland Hilton Hotel, 21 - 24 May 2002, Brisbane, Queensland, Central Queensland University, 23 - 24 May 2002, Gladstone, Queensland, Brisbane, 2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Managing the introduction of RCM experiences from a Swedish hydropower company2005Inngår i: 2005 IEEE Power Engineering Society general meeting: San Francisco, CA, June 12 - 16, 2005, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2005, s. 2646-2648Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of reliability centred maintenance, RCM, has become more and more commonly within different industrial sectors. The many application areas, and the long-time use of RCM, points to the importance and usefulness of RCM when developing an effective and efficient maintenance programme. However, introducing RCM, implies introducing a new way of way of working with maintenance in an organisation, which can be very complex and cumbersome. Although RCM is an organised common sense approach to improvements of maintenance performance, a long-term approach may be difficult to manage. Several examples of failed introductions of RCM exist in various lines of business and types of organisations. Some of the main reasons why the RCM introduction becomes problematic or fails are technical in nature, but the majority of problems seem to be managerial and organisational. The introduction characteristics described above has been studied within a longitudinal single-case study, performed within a hydropower organisation. The case study, as well a multiple-case study, including three other hydropower organisations. Based on the findings in the case studies, a comprehensive and holistic RCM introduction strategy was proposed. The strategy framework could be seen as a structured approach to managing obstacles and driving forces identified in the case studies.

  • 18.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Managing the introduction of reliability-centred maintenance, RCM: RCM as a method of working within hydropower organisations2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a competitive environment, many companies are required to reduce their overall costs while maintaining the value and reliability of their assets. The use of Reliability-Centred Maintenance, RCM, can support organisations to develop an effective and efficient maintenance programme, meeting these requirements in a cost-effective manner. RCM basically combines different techniques and tools, in a systematic approach to managing risks, as a basis for maintenance decisions. When introducing RCM with the aim of changing the overall way of working with maintenance in the organisation, i.e. on a full-scale basis, a long- term introduction approach should preferably be used. In addition to improve the performance of the assets, this approach uses RCM to improve knowledge, motivation and teamwork among the personnel. In that way, the approach could promote commitment of managers and employees, making an RCM based maintenance programme far more likely to endure. However, in several cases, organisations have experienced severe difficulties when introducing RCM on full-scale basis. Some of the reasons are technical in nature, but the majority are managerial obstacles. In the research project presented in this thesis, an aim has been to obtain a better understanding of why some organisations experience a cumbersome introduction of RCM. A focus has been to identify managerial factors that affect an RCM introduction in form of obstacles and driving forces. In the research project, a longitudinal single-case study has been performed during 1997 - 2003, studying the efforts towards an RCM introduction in a Swedish hydropower company. Many of the findings in the single-case study have been validated by a multiple-case study, including three other hydropower organisations introducing RCM. The findings are basically different kinds of managerial factors. These factors could be managed within four management perspectives, which points out the need of a holistic approach when managing RCM introduction. An RCM introduction process has also been identified during the research, where the managerial factors can be structured according to different phases. Based on these findings, an RCM introduction strategy framework has been developed, with the aim to facilitate for organisations going to introduce RCM. The strategy framework is structured according to the different phases in the RCM introduction process, with requirements and recommendations to be considered in each phase.

  • 19.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Reliability-centred maintenance: identification of management and organisational aspects when introducing RCM1999Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demands on productivity, quality and cost-efficiency affecting manufacturing trends towards increased complexity and higher degree of process automation. A major break down in such a manufacturing system may generate severe damage on productivity, environment and personnel. Using risk assessment to identify serve risks within a plant, in combination with different maintenance strategies, is one course of action to prioritising maintenance activities needed. A methodology for executing a so-called risk-based maintenance is reliability-centred maintenance, RCM. There are several benefits generated from RCM, for example, improved safety and maintenance cost-effectiveness. Though, several companies have problems to make it work. The problems that occur are many times within management and organisational (M&O) aspects, such as lack of communication and management support. Some M&O aspects of importance when introducing improvement methods as TQM and TPM are similar with the ones valid for RCM. Though, differences seem to depend on the use of RCM in a more technology environment, overshadow the affects M&O aspects really bring about when introducing it. That is probably the main reason why obstacles occur when introducing RCM. A structured step model has been developed, focusing on the preparation and planning activities when introducing RCM.

