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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Rask, Kjell
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Projekt: LUPO - globala länkar2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Akselsen, Odd M.
    et al.
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Wiklund, Greger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Østby, Erling
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Sörgjärd, Arve
    Kværner Verdal.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A first assessment of laser hybrid welding of 420 mpa steel for offshore structure application2013In: 14th NOLAMP Conference: The 14th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, August 26th – 28th 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden / [ed] Alexander Kaplan; Hans Engström, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013, p. 171-182Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, laser hybrid welding has been used in various industries to increaseproductivity and reduce costs. One example is the adaption of the hybrid process inshipbuilding. The next natural step is to further develop the process for the oil and gasindustry, where the welded joint properties requirements are more severe, and the ability tohandle tolerance deviations is more critical. As a first attempt to develop hybrid laser processfor the use in offshore structures, the present investigation addresses preliminary weldingtrails carried out with 15 kW fibre laser with appropriate gas metal arc welding equipment,using double Y joint geometry and 20 mm thick 420 MPa steel plates. The subsequent weldtesting included both Charpy V notch impact and CTOD fracture mechanical testing at -30°C.The results indicate that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the examined steel appeared withsatisfactory Charpy and CTOD toughness (> 200 J, > 0.2 mm) while the weld metal hadinsufficient toughness (20-40 J, < 0.2 mm). With a better welding wire, designed for lowtemperature applications, it is reasonable to suggest that laser hybrid arc welding can be usedfor applications even below a temperature of -30°C.

  • 3.
    Akselsen, Odd Magne
    et al.
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Wiklund, Greger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Østby, Erling
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Sørgjerd, Arve
    Kværner Verdal.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Properties of laser hybrid butt welds of 420 MPa steel2013In: The proceedings of the Twenty-third (2013) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference: Anchorage, Alaska, June 30-July 5, 2013 : ISOPE-2013 Anchorage / [ed] Jin S. Chung, Cupertino, Calif.: International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers , 2013, p. 290-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser hybrid welding has been used in European shipbuilding for many years due to its high productivity. In order to qualify the process for the oil and gas industry, an extensive welding and testing programme is needed, and the properties must satisfy more severe requirements than in shipbuilding. This is particularly the case when these activities are moving to the Arctic regions, where low temperature toughness may be the primary challenge. The present investigation addressed preliminary welding trials carried out with 15 kW fibre laser-gas metal arc (GMA) hybrid welding using double Y joint of 20 mm thick 420 MPa steel plates. Both Charpy V notch impact and CTOD fracture mechanical testing were included with test temperature of -30°C. The results indicate that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the examined steel appeared with satisfactory toughness (> 200 J, > 0.2 mm) while the employed weld metal had insufficient impact properties. The weld metal CTOD toughness approached 0.2 mm. With a better welding wire, designed for low temperature applications, it is reasonable to suggest that laser hybrid arc welding can be used for applications even below -30 to -40°C

  • 4.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A study of the fatigue behaviour of laser and hybrid laser welds2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis focuses on the fatigue cracking behaviour of laser and hybrid laser-MAG welded structures. Beside the welding process and the resulting weld, several topics related to fatigue of welded structures are treated such as; macro and micro surface geometry, weld defects and their influence on fatigue performance of welded structures, fatigue analysis by the nominal and effective notch stress method, fatigue life prediction using LEFM (Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics), fatigue testing, metallurgical analysis, elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The main objective is to gain understanding of the impact of weld defects and weld shape details on the fatigue behaviour of laser and hybrid laser welded joints. The first paper is a literature survey which compiled useful information regarding fracture and fatigue analysis of various welded joints. In the second paper fatigue testing by bending of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints was carried out. The weld surface geometry was measured and studied in order to understand the crack initiation mechanisms. The crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied and compared to Finite Element stress analysis, taking into account the surface macro- and micro-geometry. Based on the nominal stress approach, SN-curves were designed for laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints. The competing criteria of throat depth and stress raising by the weld toe radii and by the surface ripples are explained, showing that surface ripples can be critical.The third paper is the continuation of the second paper, but studying the fatigue crack propagation of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints. Microscopic analysis was carried out to identify internal weld defects. Nominal and effective notch stress analysis was carried out to compare standardized values. LEFM analysis was conducted for this joint geometry for four point bending load in order to study the effect of LOF on fatigue life. In good agreement between simulation and metallurgy, cracking starts and propagates from the lower toe, but for certain geometries alternatively from the weld bead or upper toe, even in case of Lack of Fusion, as was well be explained. Improved understanding of the crack propagation for these geometrical conditions was obtained and in turn illustrated. Lack of fusion surprisingly was not critical and only slightly lowered the fatigue life. Two dimensional linear elastic finite element analyses is carried out in the fourth paper on laser welding of a beamer in order to study the impact of geometrical aspects of the joint design and of the weld root on the fatigue performance. Critical geometrical aspects were classified and then studied by FE-analysis with respect to their impact on the fatigue behaviour. Stress comparison of full 15 mm and partial 6 mm weld penetration of the beam was done by varying the toe and root geometry to identify the critical details. Generalization of the knowledge by new methods was an important aspect, particularly to apply the findings for other joints. Together the papers provide better understanding of fatigue behaviour for complex geometries and are therefore suitable guidelines for improved weld design.

