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  • 1.
    Abdel-Khalek, N.A.
    et al.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo.
    Yassin, K.E.
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo.
    Kota, Hanumantha Rao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kandel, A-H
    Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.
    Effect of starch type on selectivity of cationic flotation of iron ore2012In: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 121, no 2, 98-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cationic flotation is one of the most widely accepted technologies for upgrading siliceous iron ore using polysaccharides (mainly starches) as depressing agents for iron bearing minerals while floating silica with amines. In this paper, a group of starches are investigated as depressants for haematite. These starches are wheat, corn, rice, potato and dextrin. The role of starch type on the selectivity of the separation process has been studied through zeta potential, adsorption measurements as well as flotation tests. The effects of type of starch and pH of the medium have been studied. The results indicate that the selectivity of the separation process is strongly affected by the type of starch used, where better results are obtained with corn starch or wheat starch in comparison to the other types. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements indicated that the interaction between starches and haematite surface is intermolecular interaction

  • 2.
    Abhale, Prakash Bansi
    et al.
    Global R and D, ArcelorMittal, Kolkatta.
    Yadav, Vishal Kumar
    Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (MTM), Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven.
    Nurni, Viswanathan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Ballal, Bharath Nidambur
    Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.
    Efficient computation of gas flow in blast furnace in 3-D2012In: 6th Int. Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking 2012, ICSTI 2012: Including Proceedings from the 42nd Ironmaking and Raw Materials Seminar, and the 13th Brazilian Symp. on Iron Ore, 2012, Vol. 1, 722-732 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blast furnace continues to occupy prominent place among iron making technologies as it accounts for more than 90% of the hot metal produced in the world. In India, as a part of initiative from Ministry of Steel, efforts are being made to develop offline as well as online models with an aim to improve blast furnace performance. As a part of this effort, offline comprehensive models simulating the internal state of an operating blast furnace are being developed. Such comprehensive models involve systematic integration of various sub-models for gas flow, solid flow, reaction kinetics, enthalpy balance etc. Unlike in many other systems, these sub-processes are highly interlinked in blast furnace and hence call for large number of iteration among the sub-models which ultimately results in significant computation time. Our efforts in integration of these sub-models have indicated that the gas flow is one of the important bottle necks in achieving faster computation. This has led to a development of new and efficient computation scheme to simulate the gas flow in 2-D [1]. This new scheme provided efficient way of handling complex burden profile in a blast furnace. This paper presents the extension of this 2-D gas flow model to 3-D. Further, the 3-D model has been used to investigate the asymmetry in gas flow which can arise from blanking the tuyeres, asymmetric fusion or cohesive zone or formation scabs or scaffolds in the furnace behavior

  • 3.
    Abramov, A.A.
    et al.
    Moscow State Mining University, Moscow.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Chemistry and optimal conditions for copper minerals flotation: theory and practice2005In: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, ISSN 0882-7508, E-ISSN 1547-7401, Vol. 26, no 2, 77-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable information on the surface state of sulphide copper minerals and regularities of sulphidization and flotation of oxidized copper minerals, the composition of sorption layer on the mineral surface forming during its interaction with xanthate or dixanthogen, and the influence of collector forms sorption on the copper minerals floatability and on the optimal conditions for these minerals flotation and depression has been obtained at present. The determined physicochemical models in the form of quantitative equations have been derived for the optimal conditions of flotation and depression of copper minerals under changing pH value and of sodium sulphide, lime, cyanide, zinc–cyanide complexes additions. The equations derived were proven in the laboratory and industrial scale and can be used both in automatic control systems at plants and for improvement of technological processes of selective flotation of copper containing ores.

  • 4. Adolfsson, Daniel
    Cementitious properties of steelmaking slags2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is directed towards the use of steelmaking slags as raw material for sulphoaluminate belite cement (SAB). Another important objective was to characterise the cementitious properties of phases in ladle furnace slag (LFS) specifically the calcium aluminates. Mayenite (C12A7) is considered one of the most important calcium aluminate in LFS, and since comparatively limited data on the kinetic properties of this phase are available, it was decided to study C12A7 more closely with regard to both particle size and temperature sensitivity. The behaviour of high-temperature reactions of tested SAB mixtures was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mineralogical observations were carried out with x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved that steelmaking slags have the potential to work as raw material, since sulphoaluminate (C4A3 S ) along with polymorphs of dicalcium silicate (C2S) and ferrite phase (C4AF) were detected after firing at 1200ºC in an air atmosphere. The hydration properties of the specimens were analysed through conduction calorimetry, and compressive strength of specimens hydrated for 2 and 28 days. The compressive strength was in accordance with that suggested in the literature for slow hardening SAB cement. Both mixtures tested behaved the same with regard to heat development as well as the amount of ettringite (AFt) formed during the first 24 hours of the hydration. The formation of AFt was characterised with both differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and XRD. The crystallographic distribution in LFS samples was quantified using Rietveldanalysis. Calorimetric studies were performed at 20, 25 and 30°C in order to calculate the activation energy of hydration and thereby to suggest a kinetic model for tested compositions within this temperature interval. In addition to heat of hydration, compressive strength tests were completed on mortar prisms of LFS, and LFS in a blend with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) which hydrated for 2, 7 and 28 days. Both compositions reached acceptable early strengths, whereas, after 28 days hydration, the blend was superior to neat LFS. Related activation energy was according to the Avrami-Erofeev model determined to 58 kJ/mol for the LFS and 63 kJ/mol for the blend. Corresponding calorimetric studies at the same temperatures were performed on a fine and coarse size fraction (Fraction A and Fraction B) of a synthesised C12A7. The purity was confirmed by XRD, and the hydraulic behaviour was investigated in excess water with respect to the dissolution. The apparent activation energy was calculated to 33 and 79 kJ/mol, respectively, for Fractions A-B using the Avrami-Erofeev model. From the model, it was also concluded that the acceleration period can be ascribed to a phase-boundary controlled mechanism. The principal calcium aluminate hydrates obtained were C2AH8 and C2AH7.5, and it was further observed that C12A7 is accompanied by an anomalous setting behaviour much like monocalcium aluminate (CA), and that the decomposition of C2AH8 to C2AH7.5 develops more slowly with higher surface area, specifically at 20 and 30°C.

  • 5. Adolfsson, Daniel
    Steelmaking slags as raw material for sulphoaluminate belite cement2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work was undertaken as part of the research in the Minerals and Metals Recycling research centre, MiMeR. The course of the thesis is attributed to metallurgical slags from the steelmaking industry and the possible use of such by-products as raw material for sulphoaluminate belite cement (SAB). Implementing steel slags into the production of cement could contribute to the steel industry's possibility of increasing the recirculation. In addition to the previous objective, the introduction of slag into the cement manufacturing can also facilitate the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as well as lowering the overall energy consumption during the manufacturing. The reason for this is that the SAB system enables the reduction of the lime saturation factor (LSF) which in turn implies that less limestone is needed in the raw meal. Additionally, the firing temperature can be reduced by about 100-150°C, since dicalcium silicate and sulphoaluminate are formed already at approximately 1200-1250°C. In any event, one should remember that this is not intended to be a final solution for the recycling of slag, nor a replacement for already accepted cement materials. A number of applications currently exist where ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is used, but in cases where the OPC could be replaced with other type of cements, e.g. SAB cement, the possibility of using residues material in cement applications is increased. Considering the clinker covered within this work, possible applications are those where slow hydraulic properties are suitable. The behaviour of high temperature reactions of tested mixtures was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mineralogical observations were carried out with x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results proved that steelmaking slags have the potential to work as raw material, since sulphoaluminate along with polymorphs of dicalcium silicate and ferrite phases were detected after firing at 1200 ºC in an air atmosphere. The hydraulic properties of the specimens were analysed through conduction calorimetry, XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as was the mechanical strength of the specimens when hydrated for 2 and 28 days. The compressive strength was in accordance with that suggested in the literature for slow hardening SAB cement. Both mixtures tested behaved the same with regard to heat development as well as the amount of AFt formed during the first 24 hours of the hydration.