  • 20.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Will a preparation stage facilitate the implementation of RCM?1999Inngår i: Safety and Reliability: proceedings of ESREL '99 - The tenth European Conference on Safety and Reliability, [held in] Munich-Garching, Germany, 13-17 September 1999 / [ed] Gerhart I. Schueller; P. Kafka, Rotterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1999, s. 173-178Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Akersten, Per-Anders
    RCM introduction: process and requirements management aspects2003Inngår i: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 250-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations have introduced reliability-centred maintenance (RCM) with a view to changing their overall way of performing maintenance. Many times, however, these organisations have experienced cumbersome or even failed RCM introduction. This is usually because of managerial and organisational obstacles, which more or less unexpectedly turn up during introduction. This paper focuses on managing the introduction of RCM. By applying process and requirement management principles, obstacles that turn up during introduction can be identified early on. As an example of this, we cite the results of a case study of the introduction of RCM in a Swedish hydropower company.

  • 22.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Chroneer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Project Management Maturity Models – A Critical Review: A Case Study within Swedish Engineering and Construction Organizations2014Inngår i: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 119, s. 837-846Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different kinds of project management maturity models (PM3s) exist today, most of them inspired by the capability maturity model (CMM) developed in the beginning of the 90ies, originally intended to measure capability in software development projects. Research indicates that organizations with higher project management (PM) maturity levels are expected to be successful in terms of project effectiveness and efficiency, and thus have a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Though, despite several PM3s developed during a time period of over 20 years, knowledge about how PM3s are a*pplied in organizations is sparse within the PM literature. This paper explores how major engineering and construction companies view PM maturity and PM3s in order to develop and improve their PM practices. These kinds of organizations are mainly project-intensive, objective oriented,and have the capabilities to perform overall business development initiatives, i.e. suitable for applying PM3s.The contribution of PM3s to organizational improvement and development is somewhat unclear. Therefore, a literature review highlights different aspects regarding PM3s, specifically their purpose, strengths, and weaknesses. To what extent PM3s are used, interviews have been conducted with seven respondents within different project intensive organizations, in their roles as project managers or in charge of PM development. How a PM3 can beintroduced and applied is explored via an in-depth case study at the major mining company in Sweden, LKAB. However, tentative results show that the application of PM3s in Swedish engineering and construction organizations are limited, indicating that further research is needed

  • 23.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sundqvist, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Maturity assessment: towards continuous improvements for project-based organisations?2015Inngår i: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 256-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to contribute to the empirical research on project management maturity assessments, specifically based on a maturity model. Design/methodology/approachThe empirical data is based on a case study including in-depth interviews with a semi-structured approach, followed by a focus group interview. A survey was distributed within a project-based organisation and to client and stakeholder representatives, and then analysed. The organisation in the case study is a project department within a Swedish mining company. FindingsCareful considerations are needed when choosing a project management maturity model (PM3) as the model structure can influence the assessment’s focus. It is also important to include both internal and external project stakeholders in the assessment to achieve an efficiency and effectiveness perspective when analysing PM capabilities. Valid information from an assessment is crucial, therefore, clear communication from management is important in order to motivate the participants in the assessment. Research limitations/implicationsImproved understanding for implementing and applying a PM3 contributes to the increased knowledge of drivers, enablers and obstacles when assessing PM maturity, which also creates a basis for further research initiatives. Practical implicationsAn increased knowledge of drivers, enablers and obstacles should be valuable for practitioners introducing and applying a PM3.Originality/valueThis case study gives an in-depth insight into the implementation of a PM3 within a project-based organisation. Through conducting a literature review, it was found that this type of empirical research is rare