  • 5.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Laser welding and cladding: the effects of defects on fatigue behaviour2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis focuses on weld defects in laser processed materials (for laser welding, laser hybrid arc welding and laser cladding) and their effect on the fatigue life of components. Component properties were studied with particular emphasis on the macro and micro surface geometry, weld defects and clad defects. The influence of these defects on fatigue life was analyzed by; the nominal and effective notch stress method, fatigue life prediction using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM), fatigue testing, metallurgical analysis, fractography, elastic and elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was also carried out to better understand the formation of undercuts during the welding process. The main objective is to gain an understanding of the impact of laser weld and clad defects on the fatigue behaviour of components.In the first two papers, fatigue testing involving the bending of laser hybrid arc welded eccentric fillet joints was carried out. Based on measurements of the weld surface geometry the crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied, experimentally and in conjunction with FE stress analysis. The competing criteria of throat depth and stress raising by the weld toe radii and by the surface ripples are explained, showing that the topology of surface ripples can be critical to fatigue behaviour. LEFM analysis was conducted to study the effect of Lack of Fusion (LOF) on fatigue life. Cracking starts and propagates preferentially from the lower toe of the top surface for this eccentric weld, even in cases of LOF. In the third paper two-dimensional linear elastic FEA was carried out for laser welding of a high strength steel beam. The impact of the geometrical aspects of joint design and of the weld root geometry on the fatigue performance was studied. Critical geometrical aspects were classified and then studied by FE-analysis with respect to their impact on the fatigue behaviour. In the fourth paper the melt pool flow behaviour during the laser hybrid arc welding process was analyzed by CFD simulation. The melt velocity behind the keyhole was measured from high speed imaging as a starting value for the simulation. It was found that a high speed flow in the thin topmost layer of the melt transferred its momentum to an underlying flow which is faster than the welding speed and this delays the lifting of the depressed melt.In the fifth and sixth papers FEA of different macro stress fields and of stress raisers produced by defects was studied in laser clad surfaces for four different fatigue load conditions. Defects were categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional types. Pores intersecting or just beneath the surface initiated fatigue cracking, accompanied by two circular buckling patterns. For a four-point bending load involving a surface pore on a spherical rod, the critical range of azimuthal angle was identified to be 55º. The performance of as-clad surfaces was found to be governed by the sharpness of surface notches. Planar defects like hot cracks or LOF are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. A generalized theory was established, showing that the combination of the macro stress field with the defect type, position and orientation, determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser.

  • 6.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Barsoum, Z
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Stockholm.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Influence of defects on fatigue crack propagation in laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joint2011In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 78, no 10, p. 2246-2258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue cracking of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints has been studied for stainless steel. Two-dimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis was carried out for this joint geometry for four point bending load. The numerical simulations explain for the experimental observations why the crack propagates from the lower weld toe and why the crack gradually bends towards the root. Lack of fusion turned out to be uncritical for the initiation of cracks due to its compressive stress conditions. The linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis has demonstrated in good qualitative agreement with fatigue test results that lack of fusion slightly (<10%) reduces the fatigue life by accelerating the crack propagation. For the geometrical conditions studied here improved understanding of the crack propagation was obtained and in turn illustrated. The elaborated design curves turned out to be above the standard recommendations

  • 7.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Barsoum, Z.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    The influence of surface geometry and topography on the fatigue cracking behaviour of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints2010In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 265, no 6, p. 1936-1945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser hybrid welding of an eccentric fillet joint causes a complex geometry for fatigue load by four point bending. The weld surface geometry and topography were measured and studied in order to understand the crack initiation mechanisms. The crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied and compared to Finite Element stress analysis, taking into account the surface macro- and micro-geometry. It can be explained why the root and the upper weld toe are uncritical for cracking. The cracks that initiate from the weld bead show higher fatigue strength than the samples failing at the lower weld toe, as can be explained by a critical radius for the toe below which surface ripples instead determine the main stress raiser location for cracking. The location of maximum surface stress is related to a combination of throat depth, toe radius and sharp surface ripples along which the cracks preferably propagate.

  • 8.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Fatigue behaviour study of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints: Part I2009In: 12th NOLAMP proceeding 2009: Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference ; 24th - 26th August 2009 in Copenhagen / [ed] Erling Dam Mortensen, Kgs. Lyngby: ATV-SEMAPP , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welded joints are a major component that is often responsible for causing a structure failure or for being the point at which fatigue cracking initiates and propagates. Despite tremendous research efforts, the understanding of fatigue behaviour is still limited, particularly for new techniques like laser hybrid welding. Beside a comprehensive state-of-the-art study, the paper presents a fatigue study of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joint of stainless steel of 10 mm thickness, with 5 mm displacement. Motivation is to study the influence of the surface geometry shape on fatigue performance under a four point bending test. 13 samples were produced, measuring the toe radii and testing under constant amplitude loading with stress ratio R=0. Different techniques have been used to measure local weld geometry, like plastic replica, a 3D optical profiler and a 3D-digitizer. The influence of the local weld geometry, like the toe radii, on the stress concentration was studied by FE-analysis. Occasionally lack of fusion was observed, which was taken into account in the FE-analysis. Based on the nominal stress approach, SN-curves were designed for laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints. Macro hardness tests were carried out and the crack surfaces were observed in order to detect crack initiation and propagation. Correlations between the toe radii, the corresponding stress maxima and crack initiation locations were studied between the different samples and even along the welds.