  • 6. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Cementitious phases in ladle slag2011In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 82, no 4, 398-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ladle slag is an internal by-product generated within the steelmaking industry during the refining of steel. The realisation of beneficial inherent properties of ladle slag as a binder supplement or substitute material is believed to be advantageous with respect to both economy and environment for steelmakers. For this reason, the current study has focused on highlighting the properties of ladle slag that are pertinent to the formation of calcium aluminate hydrates. Three fractions of ladle slag, two of which were based on different slag formers, have been characterised using XRF, XRD and calorimetric analysis. Commonly known hydraulic minerals such as mayenite, tricalcium aluminate and dicalcium silicate were detected during analysis. An important aspect in the utilisation of ladle slag is the slag handling methodology. Therefore, this study also highlights and discusses the need to reconsider slag handling procedures concerning unnecessary exposure to weathering and the possible need for further processing of the slag in order to better employ the inherent hydraulic properties of this material.

  • 7. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Viggh, Erik O.
    Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, Orléans.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Hydraulic properties of sulphoaluminate belite cement based on steelmaking slags2007In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 19, no 3, 133-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on modified Bogue calculations, steelmaking slags were combined in order to produce a belite-rich clinker activated with sulphoaluminate. The experiments were conducted on two different mixtures based on steelmaking slags together with additives, namely MixA and MixB. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hydraulic properties of the specimens, using conduction calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and also to measure the mechanical strength of the specimens when hydrated for 2 and 28 days. The compressive strength was satisfactory in relation to the estimated compositions. Both mixtures behaved the same with regard to heat development as well as the amount of ettringite formed during the first 24 h of the hydration.

  • 8. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Menad, Nourreddine
    Viggh, Erik O.
    Cementa AB, Malmö.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Steelmaking slags as raw material for sulphoaluminate belite cement2007In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 19, no 4, 147-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, slags from the steelmaking industry are described and considered as a potential raw material within the field of sulphoaluminate belite cement. The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of using a substantial amount of steelmaking slags as raw meal in the manufacture of a sulphobelitic clinker. A further aim was to compare the influence of different slags in relation to the formation of sulphoaluminate and the other clinker phases required. The behaviour of high temperature reactions was investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mineralogical observations were carried out through X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Three different mixtures and a single ladle slag were prepared using modified Bogue calculations, which are characterised by the assessment of a potential phase composition in order to produce belite-rich cement activated with sulphoaluminate. The results so far prove that steelmaking slags have the potential to be used as raw material, since sulphoaluminate along with polymorphs of dicalcium silicate and ferrite phases were detected after firing at 1200 degrees C in an air atmosphere.

  • 9. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Blagojevic, J.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Su, F.
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Assessment of ladle slag as binder alternative for cold bonded briquettes2008In: REWAS 2008: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology ; held October 12 - 15, 2008 in Cancun, Mexico / [ed] B. Mishra; C. Ludwig; S. Das, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2008, 117-123 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold bonded briquetting of steel plant by-products has proven to be a viable recycling alternative concerning technology, economy and environment in both the traditional blast furnace route and the direct reduction process. A critical parameter in cold bonded briquettes is the type and amount of binder used during production. The binder material must meet certain quality requirements concerning low and high temperature strength, chemistry and economy. Currently, SSAB Tunnplåt uses ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as binder in their cold bonded briquettes. In order to improve binder quality and possibly decrease OPC dependency, a binder feasibility study has been conducted concerning an internal by-product, ladle slag, as a supplement and/or partial substitute for OPC. Several characterization techniques have been used to study the behaviour of ladle slag, these include: XRD, XRF, SEM, glass content analysis, calorimetric analysis, particle size distribution and thermochemical stability considerations concerning the CaO-Al2O3-SiO 2 system.

  • 10. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Blagojevic, J.
    Su, F.
    Assessment of ladle slag as bnder alternative for cold bonded briquettes2008In: REWAS 2008: Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment / [ed] B. Mishra; C. Ludwig; S. Das, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2008, 117-124 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Robinson, Ryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Influence of mineralogy on the hydraulic properties of ladle slag2011In: Cement and Concrete Research, ISSN 0008-8846, E-ISSN 1873-3948, Vol. 41, no 8, 865-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is aimed at investigating the hydraulic characteristics of ladle furnace slag (LFS), under the pretence of using LFS as a cement substitute in certain applications. Furthermore, LFS has been considered as a possible activator in a blend containing 50% LFS, and 50% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). Phases detected in LFS were quantified using Rietveld analysis. Calorimetric studies were performed at 20, 25 and 30 °C in order to calculate the apparent activation energy of hydration and thereby to suggest a kinetic model for the tested compositions within this temperature interval. In addition, compressive strength tests were performed on mortar prisms made with LFS, and LFS/GGBFS which had hydrated for 2, 7 and 28 days. Both compositions reached acceptable early strengths, (e.g. LFS, 33.1 MPa, and LFS/GGBFS, 17.9 MPa, after 2 days), but after 28 days hydration the blend was superior to neat LFS. Related apparent activation energies were determined using an Avrami–Erofeev model and gave Ea = 58 kJ/mol for neat LFS and Ea = 63 kJ/mol for the blend. The results imply that LFS or a LFS/GGBFS blend can be favourably used as supplement in binder applications such as binder in by-product metallurgical briquettes, which are used as recycle to the blast furnace or basic oxygen furnace depending on the specific briquette composition.