  • 24.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Hannu, J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Can we make maintenance decisions on risk analysis results?2002Inngår i: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 77-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For several branches of industry, an increasingly competitive environment has raised important questions concerning maintenance in plant systems. For example, the 1996 deregulation in Sweden's electricity sector has resulted in increased competition among the country's power producers. To survive the competition, suppliers have to reduce maintenance costs, i.e. handle maintenance more efficiently. Risk analysis is one tool decision makers can use to help them prioritise as they plan maintenance actions. There are a number of different approaches to risk analysis. As the results of an analysis must form a reliable basis for decision making, it is important to consider whether the quality of the results will vary significantly with the risk analysis approach chosen. This paper presents a comparative study based on three independent risk analyses performed on a specific hydro-power plant. The comparison and evaluation of the analyses reveal major differences in performance and results, along with various factors that affect the quality of the analyses. The study establishes the importance of a well-planned requirement specification and the need to analyse and interpret risk analysis results, before making maintenance decisions.

  • 25.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Holmberg, Rikard
    Vattenfall Vattenkraft.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    A 10 years journey introducing RCM within hydropower: a case study at Vattenfall Vattenkraft2008Inngår i: EuroMaintenance Papers: Conference and Trade Show on Asset Management & Production Reliability ; Brussels Expo, 8 - 10 April 2008, Belgian Maintenance Association , 2008, s. 21:1-21:10Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Jonforsen, F.
    Planning for RCM implementation in an outsourcing environment: a case study at a Swedish hydro power plant2002Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th European Maintenance Congress: Euromaintenance 2002, 2002, s. 19-28Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Larsson, Dan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Rhen, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Risk analysis and condition monitoring for efficient maintenance planning at Swedish hydro power plants1998Inngår i: Safety and reliability: proceedings of the European Conference on Safety and Reliability, ESREL '98, Trondheim, Norway, 16 - 19 June 1998 / [ed] Stian Lydersen, Amsterdam: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 1998, s. 247-253Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance issues have in recent years grown in importance. Higher demands on availability and quality of products are some of the reasons. These demands have resulted in an increased use of condition monitoring systems, to support an effective maintenance concept. For a complex system, this technique generates an enormous amount of signals which is difficult to diagnose, and a great amount of information which is difficult to handle and interpret for the operator. Therefore, improved diagnosis and decision support tools are necessary, as a complement to the monitoring systems. This paper presents an ongoing project, trying to find a new approach to condition monitor and diagnose Kaplan hydro-power turbines, where the chain from transducer to decision making is under consideration. Risk analysis is adequate for decision making among alternative maintenance tasks and the ambition is a risk model that can be systematically updated with varying economic data and production requirements. Also, the availability is under consideration for the hydro power plant, as a total system, where the owners of the plant should be able to steer the availability according to demand. Another important aspect is the possibility of the condition monitoring system to test itself, which will prevent false alarms.

  • 28.
    Backlund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Sundqvist, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Continuous improvement: challenges for the project-based organization2018Inngår i: International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, ISSN 0265-671X, E-ISSN 1758-6682, Vol. 5, nr 7, s. 1306-1320Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    There are limited studies of Continuous improvement from the perspective of a project-based organization (PBO). Hence, this article explores challenges that PBOs may encounter when applying Continuous improvement.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An exploratory and qualitative approach has been used, involving six management teams in six different project-based organizations, using focus groups interviews as data collecting method.

    Findings

    A high degree of autonomy among project managers seems to limit a collective approach to project management in PBOs. As a consequence the overall PBO performance becomes subordinate to the individual project performance – an approach opposite to that of Continuous improvement. Further, the management teams themselves seem to uphold a project focus, also complicating improvement initiatives from a PBO perspective.

    Research limitations/implications

    The management teams have been the unit of analysis, where the PBOs mainly conduct projects in an engineering and construction context, and are located in the same country and region. This approach enables the thorough study of a phenomenon, while preconditions for generalization are limited. However, the findings could be used by researchers as a basis for more in-depth studies of specific challenges, and for making surveys to obtain generalization of results.

    Practical implications

    The results can induce awareness and understanding of different challenges if applying Continuous improvement in a PBO, hence a starting point for finding ways to overcome these challenges.