  • 9.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Fatigue behaviour study of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints: Part II: State-of-the-art of fracture mechanics and fatigue analysis of welded joints2009In: 12th NOLAMP proceeding 2009: Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference ; 24th - 26th August 2009 in Copenhagen / [ed] Erling Dam Mortensen, Kgs. Lyngby: ATV-SEMAPP , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simplified fatigue and fracture mechanics based assessment methods are widely used by the industry to determine the structural integrity significance of postulated cracks, manufacturing flaws, service-induced cracking or suspected degradation of engineering components under normal and abnormal service loads. In many cases, welded joints are the regions most likely to contain original fabrication defects or cracks initiating and growing during service operation. The welded joints are a major component that is often blamed for causing a structure failure or for being the point at which fatigue or fracture problems initiate and propagate. Various mathematical models/techniques for various classes of welded joints are developed by analytically or by simulation software's that can be used in fatigue and fracture assessments. This literature survey compiled useful information on fracture and fatigue analysis of various welded joints. The present review is divided into two major sections- fracture mechanics and fatigue analysis with widely used models. A survey table is also introduced to get the outlook of research trend on fatigue and fracture over last 3 decades. Although tremendous research effort has been implemented on fatigue and fracture analysis of conventional welding, research on relatively new welding technology (laser welding, hybrid laser welding) is still limited and unsatisfactory. In order to give guarantee or make welding standard for new welding technology, further research is required in the field of fatigue and fracture mechanics including FEM and multi-scale modeling.

  • 10.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Geometrical aspects of the fatigue behaviour of laser hybrid fillet welds2009In: Proceedings of the Fatigue Design Conference, Cetim , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    The effects of surface topography and lack of fusion on the fatigue strength of laser hybrid welds2009In: Congress proceedings: ICALEO, 28th International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics : November 2 - 5, 2009 - Orlando, FL : Laser Materials Processing Conference, Laser Microprocessing Conference, Nanomanufacturing Conference, poster presentation, gallery, Orlando, Fla: Laser institute of America , 2009, p. 38-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometrical aspects of laser hybrid welding before, during and after the process differ from autonomous laser welding and from arc welding. When studying the fatigue behaviour of laser hybrid welded fillet joints we identified that the microgeometry, i.e. the surface ripples can be more critical than the macrogeometry of the weld surface and even than lack of fusion (LOF), which frequently was detected. The plastic replica method was applied to measure the toe radii at the weld edges while the topography was identified by interferometric profilometry. From metallurgical analysis of the joint interface the tendency to LOF can be explained. Stress analysis was carried out by FEA for the complex joint geometry and bending load situation, showing maximum stress on the weld toes, even when including LOF. It was shown that the position and value of the maximum stress depends on a non-trivial combination of the weld geometry, including possible LOF, and the surface topography. Thus it can be explained that at compressive stress conditions LOF does not contribute significantly to the fatigue strength of laser hybrid welds while the surface topography does. Recommendations for defining and in turn avoiding critical geometrical aspects during the welding process are discussed.

  • 12.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Analysis of the rapid central melt pool flow in hybrid laser-arc welding2012In: Physics Procedia, ISSN 1875-3892, E-ISSN 1875-3892, Vol. 39, p. 853-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid laser arc welding creates a long weld pool tail. By high speed imaging the melt velocity behind the keyhole was measured to be very high, of the order of meters per second. Fluid dynamics simulation was carried out locally in the central axial plane of the pool tail. The high speed melt layer redistributes its momentum to slow movement of the deeper bulk. The consequences of initially high melt speed and its mass flow redistribution on the formation of the central reinforcement peak are discussed.

  • 13.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Tuominen, J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Vuoristo, P.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Miettinen, J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Design.
    Poutala, J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Design.
    Närkki, J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Jankala, J.
    Technology Centre KETEK Ltd..
    Peltola, T.
    Technology Centre KETEK Ltd..
    Barsoum, Z.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Stockholm.
    Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits2013In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 46, p. 328-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations.

  • 14. Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Generalising fatigue stress analysis of different laser weld geometries2011In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 1814-1823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses was carried out on a laser welded box beam in order to study the impact of the geometrical aspects of the joint type and weld root on the fatigue stress behaviour. Different experimental and hypothetical weld geometries were studied. Characteristic root shapes, measured by the plastic replica method, and critical geometrical aspects were classified and then studied by FE-analysis with respect to their impact on the maximum stress. The simulation of hypothetical transition geometries facilitated the identification of trends and the explanation of part of the phenomena. However, quantitative geometry criteria were only partially suitable to describe the relations. The results have shown that the combination of throat depth, local surface radius and its opening angle determines the peak stress value and its location. Beside extended throat depths, particularly larger toe radii and the avoidance of small opening angles and of surface ripples reduces the peak stress. The explanations were developed in a generalising manner, accompanied by illustrative and flow chart description.

