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  • 1.
    Amofah, Lea Rastas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    The influence of temperature, pH/molarity and extractant on the removal of arsenic, chromium and zinc from contaminated soil2011In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 11, no 8, 1334-1344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Normal soil washing leave high residual pollutant content in soil. The remediation could be improved by targeting the extraction to coarser fractions. Further, a low/high extraction pH and higher temperature enhance the pollutant removal, but these measures are costly. In this study, the utility of NaOH, oxalate-citrate (OC) and dithionite-citrate-oxalate (DCO) solutions for extracting of arsenic, chromium and zinc from contaminated soil were assessed and compared. In addition the effects of NaOH concentration and temperature on NaOH extractions, and those of temperature and pH on OC and DCO extractions, were evaluated. Materials and methods: A two-level, full-factorial design with a centre point was implemented. Two factors, concentration and temperature,were evaluated in NaOH extractions, and pH and temperature for OC and DCO solutions. In all cases, the extraction temperature was 20°C, 30°C and 40°C. The studied NaOH concentrations were 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 M. The pH in OC solutions was 3, 5 and 7, and in DCO solutions, 4.7, 6.3 and 6.7. Water-washed and medium coarse soil fraction of arsenic, chromium and zinc contaminated soil was agitated for 15 min with the extraction solution. Results and discussion: In NaOH extractions, the temperature and (less strongly) NaOH concentration significantly affected As and Cr mobilisation, but only the latter affected Zn mobilisation. Both pH and temperature significantly (and similarly) influenced As and Cr mobilisation in OC extractions, while only the pH influenced Zn mobilisation. In contrast, the extraction temperature (but not pH) influenced As, Cr and Zn mobilisation in DCO extractions. Conclusions: For all extractants, mobilisation was most efficient at elevated temperature (40°C). None of the extractants reduced the soil's As content to below the Swedish EPA's guideline value. Use of DCO is not recommended because dithionite has a short lifetime and residual arsenic contents in DCO-extracted soil are relatively high. Instead, sequential extraction with NaOH followed by OC solutions (affording significant reductions in As, Cr and Zn levels in the soil with short extraction times) at 40°C is recommended

  • 2.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aktivitet: Seminarium om användning av slam och aska som tätskikt på deponi2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Implementing a lab-developed liner recipe in a full scale cover construction: challenges, setbacks and success2012In: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, 40- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Andreas, Lale
    Langzeitemissionsverhalten von Deponien für Siedlungsabfälle in den neuen Bundesländern2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Langzeitemissionsverhalten von Deponien für Siedlungsabfälle in den neuen BundesländernZusammenfassungZiel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Beschreibung des Langzeitverhaltens von DDR-Depo­nien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Emissionen auf dem Sickerwasserpfad.Die Beschreibung umfaßte die untersuchten Deponiestandorte, die Deponierungspraxis in der DDR, cha­rak­teristische Eigenschaften der abgelager­ten Abfälle sowie der nach mehrjähriger Lage­rungs­zeit ausgekofferten Altabfallproben, die Sickerwasseremissionen der Deponie Döbeln-Hohenlauft, das Auslaugverhalten der Altabfälle in Mehrfachelutionsversuchen und die Sickerwasser- und Gas­emis­­sionen der Deponiesimulationsversuche.Als charakteristische Eigenschaften der DDR-Deponien, die für das Emissionsverhalten von Be­deu­tung sind, wurden folgende Punkte herausgearbeitet:langsames Deponiewachstum,fehlende oder sehr geringe Verdichtung,vergleichsweise intensive aerobe Prozesse zu Beginn der Ablagerung.Bedingt dadurch wurde ein Großteil der biologisch abbaubaren Bestandteile des Abfalls sehr schnell umgesetzt und trägt nicht zum langfristigen Emissionsverhalten bei.Die Abfallzusammensetzung von DDR-Altabfällen ist gekennzeichnet durch:hohe Anteile von Feinmaterial (bis zu 70 Masse% sind < 8mm),hohe Anteile mineralischer Stoffe, wie Aschen und Bauschutt,hohe Salzgehalte (Sulfat, Alkalien, Erdalkalien),eine hohe Säurepufferkapazität undgeringe Anteile organischer Abfälle.Dies führt zu einem wenig reaktiven Deponiekörper und den bei den meisten alten DDR-Depo­nien zu beobachtenden geringen Emissionen. Die wesentlichen Emissionen erfolgen auf dem Sicker­was­serpfad, die Hauptkomponente dabei sind anorganische Salze. Hinsichtlich der Zu­sam­mensetzung kön­nen die DDR-Deponien am ehesten mit Asche-/Schlackedeponien verglichen werden, die in Zu­kunft den wohl wichtigsten Deponietyp in Deutschland darstellen werden.Auf der Basis der Untersuchungen zur Feststoffzusammensetzung der Abfälle und ihres Auslaug- und Emissionsverhaltens wurden desweiteren Prozesse diskutiert, die in DDR-De­po­nien in der Ver­gan­genheit stattgefunden haben können bzw. die zukünftig möglich sind. Hierbei sind zu nennen:die Auslaugung von Salzen,Sulfatreduktion,Karbonatanreicherung im Feststoff.Mittels multivariater Datenanalyse konnte eine Einordnung der Deponieprozesse in eine späte an­aero­be Phase mit Tendenz zu semi-aeroben Prozessen hin vorgenommen werden. Die methodischen Unterschiede zwischen Mehrfachelutions- und DSR-Versuchen wurden genutzt, um biologische Prozesse in den DSR zu identifizieren und bewerten. Im Ergebnis der Untersuchungen in Deponiesimulationsreaktoren wurden langfristige Emissions­poten­tiale EP und notwendige Nachsorgezeiträume bis zum Erreichen von Grenzkonzentrationen im Sickerwasser abgeschätzt. Sie sind in Tabelle 1 als Medianwerte zusammengefaßt dargestellt. Die Auswertung langjähriger Sickerwassermeßreihen der Deponie Döbeln-Hohen­lauft bestätigte die Repräsentativität der DSR-Versuche und unterstützt die getroffenen Progno­sen.Tabelle 1 Notwendige Zeiträume TE bis zum Erreichen von umweltverträglichen Konzentra­tio­nen cE im Sickerwasser von DDR-Altdeponien [a] Grenzkonzen­tration cEDSR-EP(W-F ® ∞) Stoffaustrag FE bis cE [g/kg] W-FE bis cE [l/kg TS] Zeitraum TE bis cE [a]CSB200 mg/l0,60,20,557TOC 100 mg/l0,150,040,334NKj 70 mg/l0,250,091,2144Cl‾100 mg/l0,70,61,4167SO42‾250 mg/l2,72,61,5180 Die längsten Zeiträume sind für den Austrag von Stickstoff und Salzen, insbesondere des Sulfats, notwendig. Die Dauer wird im wesentlichen durch folgende Faktoren beeinflußt:Abfallzusammensetzung (Anteil neuer Abfälle auf den alten DDR-Deponien)WasserhaushaltLuftzutritt, Oxidation.Ein Ausblick auf das veränderte Emissionsgeschehen der nach 1990 weiter ­betriebenen DDR-Deponien zeigt, daß sich durch die Veränderungen in Ab­fall­zusam­men­setzung und Abla­ge­rungs­praxis das Deponieverhalten deutlich verschlechtert hat, und eine Annäherung des Emis­­sions­­niveaus an die Verhältnisse von Siedlungsabfalldeponien der 70er/80er Jahre in den alten Bun­des­län­dern zu verzeichnen ist.Die erwarteten Nachsorgezeiträume gehen z. T. deutlich über heute in der Praxis diskutierte Werte hinaus. Um den Zeitrahmen bis zum Erreichen umweltverträglicher Sickerwasserkonzentrationen so zu verkürzen, daß die bei der Deponierung anfallenden Probleme von der gleichen Generation gelöst werden, die sie verursacht hat, sind aktive Maßnahmen zur Emissionsminimierung unbedingt not­­wendig.

  • 5. Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Bilitewski, Bernd
    University of Technology Dresden, Pirna.
    Effects of waste quality and landfill technology on the long-term behaviour of municipal landfills1999In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 17, no 6, 413-423 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pollution potential of old municipal landfills of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) is not as bad as expected, even taking into consideration that most lack environmental protection systems. Compared with specific conditions in the former GDR (such as production and consumption), the disposal of waste and the long-term behaviour of landfills clearly differs from that in the old German federal states. Low quantities of deposited waste created slowly growing landfills, and therefore led to rapid degradation processes still in the aerobic milieu. As a result of the increasing similarity of waste quantities and composition in the new and old federal states after 1990, waste deposited today can be expected to have similar long- term behaviour and emissions as existing old Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) landfills which were operating during the 1970s and 1980s.