    Originality/value

    The article contributes to an increased understanding of challenges that PBOs may encounter when applying Continuous improvement, confirming and presenting additional findings compared to previous studies.

  • 29.
    Basu, A.P
    et al.
    University of Missouri.
    Ebrahimi, Nader
    Nothern Illinois University.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Multivariate harmonic new better than used in expectation distributions1983Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, ISSN 0303-6898, E-ISSN 1467-9469, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 19-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Various definitions of multivariate harmonic new better than used in expectation (MHNBUE) life distributions are introduced and their interrelationships are studied. The definitions are multivariate generalizations of the univariate aging property HNBUE which is weaker than the new better than used in expectation (NBUE) property. Various closure properties of the different MHNBUE classes are proved. Some examples are also given to illustrate the relationships between our MHNBUE properties and the MNBUE properties presented by Buchanan and Singpurwalla (1977). We also study the dual multivariate harmonic new worse than used in expectation (MHNWUE) classes

  • 30.
    Bekki, Jennifer M.
    et al.
    Arizona State University, Polytechnic Campus, Mesa, AZ.
    Fowler, John W.
    Arizona State University, Tempe.
    Mackulak, Gerald T.
    Arizona State University, Tempe.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby.
    Simulation-based cycle-time quantile estimation in manufacturing settings employing non-FIFO dispatching policies2009Inngår i: Journal of Simulation, ISSN 1747-7778, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 69-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work shows that a combination of the Cornish-Fisher Expansion (CFE) with discrete-event simulation produces accurate and precise estimates of cycle-time quantiles with very little data storage, provided all workstations in the model are operating under the first-in-first-out (FIFO) dispatching rule. The accuracy of the approach degrades, however, as non-FIFO dispatching policies are employed in at least one workstation. This paper proposes the use of a power transformation for use in combination with the CFE to combat these accuracy problems. The suggested approach is detailed, and three methods for selecting the λ parameter of the power transformation are given. The results of a thorough empirical evaluation of each of the three approaches are given, and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach are discussed. Results show that the combination of the CFE with a power transformation generates cycle-time quantile estimates with high accuracy even for non-FIFO systems.

  • 31. Berglund, Leif
    et al.
    Johansson, Maria
    Nygren, Magnus
    Samuelson, Björn
    Stenberg, Magnus
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    Occupational accidents in Swedish construction trades2019Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to anazlye accidents occurring in the Swedish construction industry focusing specifically on the situation in the individual trades. The article includes all occupational accidents with at least one day of absence from work that were reported to the Swedish Social Insurance Agency for the year of 2016. The results, focusing on accident cause, injured body parts, as well as accidents per weekday, month and age, show that although the trades share commonalities regarding occupational accidents a number of trade-specific problem areas stand out. With this in mind, conclusions are drawn regarding the situation in each respective trade and suggestions are made for future studies focusing on accidents in construction industry trades.

  • 32.
    Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A family of test statistics for detecting monotone mean residual life1989Inngår i: Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, ISSN 0378-3758, E-ISSN 1873-1171, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 161-178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mean residual life of a life distribution F with survival function F̄=1-F is defined as e(x)=(sh{phonetic}∞xF̄(t)dt)/F̄(x) if F̄(x)>0 (e(x)=0 if F̄(x)=0). The function e(x) has proved to be of great interest in many different areas such as biometry, reliability and social sciences. The class DMRL (IMRL) consists of those life distributions which have decreasing (increasing) mean residual life; i.e. e(x) is a decreasing (increasing) function of x. In this paper we present and study a family of test statistics intended for testing exponentiality against DMRL (IMRL). The family includes the test statistics proposed for the same purpose by Hollander and Proschan (1975) for complete samples and later generalized by Chen et al. (1983a) to accomodate randomly right censored samples. We compare the efficiency for different members in the family of test statistics when testing against some different alternatives. Furthermore, we study the efficiency loss due to different amount of exponential censoring. The asymptotical normal distribution of the test statistics are presented and the quality of the normal approximation is also discussed

  • 33. Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A graphical method applicable to age-replacement problems1982Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Reliability, ISSN 0018-9529, E-ISSN 1558-1721, Vol. R-31, nr 5, s. 478-481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Total Time on Test (TTT) concept has proven to be a very useful tool in several reliability contexts. The objective of this note is to illustrate how a generalization of the TTT-concept, the TTT-transform, defined as a certain function of the survivor function, can be used when analyzing different types of age-replacement problems. (14 refs.)