  • 15.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Tuominen, Jari
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Vuoristo, Petri MJ J
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Miettinen, Juha S.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Poutala, J.
    Department of Mechanics and Design, Tampere University of Technology.
    Näkki, Jonne
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Junkala, J.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Peltola, Tero
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Surface pore initiated fatigue failure in laser clad components2013In: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 25, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A laser clad and machined cylindrical structural steel rod was fatigue tested under four-point bending load. The resulting fracture could be tracked back to a spherical surface pore in the Co-based coating. Due to an oxide inclusion, the pore was not identified by dye penetrant inspection. Two circular buckling strain patterns that were detected beside the pore at the surfaces after fracture confirm local plastic deformation prior to crack initiation. In order to calculate the stress field around the surface pore, linear elastic finite element analysis was carried out. For four-point bending load, a surface pore generally exceeds the maximum stress of a smooth rod as long as the pore is located within an azimuthal angle of ±55°, which was the case for the presented as well as for another pore initiated sample.

  • 16.
    Al-Mashikhi, S.O.
    et al.
    University of Notttingham.
    Powell, John
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Voisey, K.T.
    University of Notttingham.
    An explanation of ‘striation free' cutting of mild steel by fibre laser2009In: Lasers in manufacturing 2009: proceedings of the Fifth International WLT-Conference Lasers in Manufacturing, LIM 2009 : Munich, Germany, June 15th - 18th, 2009 / [ed] Andreas Ostendorf, Stuttgart: AT-Fachverlag , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical investigation into the phenomenon of ‘striation free cutting', which is a feature of fibre laser cutting of thin section mild steel. The paper concludes that the creation of very low roughness edges is related to an optimisation of the cut front geometry when the cut front is inclined at angles close to the Brewster angle for the laser - material combination. For purely geometric reasons this particular type of cut front optimisation is not possible for CO2 laser cutting of mild steel.

  • 17.
    Al-Mashikhi, S.O
    et al.
    Salalah College of Technology, Engineering Department, Salalah, Oman and Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Voisey, K.T.
    Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham.
    Heat affected zones and oxidation marks in fiber laser–oxygen cutting of mild steel2011In: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 23, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of cutting speed and sheet thickness on surface oxidation and heat affected zones (HAZs) has been investigated for laser–oxygen cutting of mild steel sheet with a fiber laser. Optical and scanning electron micrographs were used to determine the extent of surface oxidation and HAZ from plan and cross-sectional views, respectively. The HAZ is consistently wider at the bottom of the cut compared to the HAZ at the top of the cut. With increasing speed, the width of the HAZ at the top of the cut decreases whereas the HAZ width at the bottom of the cut generally increases. No simple, direct relationship between HAZ width and surface oxidation was seen. However, it is possible to state that in each case considered here, the HAZ would be completely removed if they are machined back by a depth equal to the extent of the surface oxidation.

  • 18.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mechanical Properties of MIG Joints for Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys(2024-T351 and 6061-T651)2016In: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 121-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research aims to investigate the effects of GMAW or MIG welding process on the mechanical properties ofdissimilar aluminum alloys 2024-T351 and AA 6061- T651. A series of experimental techniques have been conductedto evaluate mechanical properties of the alloys, by carrying out hardness, tensile and bending tests for welded and unweldedspecimens.Metal inert gas (MIG) has been carried out on sheet metal using ER- 4043(AlSi5) as a filler metal and argon asshielded gas. The welded joints were tested by X-ray radiography and Faulty pieces were excluded.Welding joints without defects are subjected to heat treatment including heating the joints in furnace to 170 °C forhalf an hour then air cooling to relief welding stress.Tensile test was implemented for all specimens which prepared in the dimensions according to ASTM 17500 byusing Testing machine smart series with preload value 100 kN. Vickers hardness test and microstructure examinationwere made, the last test was bending test which implemented on the welded and un welded specimens which machinedinto standard test specimen dimensions.Results of mechanical properties Using MIG welding process appear a general decay compared with un welded andin the dissimilar joint comparing with parent metal that is due to the microstructure change during the welding process.The location of the failure for welded specimens after all mechanical test was found predominantly along the heataffected zone ( HAZ ).but Unwedded specimens were failed near the center line of the specimen.

  • 19.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Impact of an extended source in laser ablation using pulsed digital holographic interferometry and modelling2009In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 255, no 21, p. 8917-8925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to study the effect of the laser spot diameter on the shock wave generated in the ablation process of an Nd:YAG laser pulse on a Zn target under atmospheric pressure. For different laser spot diameters and time delays, the propagation of the expanding vapour and of the shock wave were recorded by intensity maps calculated using the recorded digital holograms. From the latter phase maps, the refractive index and the density field can be derived. A model was developed that approaches the density distribution, in particular the ellipsoidal expansion characteristics. The induced shock wave has an ellipsoid shape that approaches a sphere for decreasing spot diameter. The ellipsoidal shock waves have almost the same centre offset towards the laser beam and the same aspect ratio for different time steps. The model facilitates the derivation of the particle velocity field. The method provides valuable quantitative results that are discussed, in particular in comparison with the simpler point source explosion theory.