  • 6.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydraulic performance of a land-fill top cover based on steel slag2014In: Sardinia 2013: 14th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Forte Village, S. Margherita di Pula (CA), Italy, 30 September - 4 October 2013 ; CD-ROM: Symposium proceedings / [ed] Raffaello Cusso, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE OF A LAND¬FILL TOP COVER BASED ON STEEL SLAGThe steel industry is expanding and following the amount of produced steel, more and more by-products and residuals are generated. About 17.6 million tonnes of steel slags arise in Europe every year. In Sweden about 18 % of the iron- and steelmaking slags are landfilled (Jernkontoret, 2012). One application for steel slags are landfill covers where large amounts of virgin materials are needed. The legal requirement in Sweden is directed towards the maxi¬mum amount of lea¬chate generated at the bottom of the landfill: < 5 and < 50 l (m2*a)-1 for landfill class 1 and 2, respec¬ti¬vely. To secure these demands, a layer of low permeability is needed to reduce water infiltration. The hydraulic load of this layer ought to be controlled by a protective water balance layer and an effective drainage layer.Previous investigations indicate that steel slags can be used as construction material for both liner and drainage layer (Herrmann et al., 2010). In order to verify this in full scale, five tests areas (A1-5) were constructed at a municipal landfill in Sweden between 2005 and 2011. The areas were designed using different mixtures of steel slags from the local steel company in the liner. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic performance of the cover during the first years after installation.The design of the cover construction was varied like this: a mixture of 50 % electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) and 50 % ladle slag (LS) was tested as liner material in the first test area (A1). A2 and A3 were built using less LS and coarser fractions of EAFS since laboratory tests had given satisfactory results also for these recipes. High infiltration rates in A2 and 3 led to a return to the original weight proportions in A4 and 5, yet another EAF slag was introduced in these areas. The mixing and construction techniques were refined during the first years of the project time: while A1 was built with rather poorly conceived technique, as of A3 the method can be considered as technically mature and approved.The liner performance was evaluated by lysimetry: 10 lysimeters were installed below each test area. The infiltration below the liner corresponded to 44, 74, 71, 19 and 0.4 l/m2*year for A1 to A5. Compared to the legal limit of 50 l/m2*year, the covers of A2 and A3 allowed about 50 % more water to enter the landfill than stipulated.An initial increase of the infiltration was observed, which most likely is related to increasing water saturation of the liner material in the first period after construction. The saturation occurred fastest in A2, where basically no initial increase was observed, probably due to the long time that elapsed between construction and the first sampling event (260 days). In contrast, the saturation in A1 and A4 was quite slow which can be related to the smaller particle size of the slags in these areas and, hence, a less porous liner material. The decrease in A2 and A3 might be explained by mineral transformations within the slag matrix such as carbonation of calcium and magnesium leading to the precipitation of carbonates in the pores of the liner material. Future observations will show if the decreasing trend in A2 and A3 remains such that the infiltration eventually reaches a level falling below the legal limit.The results show that the infiltration criteria can be fulfilled under the condition that at least 50 % of the liner mix consists of ladle slag, a fine-grained slag with cementitious properties. With few adaptations the steel slag can be used with standard construction processes.

  • 7.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Steel slags in a landfill top cover: Experiences from a full-scale experiment2014In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 3, 692-701 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A full scale field study has been carried out in order to test and evaluate the use of slags from high-alloy steel production as the construction materials for a final cover of an old municipal landfill. Five test areas were built using different slag mixtures within the barrier layer (liner). The cover consisted of a foundation layer, a liner with a thickness of 0.7 m, a drainage layer of 0.3 m, a protection layer of 1.5 m and a vegetation layer of 0.25 m. The infiltration varied depending on the cover design used, mainly the liner recipe but also over time and was related to seasons and precipitation intensity. The test areas with liners composed of 50% electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and 50% cementitious ladle slag (LS) on a weight basis and with a proper consistence of the protection layer were found to meet the Swedish infiltration criteria of ⩽50 l (m2 a)−1 for final covers for landfills for non-hazardous waste: the cumulative infiltration rates to date were 44, 19 and 0.4 l (m2 a)−1 for A1, A4 and A5, respectively. Compared to the precipitation, the portion of leachate was always lower after the summer despite high precipitation from June to August. The main reason for this is evapotranspiration but also the fact that the time delay in the leachate formation following a precipitation event has a stronger effect during the shorter summer sampling periods than the long winter periods. Conventional techniques and equipment can be used but close cooperation between all involved partners is crucial in order to achieve the required performance of the cover. This includes planning, method and equipment testing and quality assurance.

  • 8. Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Ecke, Holger
    Shimaoka, T.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Characterizing landfill phases at full-scale with the aid of test cells1999In: Sardinia 99: proceedings / Seventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, [4 - 8 October 1999, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy]. / [ed] Thomas H. Christensen, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 1999, Vol. 1, 145-152 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Jannes, Sara
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Mellström, Anna
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Energi AB.