  • 12. Adolfsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Viggh, Erik O.
    Cementa AB.
    Steelmaking slags as raw material for calcium sulfoaluminate belite cement2005In: Securing the future: international conference on mining and the environment, metals and energy recovery : proceedings, Stockholm: SweMin , 2005, 8- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Ahlberg, E.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Inorganic Chemistry.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Wang, Xianghuai
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The surface oxidation of pyrite in alkaline solution1990In: Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, ISSN 0021-891X, E-ISSN 1572-8838, Vol. 20, no 6, 1033-1039 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The collector-less flotation of pyrite has been studied by conventional techniques and is correlated to the electrochemical behaviour of pyrite in alkaline solution (1m NaClO4, pH 11). It was concluded that the initial oxidation of pyrite produces a hydrophobic sulphur rich surface together with hydrophilic iron hydroxide species. Also upon grinding, the surface is covered by hydrophilic species and therefore no significant flotation was obtained in the absence of a collector. However, collectorless flotation was readily obtained in an iron complexing solution like EDTA. This indicates that the remaining sulphur-rich layer is responsible for the floatability of pyrite under these conditions

  • 14.
    Ahmadi, R.
    et al.
    Iran Mineral Processing Research Centre (IMPRC), Karaj.
    Hashemzadehfini, M.
    Iran Mineral Processing Research Centre (IMPRC), Karaj.
    Parian, Mehdi Amiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rapid determination of Bond rod-mill work index by modeling the grinding kinetics2013In: Advanced Powder Technology, ISSN 0921-8831, E-ISSN 1568-5527, Vol. 24, no 1, 441-445 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, Bond work index is a common method for selecting comminution equipment as well as estimation of grinding efficiency and calculating required power. In the current research, a simple, fast and accurate procedure is introduced to find the rod-mill work index based on the conventional Bond work index. The grinding experiments were carried out on four typical samples of iron, copper, manganese and lead–zinc ore with three test-sieves in specified time periods and aimed to shortening the procedure. Furthermore, the grinding kinetics and mass balance equations were applied to model the standard Bond rod-mill work index. For comparing the standard Bond rod-mill work index and the new modeled method, work index (Wi) and produced fine particles in a cycle (Gi) for the four samples determined. The performed paired Student’s t-test results indicated that the Standard Deviation for Gi and Wi obtained by the shortened method are respectively 0.50 and 0.58 in respect of traditional Bond method.

  • 15.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    Skolan för industriell teknik och management, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Investigations of the Kinetics of Reduction and Reduction/Carburization of NiO-WO3 Precursors.2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinetic studies of reduction of the mixtures of NiO and WO3 having different Ni/(Ni+W) molar ratios in flowing hydrogen gas were investigated by means of Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fluidized Bed (FB) technique as well as Thermal diffusivity measurements under isothermal conditions. In the case of TGA, the reaction progress was monitored by mass loss, while evolved gas analysis by a gas chromatograph was the indicator of the reaction progress in the case of FB. The results indicate that the reduction reaction proceeds through three consecutive steps, viz.NiO-WO3 Ni-WO3 Ni-WO2 Ni-WThe present results show that the fluidized bed technique can be successfully utilized in bulk production of intermetallics containing W and a transition metal (or a composite material) wherein the process conditions would have a strong impact on the particle size of the end product.During the investigations, it was found that there was a delay in the reaction during the hydrogen reduction of NiO-WO3 mixed oxides in a fluidized bed reactor. In order to understand the same, a theoretical model was developed to estimate the apparent reaction rate constant for the reduction reaction from the intrinsic chemical reaction rate constant. Appropriate differential mass balance equations based on intrinsic chemical reaction rate constants and thermodynamic equilibria were developed. The proposed model was successfully applied in predicting the overall reaction kinetics of a fluidized bed reactor. This model is also suitable for scale-up calculations.SEM images showed that the particle size of the final product was dependent on the Ni/(Ni+W) molar ratio; smaller particles were formed at higher nickel contents. X-ray diffractions of the reduced precursors exhibited slight shift of Ni peaks from the standard one indicating the dissolution of W into Ni.A new method for studying kinetics of the hydrogen reduction of NiO-WO3 precursors was developed in which the reaction progress was monitored by following the change of thermal diffusivity of the precursors. Activation energies of reduction as well as sintering were calculated. This method is considered unique as it provides information regarding the physical changes like sintering, change of porosity and agglomeration along with the chemical changes occurring during the gas/solid reaction.As a continuation of the kinetic studies, Ni-W-C ternary carbides were synthesized by simultaneous reduction–carburization of Ni-W-O system using H2-CH4 gas mixtures by TGA. The results showed that the reduction of the oxide mixture was complete before the carburization took place. The nascent particles of the metals formed by reduction could react with the gas mixture with well-defined carbon potential to form a uniform product of Ni-W-C. The above-mentioned experiments were conducted in such a way to ensure that the reaction was controlled by the chemical reaction. The activation energies of the reduction as well as carburization processes at different stages were calculated accordingly.The present dissertation demonstrates the potential of the investigations of gas/solid reactions towards tailoring the process towards materials with optimized properties as for example introduction of interstitials. The present process design is extremely environment-friendly with reduced number of unit processes and the product being H2O.

  • 16.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Andersson, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    El-Tawil, Asmaa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lotfian, Samira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Alternative Carbon Sources for Reduction2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Andersson, Charlotte
    LKAB, Research & Development, 983 81 Malmberget, LKAB Research and Development.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Effect of olivine fineness and thermal profile on oxidation-sintering of magnetite concentrate pellets2015In: AISTech 2015: Proceedings of the Iron & Steel Technology Conference : 4-7 May 2015, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A / [ed] Ronald E Ashburn, Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology , 2015, 379-388 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    El-Geassy, Abdel Hady
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Kinetics of Reduction of NiO–WO3 Mixtures by Hydrogen2010In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 41, no 1, 161-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The kinetics of reduction of the oxide mixtures of Ni-W with different Ni/(Ni-W) molar ratios within the range of 923 K to 1173 K in flowing hydrogen gas was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis under isothermal conditions. The products were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. Five different oxide mixtures apart from the pure oxides were studied in the present work. The results indicate that the reduction reaction proceeds through three consecutive steps that are as follows:NiO-WO3→Ni-WO3→Ni-WO2→Ni-WFrom the experimental results, the Arrhenius activation energies of the three steps were evaluated for all of the studied compositions. The activation energy for the first step was calculated to be approximately 18 kJ/mol. For the second and third stages, the activation energy values varied from 62 to 38 kJ/mol for the second stage and 51 to 34 kJ/mol for the third stage depending on the Ni/(Ni + W) molar ratio in the precursors; the activation energy increased with increasing ratios. SEM images showed that the grain size of the final product was dependent on the Ni/(Ni + W) molar ratio; smaller grains were formed at higher nickel contents.

  • 19.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Geasyy, Abdel Hady El
    Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo.
    Nurni, Viswanathan
    Indian Institute of Technology (IIT).
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH, Department of Metallurgy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Division of Metallurgy, Department of Materials Science and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Kinetics and mathematical modeling of hydrogen reduction of NiO-WO 3 precursors in fluidized bed reactor2011In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 51, no 9, 1383-1391 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, Fluidized bed reduction of NiO-WO 3 precursors was investigated isothermally at temperatures 973-1 273 K. The reaction progress was monitored by analysis of H2O evolved during the reaction process using a gas chromatograph instrument. A theoretical model based on intrinsic chemical reaction rate constants and thermodynamic equilibria was developed to estimate the apparent reaction rate constant for the reduction reaction. In developing the model, the particles are considered to be in a completely mixed condition and gas flow is described as plug flow. The proposed model is also suitable for scale-up calculations. The interfacial chemical reaction model was found to fit the experimental results. The apparent activation energy values of the reduction process at different stages were calculated accordingly. The present investigation proved that the fluidized bed technique can be successfully utilized in bulk production of intermetallics containing W and a transition metal (or a composite material) wherein the process conditions would have a strong impact on the particle size of the end product.