  • 20.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Shaer, M. El
    Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University.
    Comparison of the laser ablation process on Zn and Ti using pulsed digital holographic interferometry2010In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 256, no 14, p. 4633-4641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to compare the laser ablation process of a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse duration 12 ns) on two different metals (Zn and Ti) under atmospheric air pressure. Digital holograms were recorded for different time delays using collimated laser light (532 nm) passed through the volume along the target. Numerical data of the integrated refractive index field were calculated and presented as phase maps. Intensity maps were calculated from the recorded digital holograms and are used to calculate the attenuation of the probing laser beam by the ablated plume. The different structures of the plume, namely streaks normal to the surface for Zn in contrast to absorbing regions for Ti, indicates that different mechanisms of laser ablation could happen for different metals for the same laser settings and surrounding gas. At a laser fluence of 5 J/cm2, phase explosion appears to be the ablation mechanism in case of Zn, while for Ti normal vaporisation seems to be the dominant mechanism.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Engström, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Wiklund, Greger
    Påsvetsning, upplegering och ytomsmältning (glasering) med högeffektlaser1983Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Andersson, Roger
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Deformation characteristics of stainless steels2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation into the deformation characteristics of stainless steels. The title of the chapters is as follows; A new type of forming limit diagram for use with meta-stable stainless steels. A new equation to describe the microstructural transformation of meta- stable austenitic stainless steels during plastic deformation. FEM-simulation of the forming and impact behaviour of stainless steel automobile components. The development of high strain rate equations for stainless steels. The metallurgy and mechanical properties of laser welds between stainless and carbon steels.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Roger
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Effects of composition and the production process on formability of austenitic stainless steels1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Formability of austenitic stainless steels is strongly influenced by the chemical composition, the internal texture and the deformation conditions. The purpose of this study is to determine how small variations in chemical composition and minor variations in the production process are influencing the formability of type 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels. In this study, the formability of ten sub-grades of type 316 austenitic stainless steel and four sub-grades of type 304 austenitic stainless steel were investigated. These investigations are expected to have significant impact for both stainless steel producers and users. If the influence of the chemistry on the formability and the influence of different paths in the cold-rolling plant on the anisotropy are better understood, then manufacturers will be able to design processes which optimise the limiting strains.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Magnusson, Claes
    Schedin, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Using stainless steel for energy absorbing components in automobiles2001In: Innovations in processing and manufacturing of sheet materials: proceedings / the Second Global Symposium on Innovations in Materials Processing and Manufacturing: Sheet Materials, held at the 2001 TMS annual meeting, February 11 - 15, 2001, New Orleans, Louisiana / [ed] Mahmoud Y. Demeri, Warrendale, Pa: Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2001, p. 97-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the crash performance in automobiles it is necessary to use new techniques and materials. To produce energy absorbing components the material should have high yield strength, high elongation to fracture and strong work hardening. The total work a component absorbs during impact is the area under the stress-strain curve for unit material volume. This has lead to an interest in high strength stainless steels as crash safety components in automobiles due to their excellent material properties. The material performance of different stainless grades has been evaluated through intrinsic and simulative tests. A stainless steel bumper beam has been optimised for a VOLVO car and comparisons have been made with the present application. Simulations have been done and verified by experiments.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Magnusson, Claes
    Fem-simulation of forming and subsequently impact behaviour of a stainless steel component2005In: Proceedings of the 8th ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming / [ed] Dorel Banabic, Bucharest: The Romanian Academy Publishing House , 2005, Vol. 1, p. 265-268Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Andersson, Roger
    et al.
    Schedin, Erik
    Magnusson, Claes
    Ocklund, J.
    Persson, A.
    Stainless steel components in automotive vehicles2004In: Stainless Steel World, ISSN 1383-7184, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 34-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Components linked to crash safety in automotive vehicles are required to transmit or absorb energy. The energy absorbing capability of a given component depends on a combination of geometry, material properties and loading conditions. Increased crash performance can be obtained by using materials with higher yield strength and relatively high elongation to fracture. These demands have led to increasing interest in the use of high strength stainless steels due to their relatively high elongation to fracture and good formability. To increase knowledge of the formability and forming behaviour of these materials, several components from current and prototype vehicles have been made using high strength stainless steels at Volvo Cars Body Components, Olofstrom, Sweden. These were subsequently analysed in close collaboration with the Division of Manufacturing Systems Engineering at Lulea University of Technology, Sweden.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Schedin, Erik
    AvestaPolarit Inc..
    Magnusson, Claes
    Ocklund, Jonny
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Persson, Arne
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    The applicability of stainless steels for crash absorbing components2002In: ACOM : Avesta Sheffield corrosion management and application engineering, ISSN 1101-0681, Vol. 3-4, p. 7-12Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase crash performance in automotive vehicles it is necessary to use new techniques and materials. Components linked to crash safety should transmit or absorb energy. The energy absorbing capability of a specific component is a combination of geometry and material properties. For these components the chosen material should have high yield strength and relatively high elongation to fracture. These demands have led to increasing interest in the use of high strength stainless steels. The relative performance of three high strength carbon steels and two high strength stainless steel grades was evaluated through intrinsic and simulative tests. The rear bumper for a Volvo Car model in current production was manufactured using the five sheets tested to verify formability and behaviour under load. The bumpers were clamped in a rig that allowed quasi-static impact tests to be made. The energy absorbing capabilities were evaluated by measuring force versus displacement during the impact test.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Syk, M.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Magnusson, Claes
    Formability behaviour of meta-stable stainless steels2005In: Proceedings of the 8th ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming / [ed] Dorel Banabic, Bucharest: The Romanian Academy Publishing House , 2005, Vol. 1, p. 359-362Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Arwidson, Claes
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Numerical simulation of sheet metal forming for high strength steels2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New demands for passenger safety, vehicle performance and fuel economy have led to an increase in the use of advanced high strength steel. An increase in strength decreases the formability of the material and increases the spring back behaviour. Recently the development of high strength steel has rapidly advanced, requiring verification of earlier material models suitable for describing the plasticity behaviour in sheet metal forming. The aim of the here conducted numerical simulations is to verify the deep drawing process and the shape of the final component of a simple hat profile geometry for studying spring-back of high strength steels. Four advanced high strength steels were selected for detailed investigation, namely the dual phase steels DP600 and DP750, the triple phase steel TRIP700 and the stainless steel HYTENS800. The plastic properties of these steels have been assessed through intrinsic and simulative tests, leading to verification and comparison at different levels. The hat profile serves as a simple test geometry for deep drawing due to elimination of the lateral dimension in first order. The corresponding simpler plasticity behaviour in space facilitates systematic analysis Experiments and simulations were carried out, leading to comparison of the resulting draw in, strain, thinning, final shape and spring-back. The verification and analysis concerns the friction coefficient, two software codes, Finite Element properties and the two material models Hill48 and Hill90. The simulation provides a good qualitative coincidence with experimental results, which enables to develop a process theory and to study the individual mechanisms involved. The friction coefficient, varied from 0 to 0.1, shows very low sensitivity on the process. The simulation underestimates the spring-back by 8-12° at the flange edge. Among the four materials studied basically the stainless steel HYTENS800 shows the largest deviations during comparison. In general the results partially reveal distinct quantitative discrepancies, in particular in the critical bending regions, demanding for improved material models and better knowledge of the boundary conditions.