  • 34.
    Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    A note on some test statistics against HNBUE1987Inngår i: Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, ISSN 0020-3157, E-ISSN 1572-9052, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 483-488Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some comments and extensions are given to the paper on statistics for testing exponentiality against the HNBUEE property (i.e. {Mathematical expression} ≦μ exp(-t/μ), t≧0) by Basu and Ebrahimi

  • 35. Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Kvalitet från behov till användning2007 (oppl. 4. rev.)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36. Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Legenden Philip Crosby har nyligen avlidit2001Inngår i: Kvalitetsmagasinet, ISSN 1104-1579, nr 4, s. 43-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 37.
    Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Letter to the editors1988Inngår i: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 155-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser.
    Quality from customer needs to customer satisfaction2010 (oppl. 3)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the quality movement from a holistic perspective that is unique. It will serve as an invaluable handbook both for students and for those interested in enhancing quality in their own organizations. Practical illustrations are combined with a comprehensive and systemic overview of the extraordinary story of how Japanese industrialists adopted and developed the ideas of American quality gurus only to then find their own methodologies being exported to the USA and the rest of the world. The authors are leading Swedish academics with many years of experience in the quality field. The book is divided into five fairly independent parts. In Part I the quality concept and the evolution of the quality movement are examined. Furthermore, the relation between quality improvements, on one hand, and costs, profitability and success, on the other is illustrated. Parts II deals with methodologies and tools, which facilitates a customer focused product development. Among these are Quality Function Deployment, Reliability, Design of Experiments, and Robust Design. Part III focuses on the concept of variation and on methodologies and tools for quality improvements in the design and production processes. The seven improvement tools, statistical process control, capability, and supplier partnership are discussed. Part IV deals with satisfaction and loyalty of external and internal customers, what these concepts mean and how to measure them. In Part V focuses on the important role of management for quality improvements is discussed as well as the concept of leadership. Furthermore, processes, process management, Six Sigma, Lean Production, Quality Awards and quality management systems are elucidated. Finally, the book ends with a discussion of the importance of quality management in order to create a sustainable society

  • 39. Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Quality from customer needs to customer satisfaction2003 (oppl. 2. rev.)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40. Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Recent applications of the TTT-plotting technique1998Inngår i: Frontiers in reliability: a volume commemorating the first 25 years of the Indian Association for Productivity, Quality and Reliability, Singapore: World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 1998, s. 47-61Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41. Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Statistical engineering for quality and productivity improvements1990Inngår i: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 257-266Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality concept is strongly connected with customer satisfaction. One important reason for the quality and productivity success in Japanese industry is a consequent and systematic use of statistical methods during different stages of the production process. The quality challenge of European industry therefore implies claims both on the industry to use more statistical methods and on the teaching of statistics at engineering schools at different levels. The authors discuss the modern quality development and the role of statistical methods in this development. They also emphasize its strong implications for the teaching of statistics at engineering schools (27 refs.)

  • 42.
    Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Statistics and TQM in industrial continuing education1994Inngår i: International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education, ISSN 0957-4344, Vol. 4, s. 114-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The urgent industrial transformation towards total quality management (TQM) and the role of statistics in this transformation are discussed. Implications for the teaching of statistics and TQM principles are drawn. In particular, implications for continuing education are discussed (10 refs.)

  • 43.
    Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Linköping University.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Testing against HNBUE with randomly censored data1985Inngår i: Contributions to probability and statistics in honour of Gunnar Blom, Lund: Lund University. Department of Mathematical Statistics , 1985, s. 49-72Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The "harmonic new better than used in expectation" (HNBUE) class of life distributions contains all the more familiar classes from reliability theory such as the "increasing failure rate" (IFR) and "new better than used" (NBU), while still allowing one to formulate interesting inequalities comparing such distributions with the memoryless exponential distribution. In this paper test statistics based on the product-limit estimator are derived for testing the hypothesis of HNBUE versus exponentiality given a sample of censored observations from the life distribution of interest. A study of the asymptotic relative efficiency focusses on the loss of information due to censoring.