  • 20.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Mis, Mikeal
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    El-Geassy, A.H.A.
    Department of Minerals Technology and Processing, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Division of Materials Process Science, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH, Department of Metallurgy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Division of Metallurgy, Department of Materials Science and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Reduction-Carburization of the Oxides of Ni and W towards the Synthesis of Ni-WC Carbides2010In: Advanced Materials Forum V: selected, peer reviewed papers from the V International Materials Symposium MATERIAiS 2009 (14th meeting of SPM - Sociedade Portuguesa de Materiais), Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, April 5 - 8, Lisbon, Portugal, 2009 / [ed] Luís Guerra Rosa; Fernanda Margarido, Stafa-Zurich: Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2010, 952-962 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary Ni-W-C cemented carbides were synthesized directly from mixture powder of NiO-WO3 by simultaneous reduction-carburization in mixed H2-CH4 gas environment in a thin bed reactor in the temperature range 973-1273K. The kinetics of the reaction was closely followed by monitoring the mass change using thermogravimetric method (TGA). The nascent particles of the metals formed by reduction could react with the gas mixture with well-defined carbon potential to form a uniform product of Ni-W-C. The gas mixture ratio was adjusted in such a way that the Ni-W-C formed was close to the two phase tie line. In view of the fact that each particle was in direct contact with the gas mixture, the reaction rate could be conceived as being controlled by the combined reduction-carburization reaction. From the reaction rate, the Arrhenius activation energies were evaluated. Characterization of the carbides produced was carried out by using X-ray diffraction, SEM-EDS as well as high resolution electron microscope (HREM). The grain sizes were also determined. Correlations were found between the carbide composition as well as grain size and the process parameters such as temperature of the reduction-carburization reaction as well as the composition of the gas mixture. The results are discussed in the light of the kinetics of the reduction of oxides and the thermodynamic constraints.

  • 21.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering. Department of Minerals Technology, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute.
    Morales-Estrella, Ricardo
    Instituto de Investigación en Metalurgia y Materiales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo.
    Viswanathan, Nurin
    Centre of Excellence in Steel Technology (CoEST), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Gas-solid reaction route toward the production of intermetallics from their corresponding oxide mixtures2016In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 6, no 8, 190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Near-net shape forming of metallic components from metallic powders produced in situ from reduction of corresponding pure metal oxides has not been explored to a large extent. Such a process can be probably termed in short as the “Reduction-Sintering” process. This methodology can be especially effective in producing components containing refractory metals. Additionally, in situ production of metallic powder from complex oxides containing more than one metallic element may result in in situ alloying during reduction, possibly at lower temperatures. With this motivation, in situ reduction of complex oxides mixtures containing more than one metallic element has been investigated intensively over a period of years in the department of materials science, KTH, Sweden. This review highlights the most important features of that investigation. The investigation includes not only synthesis of intermetallics and refractory metals using the gas solid reaction route but also study the reaction kinetics and mechanism. Environmentally friendly gases like H2, CH4 and N2 were used for simultaneous reduction, carburization and nitridation, respectively. Different techniques have been utilized. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to accurately control the process conditions and obtain reaction kinetics. The fluidized bed technique has been utilized to study the possibility of bulk production of intermetallics compared to milligrams in TGA. Carburization and nitridation of nascent formed intermetallics were successfully carried out. A novel method based on material thermal property was explored to track the reaction progress and estimate the reaction kinetics. This method implies the dynamic measure of thermal diffusivity using laser flash method. These efforts end up with a successful preparation of nanograined intermetallics like Fe-Mo and Ni-W. In addition, it ends up with simultaneous reduction and synthesis of Ni-WN and Ni-WC from their oxide mixtures in single step.

  • 22.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Mousa, E.A.
    Minerals Technology Division, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, 87-Helwan, Cairo.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Process Integration Department, Swerea MEFOS.
    Viswanathan, Nurni
    Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Centre of Excellence in Steel Technology (CoEST), IIT Bombay.
    Recent Trends in Ironmaking Blast Furnace Technology to Mitigate CO2 Emissions: Top Charging Materials2016In: Ironmaking and Steelmaking Processes: Greenhouse Emissions, Control, and Reduction / [ed] Pasquale Cavaliere, Springer International Publishing , 2016, 101-124 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron- and steelmaking is the largest energy consuming in the industrial sectors. The high energy consumption is associated with emission of CO 2and other pollutants. The most common ironmaking process used in the world is the blast furnace which contributes around 70 % of the world’s steel production. Recently, blast furnace has undergone tremendous modifications and improvements to reduce the energy consumption and CO 2emissions. The modifications are being focused on two main approaches: (1) development of top charging materials and (2) injections of auxiliary fuels through blast furnace tuyeres. The present chapter will discuss the recent modifications and development in the top charging burden and how it could participate in minimizing the energy consumption and CO 2emissions for more efficient and sustainable iron and steel industry. The injection of auxiliaryfuels will be discussed in details in another chapter. The enhancement of burden material quality and its charging mode into the blast furnace has resulted in a smooth and efficient operation. Recently, the usage of nut coke in the modern blast furnace is accompanied by higher production and lower reducing agent rates. An efficient recycling of in-plant fines by its conversion into briquettes with proper mechanical strength is applied in some blast furnaces to exploit the iron- and carbon-rich residues. Nowadays, novel composite agglomerates consist of iron ores and alternative carbonaceous materials represent a new trend for low-carbon blast furnace with lower dependence on the conventional burden materials. The recent investigations demonstrated that the novel composites are able to reduce the thermal reserve zone temperature in the blast furnace and consequently enhance the carbon utilization through its higher reactivity compared to fossil fuels. The top charging of bioreducers and hydrogen-rich materials into the blast furnace is one of interesting innovations to mitigate the CO 2emissions. Although some of previous approaches are recently applied in the modern blast furnace, others are still under intensive discussions to enhance its implementations.

  • 23.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Nurni, Viswanathan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Composite pellets: a potential raw material for iron-making2014In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 85, no 3, 293-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coke constitutes the major portion of iron-making cost and its production causes severe environmental concerns. In addition, lower energy consumption, lower CO2 emission and waste recycling are driving the Iron and steel making industry to develop “coke free, zero waste or green processes”. In the present article, an overview of possible ways to recognize a reasonable improvement in iron and steel making industry is summarized. The present discussion is focusing on the following approaches: 1. Replacing expensive coke with relatively less expensive alternate fuels having carbon as well as significant amount of hydrogen such as coal, waste plastic and biomass materials.2. Producing agglomerates from cheaper raw materials (secondary resources) as well as improving their performance in BF.3.Making the process towards higher carbon utilization by shifting the wustite equilibrium towards lower CO/CO2 ratio by using high reactive coke or catalytic activated one.4.Recycling the unused CO in the top gas by removing CO2 from the gas stream.Much attention has been paid to carbon composite agglomerates (CCA) as a promising raw material for future iron making. Production, mechanical and chemical suitability, reduction behavior, etc. are being elaborated. In addition, other possible ways to utilize CCA in alternate iron-making process has been explored.