  • 30. Arwidson, Claes
    et al.
    Bernspång, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Verification of numerical forming simulation in high strength steels2004In: Proceedings of the Conference Innovations in metal forming, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Aluminiumplåts formbarhet1990Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Formbarhet under dragpressning, sträckpressning och bockning samt egenskaper efter formning av aluminiumplåt1988Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Mechanics of sheet metal forming: strength, stiffness, dent resistance, and springback of double-curved autobody panels : fracture and wringling in stretch and shrink flanging by fluid forming1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Återfjädring vid bockning längs krökta linjer1987Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Asnafi, Nader
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Magnusson, Claes
    On formability of sheet aluminium1990In: Sheet metals in forming processes: 16th biennial congress IDDRG, open sessions, Borlänge, June 11 - 13, 1990 ; congress proceedings, reports, posters, Borlänge: Materials Center, HTM , 1990, p. 81-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sheet metal behaves differently for different stress and strain ratios. For instance, the material tolerates less deformation at plane strain compared with uniaxial tension. Hill's yield criteria can be used to describe sheet material's deformation behavior. Hill's original yield criterion for plane stress, assuming that there is no planar anisotropy is given. The equation shows better agreement with experimental results when r > 1 (steel 4010), while there is no agreement with experimental results when r < 1 (Al-5052). Hill proposed, therefore, a new yield criterion, which is given. The value of a can be determined by comparing the experimental work-hardening characteristics for uniaxial tension and balanced biaxial tension; 1 < = a < = 2. For soft Al, having an average r-value of 0.723, the value of a has been found to be 1.8. The parameter a has its greatest effect at balanced biaxial tension. Graphs

  • 36.
    Atiyah, H.
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Petring, D.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT.
    Stoyanov, S.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT.
    Voisey, T.
    Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham.
    Fiber laser cutting: The use of carbon-filled acrylic as a qualitative and quantitative analysis tool2018In: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 30, article id 032009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of carbon-filled black acrylic (CFBA) as a quantitative and qualitative analytical tool for fiber laser cutting is investigated. In the qualitative work, CFBA targets placed below the laser cutting zone when cutting stainless steel showed a distinctive “leaf” shaped evaporation crater which can provide information about the nature of the reflections taking place in the cut zone. Quantitative measurements have revealed a specific evaporation energy of 3.4 J/mm3 for CFBA. However, this figure is only applicable when considering intense beams when the CFBA target is stationary with respect to the laser beam.