  • 44.
    Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The total time on test concept and its use in reliability theory1984Inngår i: Operations Research, ISSN 0030-364X, E-ISSN 1526-5463, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 596-606Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 30 years ago, Epstein and Sobel introduced the Total Time on Test (TTT-) concept. During the last 10 years different generalizations of this concept have been defined and studied, e.g. the TTT-transform and the TTT-plot; a basic paper was presented by Barlow and Campo in 1975. Many of these generalizations have proven to be very useful in different areas of reliability, both from a theoretical and a practical point of view. The purpose of this expository paper is to present some of these generalizations and illustrate their value.

  • 45. Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    TTT transforms and age replacements with discounted costs1983Inngår i: Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, ISSN 0028-1441, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 631-639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ordinary age replacement problem consists of finding an optimal age at which a unit, needed in a continuous production process, should be replaced in order to minimize the average long-run cost per unit time. Bergman (1980) introduced a graphical procedure based on the total-time-on-test (TTT) concept for the analysis of the age replacement problem. In this article, that idea is generalized to the situation of discounted costs. The authors also study a more general age replacement problem in which they have a form of imperfect repair (20 refs.)

  • 46.
    Bergman, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Klefsjö, Bengt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    TTT-concept and replacements to extend system life1987Inngår i: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 302-307Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a number of papers the current authors have illustrated how the Total Time on Test (TTT) concept can be used when analysing the ordinary age replacement problem and different generalization thereof. In this paper we show that the TTT-concept is very useful also when analysing another replacement problem discussed by C. Derman et al. in which the replacements of a vital component, for which there are n space units, are made with the goal of maximizing the expected system life. (12 refs.)

  • 47.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Analysis of an unreplicated 2^2 factorial experiment performed in a continuous process2015Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, nr 9-10, s. 1083-1094Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a tentative analysis method for unreplicated factorial designs where regular statistical experimental analysis cannot be used. The methodology is demonstrated through the analysis of an unreplicated two-level, two-factor factorial experiment performed in a continuous production process where the process was not in statistical control and where changes in the experimental design made conventional experimental analysis impossible. The first step of the analyses included screening of the sampled data. Principal component analysis and factor analysis were then used to create an overview of how the various responses and experimental factors were related. Carbon monoxide efficiency was selected as the most important parameter to be analysed further. Elastic net regression was used as a screening tool to remove non-significant factors, interaction, and covariates. Finally, the carbon monoxide efficiency variation was modelled using an intervention analysis. Two experimental factors were found to actively influence the response. The experiment that from other perspectives can be considered to be unanalysable, did thus reveal causal effects. The results imply that for processes where the process dynamics may be monitored, observations of the process dynamics may reduce the needs for repeated experimental runs, thus reducing the experimental costs.

  • 48.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Controlling the variation in the PM process1999Inngår i: Joint Nordic Conference in Powder Technology, sintef akademisk forlag, 1999Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49. Bergquist, Bjarne
    Dimensional and mechanical property variations in sintered steel: design of experiments - reply1997Inngår i: International journal of powder metallurgy (1986), ISSN 0888-7462, Vol. 33, nr 8, s. 6-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Factor analysis of iron-phosphorus PM steel2000Inngår i: Powder Metallurgy, ISSN 0032-5899, E-ISSN 1743-2901, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 143-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alloy design and choice of process parameters are often tasks where different investigations lead in different directions and the process of selecting the best parameter settings is difficult. Multivariate statistics are capable of bringing order in such situations, and here data from four different invesigations on the Fe-P-C system are collected and evaluated. Effects of chemical composition, comapction pressure, sintering time, and sintering temperature on properties including density, tensile strength, impact energy, proof stress, and elongation are studied. The investigation is based on principal factor analysis. Dimensional reduction is presented and discussed. The study compares the different investigations and the results for the Fe-P-C system show how different properties interact.

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