  • 24.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Nurni, Viswanathan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Isothermal reduction kinetics of self-reducing mixtures2017In: Ironmaking & steelmaking, ISSN 0301-9233, E-ISSN 1743-2812, Vol. 44, no 1, 66-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isothermal reduction of haematite carbon mixtures was investigated at temperatures 750–1100°C under inert atmosphere. Mass loss curves proved the stepwise reduction of haematite to metallic iron. The non-linear feature of haematite to magnetite reduction kinetics was observed and an activation energy of 209 kJ mol−1 was calculated. Irrespective of carbon-bearing material type, reduction rate of magnetite was linear. Activation energy values were calculated to be 293–418 kJ mol−1. Significant increase in the reduction kinetics in the last step (Wustite reduction) was observed and explained by the catalytic effect of freshly formed metallic iron. During the initial stages of wustite reduction, the activation energy values were calculated to be in the range of 251–335 kJ mol−1 for all carbon-bearing materials.

  • 25.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Nurni, Viswanathan
    Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Division of Materials Process Science, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH, Department of Metallurgy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Division of Metallurgy, Department of Materials Science and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Dynamic thermal diffusivity measurements: A tool for studying gas-solid reactions2011In: Diffusion in Solids and Liquids VI: selected, peer reviewed papers from the 6th International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids : mass transfer, heat transfer, microstructure & properties, nanodiffusion and nanostructured materials : DSL-2010, 5-7 July 2010, Paris, France / [ed] Andreas Öchsner; Graeme E. Murch ; João M.P.Q. Delgado, Durnten-Zurich: Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011, Vol. 312-315, 217-222 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the thermal diffusivity measurements of uniaxially cold pressed NiWO4 has been carried out. The measurements were performed isothermally at temperatures between 973 and 1273 K under H 2 gas using the laser flash technique. The experimental thermal diffusivity values were found to increase with the reduction progress as well as with increasing temperature. The calculated activation energy was found to be higher than that for chemically controlled reaction. The difference has been attributed to factors like agglomeration of the product as well as sintering of the precursor along with the chemical reaction. In order to sort out the sintering effect on the thermal diffusivity values, complementary experiments have been done on pressed NiWO 4 and Ni-W, produced by the reduction of NiWO 4 at 1123K, under Argon gas. The porosity change and its effect on thermal diffusivity values have been studied.

  • 26.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Persson, Amanda
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Sundqvist, Lena
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Energy Efficient Recycling of in-Plant Fines2014In: Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN 2010-376X, E-ISSN 2070-3740, Vol. 8, no 6, 485-491 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —Numerous amounts of metallurgical dusts and sludge containing iron as well as some other valuable elements such as Zn, Pb and C are annually produced in the steelmaking industry. These alternative iron ore resources (fines) with unsatisfying physical and metallurgical properties are difficult to recycle. However, agglomerating these fines to be further used as a feed stock for existing iron and steel making processes is practiced successfully at several plants but for limited extent. In the present study, briquettes of integrated steelmaking industry waste materials (namely, BF-dust and sludge, BOF-dust and sludge) were used as feed stock to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). Physical and metallurgical properties of produced briquettes were investigated by means of TGA/DTA/QMS in combination with XRD. Swelling, softening and melting behavior were also studied using heating microscope.

  • 27.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Persson, Amanda
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Sundqvist, Lena
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Utilization of Steelmaking Industry Waste Materials in Producing Direct Reduced Iron2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion of coke reserves and the raised environmental concerns motivated researchers to work on alternative iron-making processes. Large amount of metallurgical dusts and sludge containing iron and C are produced in the steelmaking industry. These alternative iron ore resources (fines) with poor hydrophilicity are difficult to recycle. The idea of briquetting such wastes containing iron to be used as a feed stock for steelmaking industry is practiced successfully at several plants.In the present study, agglomerates of integrated steelmaking industry waste materials were used as feed stock to produce direct reduced iron (DRI). The reduction behavior of blends of different waste materials (namely, BF dust and sludge, BOF dust and sludge) were investigated thoroughly utilizing TGA/DTA/QMS in combination with XRD.

  • 28.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Persson, Amanda
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Sundqvist-Ökvist, Lena
    Swerea MEFOS AB, Luleå tekniska universitet, SSAB Tunnplåt AB, LKAB.
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Reduction Behaviour of Self-reducing Blends of In-plant Fines in Inert Atmosphere2015In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 55, no 10, 2082-2089 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amount of dust and sludge recovered during cleaning of iron and steel making process gases are annually put on landfill or intermediate storage. These by-products have high contents of iron (Fe) and carbon (C) that potentially could be utilized in the steel industry. However, due to the presence of impuritycompounds as well as the unsuitable physical properties, these by-products cannot be recycled directly. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the possibilities to recover the valuable components Fe and C in these by-products and thereby decrease the need of landfills at the steel plants as well as reduce the consumption of virgin materials, including fossil coal, and reduce CO2 emissions. A recycling route has been investigated by means of laboratory trials and FactSage thermodynamic modeling. Four different blends of BF and BOF dusts and sludges are prepared in predetermined ratios. Reduction behavior of each blend is studied using TG/DTA/QMS and in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. High temperature physical properties like softening, swelling and melting are also investigated by means of heatingmicroscope. The obtained results indicate the feasibility of both minimizing the impurity elements as well as recovering of valuable components.

  • 29.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Isothermal dynamic thermal diffusivity studies of the reduction of NiO and NiWO4 precursors by hydrogen2011In: International Journal of Materials Research - Zeitschrift für Metallkunde, ISSN 1862-5282, E-ISSN 2195-8556, Vol. 102, no 11, 1336-1344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal diffusivity measurements of uniaxially cold pressed NiO and NiWO4 were carried out in a dynamic mode in order to monitor the kinetics of hydrogen reduction of the above-mentioned materials using a laser flash unit. The calculated activation energy was found to be higher than that for chemically-controlled reaction obtained earlier by thermogravimetry. The difference has been attributed to physical changes occurring along with the chemical reaction. The activation energy of sintering of the products was evaluated to be 33 and 36 kJ mol-1 for NiO and NiWO4, respectively. Thermal conductivities were calculated taking into consideration the change in heat capacity considering the compositional and the structural changes with the progress of the reaction. The potentiality of the laser-flash method as a complementary technique to thermogravimetry in understanding the mechanism of gas-solid reactions is discussed.

  • 30.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Reduction-Carburization of NiO-WO3 Under Isothermal Conditions Using H2-CH4 Gas Mixture2010In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 41, no 1, 173-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ni-W-C ternary carbides were synthesized by simultaneous reduction–carburization of NiO-WO3 oxide precursors using H2-CH4 gas mixtures in the temperature range of 973 to 1273 K. The kinetics of the gas–solid reaction were followed closely by monitoring the mass changes using the thermogravimetric method (TGA). As a thin bed of the precursors were used, each particle was in direct contact with the gas mixture. The results showed that the hydrogen reduction of the oxide mixture was complete before the carburization took place. The nascent particles of the metals formed by reduction could react with the gas mixture with well-defined carbon potential to form a uniform product of Ni-W-C. Consequently, the reaction rate could be conceived as being controlled by the chemical reaction. From the reaction rate, Arrhenius activation energies for reduction and carburization were evaluated. Characterization of the carbides produced was carried out using X-ray diffraction and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses. The grain sizes also were determined. The process parameters, such as the temperature of the reduction–carburization reaction and the composition of the gas mixture, had a strong impact on the carbide composition as well as on the grain size. The results are discussed in light of the reduction kinetics of the oxides and the thermodynamic constraints.