  • 37.
    Bang, Han-Sur
    et al.
    Chosun University, Department of Welding & Joining Science Engineering.
    Bang, HeeSeon
    Department of Welding and Joining Science Engineering, Chosun University.
    Hong, J.H.
    Department of Welding and Joining Science Engineering, Graduate School, Chosun University.
    Jeon, Geunhong
    Department of Welding and Joining Science Engineering, Graduate School, Chosun University.
    Kim, G.S.
    Department of Welding and Joining Science Engineering, Graduate School, Chosun University.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Effect of Tungsten-Inert-Gas Preheating on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Al Alloy and Mild Steel2016In: Strength of Materials, ISSN 0039-2316, E-ISSN 1573-9325, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 152-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of tungsten-inert-gas (TIG) welding preheating on the mechanical properties of Al6061-T6 and SS400 welded joints by friction stir welding (FSW). FSW joints with and without TIG welding preheating are characterized and compared in terms of their mechanical and microstructural properties. The results show that the TIG assisted hybrid FSW welded joints (TIG-HFSW) provide an enhanced joint strength. The transversal tensile strength of the TIG-HFSW joints exhibited approximately 104% of the Al6061-T6 base metal tensile strength and was higher than that of the FSW joints. Microstructural investigations also reveal that in the HAZ and TMAZ of TIG-HFSW joints, the grains of Al6061-T6 are smaller than those of the FSW welds

  • 38.
    Berglund, Göran
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Presshärdning av borstål: utveckling av presshärdningstekniken till verkstadsmässighet1984Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Bergström, David
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The absorptance of metallic alloys to Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF laser light2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Laser Material Processing of metals, an understanding of the fundamental absorption mechanisms plays a vital role in determining the optimum processing parameters and conditions. The absorptance, which is the fraction of the incident laser light which is absorbed, depends on a number of different parameters. These include laser parameters such as intensity, wavelength, polarisation and angle of incidence and material properties such as composition, temperature, surface roughness, oxide layers and contamination. The vast theoretical and experimental knowledge of the absorptance of pure elements with smooth, contamination-free surfaces contrasts with the relatively sparse information on the engineering materials found in real processing applications. In this thesis a thorough investigation of the absorption mechanisms in engineering grade materials has been started. The Licentiate thesis consists of 5 papers. Paper 1 is a short review of some of the most important mathematical models used in describing the interaction between laser light and a metal. Paper 2 is a review of a few experimental methods of measuring the absorptance of an opaque solid such as a metal. Papers 3 and 4 are experimental investigations of the absorptance of some of the most frequently found metallic alloys used in Laser Material Processing today. Paper 5 is a co-authored paper on the cleaning of copper artefacts with the use of second harmonic generated Nd:YAG laser light.

  • 40.
    Bergström, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    The absorption of laser light by rough metal surfaces2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Laser Material Processing of metals, an understanding of the fundamental absorption mechanisms plays a vital role in determining the optimum processing parameters and conditions. The absorptance, which is the fraction of the incident laser light which is absorbed, depends on a number of different parameters. These include laser parameters such as intensity, wavelength, polarisation and angle of incidence and material properties such as composition, temperature, surface roughness, oxide layers and contamination. The vast theoretical and experimental knowledge of the absorptance of pure elements with smooth, contamination-free surfaces contrasts with the relatively sparse information on the engineering materials found in real processing applications. In this thesis a thorough investigation of the absorption mechanisms in engineering grade materials has been conducted, both experimentally and theoretically. Integrating sphere reflectometry has been employed to study the impact of surface conditions on Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF laser absorptance of some of the most common ferrous and non-ferrous metallic alloys found in Laser Material Processing. Mathematical modelling and simulations using ray-tracing methods from scattering theory have been used to analyze the influence of surface topography on light absorption. The Doctoral thesis consists of six papers: Paper 1 is a short review of some of the most important mathematical models used in describing the interaction between laser light and a metal surface. Paper 2 is a review of experimental methods available for measuring the absorptance of an opaque solid such as a metal. Papers 3 and 4 are experimental investigations of the absorptance of some of the most frequently found metallic alloys used in Laser Material Processing today. Paper 5 presents results from 2D ray-tracing simulations of random rough metal surfaces in an attempt to investigate the influence of surface roughness on laser scattering and absorption. Paper 6 is a full 3D ray-tracing investigation of the interaction of laser light with a rough metallic surface, where some comparisons also are made to the previous 2D model.

  • 41. Bergström, David
    et al.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Mathematical modelling of laser absorption mechanisms in metals: a literature survey2003In: Proceedings of the 16th Meeting on Modelling, Simulation, Virtuality in High Power Laser Technology, M4PL 16: Igls/Innsbruck, 22.01.2003-24.01.2003 / Vienna University of Technology, Department of Nonconventional Processing, Forming and Laser Technology ... Ed.: D. Schuöcker ..., 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Powell, John
    Laser Expertise Ltd., Acorn Park Industrial Estate, Nottingham.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    A ray-tracing analysis of the absorption of light by smooth and rough metal surfaces2007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, no 11, p. 113504-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ray tracing has been employed to investigate the absorption of light by smooth and random rough metal surfaces. For normally incident light the absorptance of the surface increases with surface roughness. However, for light incident at a tangent to the surface the absorptance-surface roughness relationship is more complex. For example, in certain cases the absorptance can rise, fall, and rise again as the surface roughness increases. In this paper this complex absorptance-roughness relationship is defined and explained. The wavelengths of the light chosen for this study correspond to the primary and secondary output wavelengths of Nd:YAG lasers.