  • 31.
    Ahmed, Hesham
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Viswanathan, Nurni
    Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Centre of Excellence in Steel Technology (CoEST), IIT Bombay.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Division of Materials Process Science, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology .
    Gas-Condensed Phase Reactions: A Novel Route to Synthesize Alloys and Intermetallics Involving Refractory Metals2016In: Materials Today: Proceedings, E-ISSN 2214-7853, Vol. 3, no 9 Part B, 2951-2961 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduction and simultaneous reduction-carburization of oxide mixtures to get intermetallics and composite materials may open up shorter process routes towards the end-user needs. The use of natural gas or hydrogen would be environment-friendly. With these aims, the corresponding kinetics were studied by thermogravimetry, gas chromatography as well as laser-flash method. It was found that, under identical conditions, the Arrhenius activation energy for the reduction is proportional to the thermodynamic stability of the compound reduced. Intermetallics could be synthesized successfully and the product was found to have nanograins. Also, Metallic coating on copper surfaces was successfully developed.

  • 32.
    Ajayi, John Ade
    et al.
    Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure.
    Awe, Samuel Ayowole
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Recovery efficiency study on ilesha placer gold ore by flotation using locallysourced frothers and collectors2010In: XXV International Mineral Processing Congress: IMPC 2010, "Smarter processing for the future" : Brisbane, Australia 6-10 September 2010 : congress proceedings, Carlton, Vic: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2010, Vol. 2, 1695-1702 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research conducted by the defunct Nigerian Mining Corporation revealed that minable quantities of gold deposit are present over an expanse of Ilesha-Ife area. This optimism prompted several researchers to study the response of Ilesha gold ore to amalgamation and cyanidation. Unfortunately, these methods (amalgamation and cyanidation) are environmentally hazardous and the reagents are rather expensive when available. This is the thrust for this research which is aimed at studying the amenability of Ilesha placer gold ore to froth flotation which is environmentally friendly using locally-sourced reagents. The mineralogical study of the deposit was carried out and the result showed that the Ilesha placer deposit is non-refractory with fine-grained gold particles. Potassium salts of groundnut and palm kernel oils (as collectors) and their fatty acids (as frothers) were prepared and used to float gold concentrate from Ilesha placer gold ore. The following flotation parameters: pulp density, impeller speed, pulp pH, collector concentration and particle size analysis were optimised. The results obtained shows that optimum recovery of 91.8 per cent and 89.56 per cent of gold concentrates were obtained at pulp pH of 9, pulp density of 100 g/cm3, impeller velocity of 1350 rpm and mineral particle size range of -75 μm when potassium salts of groundnut and palmkernel oils were used respectively as collectors. Thus Ilesha placer gold ore is amenable to froth flotation using locally-sourced frothers and collectors.

  • 33.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sandström, Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hällström, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: Improve Resource Efficiency and Minimize Environmental Footprint2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The REMinE project is organized in five work packages that comprise: detailedcharacterization and risk assessment of the mine wastes selected (WP2), identification of new processing methods for mine waste (WP3), characterization and risk assessment of the remaining residuals (WP4), outlining business opportunities and environmental impact in a conceptual model for sustainable mining (WP5). The project comprises case studies of historical mine wastes from three different European countries, namely Portugal, Romania and Sweden. The interdisciplinary research collaboration in this project is innovative in the sense that separation of minerals and extraction of metals not only are basedon technical and economic gain but also considers the environmental perspective.

  • 34.
    Alatalo, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Charge dynamics in tumbling mills: simulation and measurements with an in-mill sensor2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Grinding is a process of reducing the particle size distribution of an extracted ore commonly performed in tumbling mills. The process is complex with many factors affecting the result, predominately the ores physical and chemical properties. The ore feed to a concentrator varies and optimisation is important, since grinding has high energy consumption and therefore is an expensive process. In an attempt to increase the knowledge of pebble mill grinding, experiments were performed with a pilot-scale mill at the LKAB R&D facilities at Malmberget. The purposes of the experiments were to investigate how the mill reacts to changes in the system and to find out how the grinding ability is affected by the changes. The first set of experiments concentrated on different operational settings, varying the filling degree, the volume-% solids and the percentage of critical speed of the mill. In the second set of experiments, different pebbles mixtures with varying magnetite content and different size fractions were tested. An interesting response variable (result) is the product size for the different operational conditions, since higher amount of fine material < 45 μm can be seen as a probable increase of production rate. The environment inside a mill is too harsh for direct measurements and there is a lack of knowledge of the events occurring inside the mill. Information on the events in the charge can be achieved by the use of different sensors. In the experiments, a Continuous Charge Measurement (CCM) system by Metso Minerals has been used to learn more about the charge dynamics. This system consists of a strain gauge detector embedded in one rubber lifter and measures the deflection as the lifter passes through the charge in the mill. The information received from the deflection curve is used in the evaluation of the experiments. The data from the experiments have been analysed with the aid of a statistical program. The analyses show that there will be an increased production of fines at low critical speed especially when the mill has high filling degree. This setting will also increase the power consumption but it improves the grindability of the ore even more. A higher degree of filling also give a smaller toe angle and a higher shoulder angle as expected. In addition, there is an advantage to keep the magnetite pebbles fraction as high as possible. This will increase the power consumption and maximum deflection of lifters, but at the same time increase the amount < 45 μm, the grindability and the pebbles consumption. A pebble size fraction of 10-35 mm will improve the grindability and amount < 45 μm. To further increase the understanding of charge dynamics, simulations are used to possibly illustrate the events inside the mill. However, for simulations to be reliable it demands that they are verified against process data. Previously, a series of experiments with a steel media charge were performed with the CCM system installed and this provides an opportunity to validate simulation results. The measured lifter deflection signal is used to compare with signals from two- and three-dimensional DEM simulations of the pilot-scale mill. The resulting deflection signals from simulation show that the three-dimensional case displays a better profile and the difference of toe and shoulder angles are less than in the twodimensional case. This means that the simulations are more reliable when they are run in three dimensions and they may be used to increase the understanding of the mill and its charge.

  • 35.
    Alatalo, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Conference in Minerals Engineering: Luleå, 2 -3 februari 20102010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Alatalo, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Conference in minerals engineering: Luleå, 3-4 februari 20092009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Alatalo, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Conference in Minerals Engineering: Luleå, 8-9 February 20112011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 38. Alatalo, Johanna
    et al.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Qualitative statistical analysis of simulated data from a pilot scale mill2011In: Particle-based Methods - Fundamentals and Applications / [ed] Eugenio Oñate; D.R.J. Owen, Barcelona: International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), 2011, 43-51 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grinding is the process of reducing a particle size distribution of an extracted ore and is commonly performed in a tumbling mill. It is a complex procedure and there is a lack of knowledge of what really happens inside the mill. A number of pilot-scale experiments were done at LKAB's pilot plant at Malmberget, Sweden [1]. In this particular pilot mill, a continuous charge measurement system is installed in one of the lifters and it gives a deflection signal produced by the mill charge. From this signal it is possible to detect features correlated to the settings of the mill. Large, real experiments are very difficult to control and are of course, very costly and time consuming. A 10 cm slice of the mill was simulated with discrete element method (DEM) for different mill operating conditions. From the simulations a deflection signal was extracted and validated against real data. There is a difference in the signal, mainly due to the lack of slurry in the simulations, but the behaviour when the mills operating conditions changes seems to be the same in both the simulated and the measured signals. To analyse the data from the simulation a statistical analysis on a full factorial design was done. Two levels of degree of filling of the mill, two different rotational speeds, two levels of friction and different types of particles were selected as factors. The response data are two angles: toe and shoulder angle. The toe angle is when the lifter hits the charge and the shoulder angle is when the lifter leaves the charge. The analysis show that the toe angle increases when the degree of filling is low and the rotational speed is high. It is also clear that the particle shape influences the charge behaviour. The simulated changes correspond to changes detected in pilot mill runs. This is important since it validates the DEM model. In essence, mill simulations are easily done and the changes of factor levels cause the simulated mill to react in similar manner as in real cases. One advantage is that in simulations one factor can be isolated and changed while the others are kept at constant values, which in turn creates the possibility to investigate one factor at a time. In real experiments, the factors are more dependent on each other and there is a very high disturbance from noise.

  • 39.
    Alatalo, Johanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Tano, Kent
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Comparing experimental measurements of mill lifter deflections with 2D and 3D DEM predictions2010In: Discrete element methods: simulations of discontinua : theory and applications / [ed] Antonio Munjiza, London: School of Advanced Study, University of London, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Alatalo, Johanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Tano, Kent
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Evaluation of data from a pilot scale pebble mill2011In: Conference in minerals engineering: Luleå, 8-9 February 2011 / [ed] Johanna Alatalo, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Alatalo, Johanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Tano, Kent
    LKAB, Research & Development, 983 81 Malmberget.
    Influence of charge type on measurements with an in-mill sensor2012In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 39, 262-267 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of grinding is complex with many factors affecting the result. As the composition of the ore fed to the concentrator varies, implying changes in grindability, the optimal operation conditions for a pebble mill will also vary. In an attempt to increase the understanding of charge dynamics, a series of statistically planned experiments were done in a pilot-scale pebble mill with differing charge types. This pebble mill is equipped with an in-mill sensor, which measures the deflection of a single lifter as it passes through the mill charge. The experimental setup was a factorial design with two factors; two levels of magnetite pebbles content and three different size distributions. The experiments show that there is an advantage to keep the magnetite pebbles proportion as high as possible. This will increase the power consumption and maximum deflection of the lifters, but at the same time increase the production of <45 μm material, the grindability and the pebbles consumption. A pebble size fraction 10–35 mm improves the grindability the most and the amount of <45 μm material. It is strongly suggested that the 10–35 mm and 100% magnetite pebbles fraction should be tested in a larger scale pebble mill to confirm these findings.

  • 42.
    Alatalo, Johanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Tano, Kent
    LKAB.
    Influence of pebble mill operating conditions on measurements with an in-mill sensor2011In: Minerals & metallurgical processing, ISSN 0747-9182, Vol. 28, no 4, 193-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autogenous grinding is a process of reducing the particle size distribution of an extracted ore by using the ore itself as the grinding media. It is a process that is difficult to control and there is a lack of knowledge of the events occurring inside the mill. To find out more about how the mill behaves under different processing conditions, a full factorial test was performed with iron ore in a pilot-scale pebble mill at the LKAB R&D facility in Malmberget. To complement this work, a strain gauge detector was embedded in one of the mill’s rubber lifters, the Metso Minerals continuous charge measurement (CCM) system, and was used to get more information about the charge dynamics. The data from the experiments has been analyzed. For production purposes, an increase in the number of particles smaller than 45 μm can be regarded as a probable increase in the production rate. The analysis shows that there will be an increase in fines at 65% of critical speed, especially when the mill is 45% full. This setting will also increase the power consumption, but improves the grindability of the ore even more. The deflection of the lifters is smaller for lower critical speeds. A higher degree of filling also gives a smaller toe angle and a higher shoulder angle as expected.

  • 43. Alatalo, Johanna
    et al.
    Öberg, Eva
    LKAB.
    Pålsson, Bertil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Verifierig av datorsimulerad kapacitetsökning vid anrikningsverket i Malmberget2006In: Konferens i mineralteknik / [ed] Marianne Thomaeus; Eric Forssberg, Föreningen Mineralteknisk Forskning / Swedish Mineral Processing Research Association , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Albertsson, Galina Jelkina
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Teng, Lidong
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Effect of the Heat Treatment on the Chromium Partition in Cr-Containing Industrial and Synthetic Slags2014In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 85, no 10, 1418-1431 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the effects of the slag composition and heat-treatment conditions on the phase relationships in a number of Cr-containing industrial and synthetic slags were investigated with a view to control the precipitation of Cr-spinel in the slag phase. Gas/slag equilibrium technique was used for the chromium partition and the phase relationship study. The phase relationships in synthetic slags and industrial EAF slags supplied by Swedish steelmaking plants have been investigated experimentally in the temperature range of 1473–1873 K. The slags were re-melted, slow-cooled to, and soaked at targeted temperatures in controlled atmosphere. Two different heat-treatment sequences were used in the present experiments. The oxygen partial pressure () was maintained by a suitable mixture of CO and CO2 gases. Phases present and their compositions in the quenched slags were studied using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The chromium content in the phases present was analyzed using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer (WDS). Chromium partition was found to depend on the heat-treatment temperature

  • 45.
    Albertsson, Galina Jelkina
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Process Science, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Teng, Lidong
    Division of Materials Process Science, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Effect of basicity on chromium partition in CaO-MgO-SiO2-Cr 2O3 synthetic slag at 1873 K2014In: Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy Section C - Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy, ISSN 0371-9553, E-ISSN 1743-2855, Vol. 123, no 2, 116-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present work is to get an understanding of the phase relationships in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-Cr2O3 system with a view to control the precipitation of Cr-spinel in the slag phase. The equilibrium phases in CaO-MgO-SiO2-Cr2O3 slag system at 1873 K (1600°C) have been investigated experimentally and compared with the results from thermodynamic calculations. The Cr2O 3 and MgO contents in the slag were fixed at 6 and 8 wt-% respectively. The basicity (CaO/SiO2) of slag was varied in the range 1·0-2·0. A gas/slag equilibrium technique was adopted to synthesise the slag at a high temperature in air. The samples were heated to and soaked at 1873 K (1600°C) for 24 h in order to achieve the equilibrium state and subsequently quenched in water. The chromium distribution and phase compositions in the quenched slag were studied using scanning electron microscope wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. FactSage software was used for the phase equilibrium calculations. The experimental results obtained from the present work were compared with the calculation results from FactSage software. It was found that the spinel formation at 1873 K (1600°C) is favoured in the slag basicity range 1·0-1·4