  • 43.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Powell, John
    Laser Expertise Ltd., Acorn Park Industrial Estate, Nottingham.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Absorptance of nonferrous alloys to Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG laser light at room temperature2007In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1290-1301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of absorptance is important for the analysis and modeling of laser-material interactions. Unfortunately, most of the absorptance data currently available consider only polished pure metals rather than the commercially available (unpolished, oxidized) alloys that are actually being processed in manufacturing. We present the results of absorptance measurements carried out at room temperature on as-received engineering grade nonferrous metals (Al, Cu, and Zn alloys). The measurements were made using an integrating sphere with a Nd:YLF laser at two wavelengths (1053 and 527 nm, which means that the results are also valid for Nd:YAG radiation at 1064 and 532 nm). The absorptance results obtained differ considerably from the existing data for polished, pure metals and should help improve the accuracy of laser-material interaction models. Some clear trends were identified. For all 22 cases studied the absorptance was higher than for ideal pure, polished metals. For all Al and Cu samples the absorptance was higher for the green than it was for the infrared wavelength, while for all Zn coatings this trend was reversed. No clear correlation between absorptance and surface roughness was found at low roughness values (Sa 0.15-0.60), but one rougher set of samples (Sa 2.34) indicated a roughness-absorptance correlation at higher roughness levels.

  • 44.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Fresnel absorption of rough metal surfaces using ray-traycing analysis2007In: 2007 European conference on lasers and electro-optics, IEEE Communications Society, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45. Bergström, David
    et al.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Laser absorption measurements in opaque solids2005In: 10th NOLAMP Conference: the 10th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, 17-19 August 2005, Luleå Sweden / [ed] Alexander Kaplan, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2005, p. 91-115Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46. Bergström, David
    et al.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Light scattering and absorption in Gaussian random rough metal surfaces using the geometric optics approximation2007In: Proceedings / M4PL 20: Igls/Innsbruck (A), 17. - 19.01.2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Nd:YAG laser absorptance of rough metal surfaces2007In: Congress proceedings: 2007 ICALEO, 26th International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics : October 29 - November 1, 2007, Hilton in the Walt Disney World Resort, Orlando, FL, USA ; [including] Laser Materials Processing Conference, Laser Microprocessing Conference [and] Nanomanufacturing Conference / [ed] Yongfeng Lu, Orlando, Fla: Laser institute of America , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nd:YLF/Nd:YAG laser absorptance of rough metal surfaces has been investigated using 3D ray tracing simulations on computer-generated Gaussian random rough metal surfaces. The impact of multiple scattering, shadowing and Fresnel-equation based angle dependence on the overall absorption is discussed

  • 48. Bergström, David
    et al.
    Powell, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Ray-tracing analysis of Nd:YAG laser absorption by random rough metal surfaces2007In: 11th NOLAMP Conference: 11th NOLAMP Conference in Laser Processing of Materials ; Lappeenranta, August 20 - 22, 2007 / [ed] Veli Kujanpää, Lappeenranta: Lappeenranta University of Technology Press, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Powell, John
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    The absorptance of metal surfaces to Nd:YAG/Nd:YLF laser light2008In: Conference proceedings: / 3rd Pacific International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Optics, PICALO : April 16 - 18, 2008, Capital Hotel, Beijing, China / [ed] Minlin Zhong, Orlando, Fla.: Laser institute of America , 2008, p. 375-380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The absorptance of real metallic engineering surfaces used in Laser Material Processing depends strongly upon the particular surface conditions, including the degree of roughness and oxidation. In this paper the influence of surface topography on Nd:YAG/Nd:YLF laser absorptance has been studied, both experimentally and theoretically, on a set of randomly selected as-received metallic engineering surfaces. The surfaces were sputter-coated with a thin layer of gold to eliminate differences in surface chemistry and oxidation. The absorptance was measured using integrating sphere reflectometry and compared to calculations from 3D ray-tracing simulations of AFM-scanned images of the surfaces. The results have increased the understanding of how surface roughness influences the laser-workpiece coupling efficiency.

  • 50.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Powell, John
    Laser Expertise Ltd., Acorn Park Industrial Estate, Nottingham.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    The absorptance of steels to Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG laser light at room temperature2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 11, p. 5017-5028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of absorptance is important for the analysis and modelling of laser-material interactions. Unfortunately, most of the absorptance data presently available considers only polished pure metals rather than the commercially available (unpolished, oxidised) alloys, which are actually being processed in manufacturing. This paper presents the results of absorptance measurements carried out at room temperature on as-received engineering grade steels including hot and cold rolled mild steel and stainless steels of various types. The measurements were made using an integrating sphere with an Nd:YLF laser at two wavelengths (1053 and 527 nm, which means that the results are also valid for Nd:YAG radiation at 1064 and 532 nm). The absorptance results obtained differ considerably from existing data for polished, pure metals and should help improve the accuracy of laser-material interaction models. Some clear trends were identified; for all materials studied, the absorptance was considerably higher than the previously published values for the relevant pure metals with polished surfaces. For all 15 samples the absorptance was higher for the green than for the infrared wavelength. No clear trend correlating the absorptance with the roughness was found for mild steel in the roughness range Sa 0.4-5.6 μm. A correlation between absorptance and roughness was noted for stainless steel for Sa values above 1.5 μm.

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