  • 46.
    Albertsson, Galina Jelkina
    et al.
    Division of Materials Process Science, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Teng, Lidong
    Division of Materials Process Science, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Division of Materials Process Science, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Effect of the heat treatment on the chromium partition in CaO-MgO-SiO2-Cr2O3 synthetic slags2013In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 44, no 6, 1586-1597 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mg-spinel phase is known to be important for control of Cr leaching from Cr-containing slags. The objective of the present study is to get an understanding of the phase relationships in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-Cr2O3 system with a view to control the precipitation of Cr-spinel in the slag phase. The equilibrium phases in CaO-MgO-SiO2-Cr2O3 slag system in the range of 1673 K to 1873 K (1400 °C to 1600 °C) have been investigated experimentally and compared with the results from thermodynamic calculations. The slag compositions close to the industrial slag systems were chosen. The Cr2O3 and MgO contents in the slag were fixed to be 6 and 8 wt pct, respectively. The basicity (CaO/SiO2) of the slag was varied in the range of 1.0 to 2.0. The slags were synthesized at a pre-determined oxygen partial pressure (10-4) or air (2.13 × 104 Pa) at a temperature above the liquidus temperature. The samples were then soaked at targeted temperatures for 24 hours in controlled atmosphere in order to achieve the equilibrium state before quenching in water. Four different heat-treatment regimes (defined as Ia, Ib, II.a and II.b) in Section II-D) were used in the present experiments. The lower oxygen partial pressure was maintained by a suitable mixture of CO and CO2 gases. Phases present and their compositions in the quenched slags were studied using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The chromium content in the phases present was analyzed using wavelength-dispersive spectrometer. The experimental results obtained are compared with the calculation results from Factsage software. The size of spinel crystals increased drastically after slow-cooling from 1873 K (1600 °C) followed by annealing at 1673 K (1400 °C) for 24 hours (heating regimes II) compared to samples being quenched directly after soaking at 1873 K (1600 °C) (heating regime I.a). It was found that the amount of foreign elements in the spinel phase, and other phases decreased after soaking at oxygen partial pressure of 10-4 Pa resulting in phases with less defects and foreign oxide contents compared to those treated in air. The size of spinel crystals was found to be larger in samples with lower basicity

  • 47.
    Albertsson, Galina
    et al.
    Division of Materials Process Science, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Teng, Lidong
    Division of Materials Process Science, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Björkman, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Seetharaman, Seshadri
    Division of Materials Process Science, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Effect of low oxygen partial pressure on the chromium partition in CaO–MgO–SiO2–Cr2O3–Al2O3 synthetic slag at elevated temperatures2013In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 84, no 7, 670-679 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present work is to get an understanding of the impact of Al2O3 addition on the phase relationships in the CaO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–Cr2O3 slags at low oxygen partial pressures ( = 10−4 Pa), with a view to control the precipitation of Cr-spinel in the slag. The equilibrium phases in CaO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–Cr2O3 slag system in the range on 1673–1873 K have been investigated. The compositions close to the industrial slag systems were chosen. The Cr2O3 content was fixed at 6 wt% and MgO at 8 wt%. Al2O3 contents in the slag were varied in the range of 3–12 wt%. The basicity (CaO/SiO2) of slag was set to 1.6. Gas/slag equilibrium technique was adopted. The samples were heated to 1873 K and soaked at this temperature for 24 h. The samples were then slow cooled to 1673 K and equilibrated for an additional 24 h. The oxygen partial pressure was kept at 10−4 Pa. A gas mixture of CO/CO2 was used to control the oxygen partial pressure. After the equilibration, the samples were quenched in water. The chromium distribution and phase compositions in the quenched slags were studied using SEM–WDS and XRD techniques. The results were compared with the phase equilibrium calculations obtained from FACTSAGE software and the samples equilibrated in air. The size of spinel crystals increased drastically after slow cooling followed by annealing compared to samples being quenched after soaking at 1873 K. It was also found that low oxygen partial pressure had a strong impact on chromium partition. The amount of spinel phase increases with increased Al2O3 content.

  • 48.
    Alexandrova, L.
    et al.
    Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Kota, Hanumantha Rao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Grigorov, L.
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Sofia.
    Pugh, R.J.
    Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-11486 Stockholm.
    The influence of mixed cationic-anionic surfactants on the three-phase contact parameters in silica-solution systems2011In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 373, no 1-3, 145-151 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of thin wetting films on silica surface from aqueous solution of a) tetradecyltrimetilammonium bromide (C14TAB) and (b) surfactant mixture of the cationic C14TAB with the anionic sodium alkyl- (straight chain C12-, C14- and C16-) sulfonates, was studied using the microscopic thin wetting film method developed by Platikanov. Film lifetimes, three-phase contact (TPC) expansion rates, receding contact angles and surface tension were measured. It was found that the mixed surfactants caused lower contact angles, lower rates of the thin aqueous film rupture and longer film lifetimes, as compared to the pure C14TAB. This behavior was explained by the strong initial adsorption of interfacial complexes from the mixed surfactant system at the air/solution interface, followed by adsorption at the silica interface. The formation of the interfacial complexes at the air/solution interface was proved by means of the surface tension data. It was also shown, that the chain length compatibility between the anionic and cationic surfactants controls the strength of the interfacial complex and causes synergistic lowering in the surface tension. The film rupture mechanism was explained by the heterocoagulation mechanism between the positively charged air/solution interface and the solution/silica interface, which remained negatively charged.

  • 49.
    Alexandrova, L.
    et al.
    Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
    Rao, K. Hanumantha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Grigorov, L.
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Sofia.
    Pugh, R.J.
    Three-phase-contact parameters measurements for silica-mixed cationic-anionic surfactant systems2009In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 348, no 1-3, 228-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability and interactions in thin wetting films between the silica surface and air bubble containing (a) straight chain C10 amine and (b) cationic/anionic surfactant mixture of a straight chain C10 amine with sodium C8, C10 and (straight chain) C12 sulfonates, were studied using the microscopic thin wetting film method developed by Platikanov [Platikanov D., J. Phys. Chem., 68 (1964) 3619]. Film lifetimes, three-phase contact (TPC) expansion rate, receding contact angles and surface tension were measured. The presence of the mixed cationic/anionic surfactants was found to lessen contact angles and suppresses the thin aqueous film rupture, thus inducing longer film lifetime, as compared to the pure amine system. In the case of mixed surfactants hetero-coagulation could arise through the formation of positively charged interfacial complexes. Mixed solution of cationic and anionic surfactants shows synergistic lowering in surface tension. The formation of the interfacial complex at the air/solution interface was confirmed by surface tension data. It was also shown, that the chain length compatibility between the anionic and cationic surfactants system controls the strength of the interfacial complex. The observed phenomena were discussed in terms of the electrostatic heterocoagulation theory, where the interactions can be attractive or repulsive depending on the different surface activity and charge of the respective surfactants at the two interfaces.

  • 50.
    Alexandrova, L.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Rao, K. Hanumantha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Forssberg, Eric
    Pugh, R.J.
    Grigorov, L.
    University of Sofia.
    Thin film studies in mixed cationic-anionic surfactant system2003In: Proceedings of the XXII International Mineral Processing Congress / [ed] Leon Lorenzen, Marshalltown, South Africa: South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2003, 838-846 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
1234567 1 - 50 of 1227
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