    Chemical and hydraulic conditions in a landfill/deposit for wood-based ash2004In: The 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium November 29th - December 2nd, 2004 in Toya, Hokkaido Japan / [ed] Morton Barlaz; Anders Lagerkvist; Toshihiko Matsuto, Hokkaido: Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, 2004, 121-129 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10. Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mácsik, Josef
    Ecoloop, Stockholm.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Use of secondary materials in landfill constructions2007In: SARDINIA 2007: Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [1 - 5 October 2007, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many landfills are subject to closure in the near future. Roughly 2,000 hectares of land­fill area have to be covered only in Sweden, equivalent to about 100 million tonnes of construction material. In addition to material costs in the order of tens of billions Euro, this also puts a strain on the environment through the exploitation of non-renewable virgin construction materials. Many landfill operators are considering alternative cover designs and materials in order to reduce resource spending. However, there is a fair amount of uncertainty with regard to functional and environmental consequences of using alternative (secondary) materials, both from the side of the companies and the authorities. This paper gives an overview over potential waste based construction materials and the use of some of them in projects presently ongoing in Sweden.Research on the use of secondary materials in landfill covers is quite recent. Substitutes for natural or synthetic materials in a landfill cover can be various types of waste from process industry, construction and demolition, or comparable activities. Alter­na­tive mate­rials that have been investigated are ashes, slags, sewage and fibre sludges, treated soils and com­post. Table 1 gives an overview over potential waste based construction materials. The total of potential materials is well in excess of the material needs for landfill construction, but they may not be available at the right time, place or quality.Besides being economically viable, the substitute materials should have suitable technical and environmental properties in order to secure a proper function of the construction. Experiences from three field studies (landfills at Tveta/Södertälje, Hagfors and Alvkarleby) are discussed looking at relevant issues during 1) construction, 2) active after care phase, and 3) long term processes.Using SCM poses additional problems compared to using conventional materials. Often, the supply of material has to be planned in advance and the materials may have to be stored on site. Storing, however, can cause problems if the materials have properties that change over time e.g. due to climate. For other materials storing may be necessary in order to achieve desired properties. One example is the ageing of strongly alkaline materials that react with atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus obtain better leaching properties. Table 1 Overview over potential waste based construction materials and examplesSourceExamplesMining and mineral industryWaste rock, flotation sand, etc...Construction and demolition (C&D)Crushed concrete, gypsum, asphalt, reinforced polymers, woodProcess industryDifferent types of slag from steel making, green liquor and fibre sludge from paper production, ashes and foundry wastesWastewater treatmentDigested sewage sludge, sandIncinerationBottom ash, fly ashThe evidence is mounting that the desired technical function of a landfill cover can be attained using suitable combinations of secondary construction materials. So far, all three field tests indicate leachate amounts between less then one and 30 l (m2 yr)-1 below the liner. In comparison with the average annual precipitation of about 600 mm yr-1 at the Swedish East coast, only 0.2-5 % of the precipitation seeped through the liner so far; i.e. the leachate generation is reduced with about 90 % or more.The issue is more if the materials may cause adverse impacts of the landfill and its recipients. A low water infiltration through the liner means that the most of infiltrating water is removed as drainage water and thus the leaching of the layers above the liner are of the greatest concern.Infiltrating water will yield a liquid to solid ratio of about 1-2 l kg-1 in the layers above the liner after about 10 years. The most mobile elements, such as nitrogen, will be leached to a great extent already at such low L/S ratios, so a forecast with regard to the need of treatment of drainage water points at about two to three decades.In the long term perspective the mineral changes of the construction materials become important. E.g. one of the incentives for using fly ash in liners is their capacity for chemical-mineralogical changes leading to the formation of clay-like structures. This could mean that a liner built of ashes will attain a lower permeability over time. Other mineral changes that can occur in ashes include the trapping of metals in the structure, e g in clay and carbonate phases.Much is still to be learned about the long term processes and the factors that control them. Ongoing studies include the assessment of climatic variables, different material combinations as well as the impact of landfill gases.The following conclusions can be drawn:The use of secondary materials in construction is important due to substantial resource and environmental impacts. An increased use should be beneficial, provided that the problems of using such materials can be managed.In addition to legislative and bureaucratic barriers, there are also practical issues which need to be dealt with in order to pave the way for a wider use of alternative construction materials. In the construction phase more planning is needed due to temporal and geographical limitation of the material availability. Some materials are not ready for immediate use but need to be pre-treated. All of these factors may cause a need for more space and time. A system for quality assurance comparable to that of traditional construction materials is another issue that needs to be resolved. Most likely some kind of legislative pressure is needed for this.In the medium term leaching of pollutants from the construction materials may be the most important issue when using secondary construction materials, which underlines the double standards applied, since traditional construction materials will not be scrutinized in the same manner. Anyhow, the long term interactions between materials and their environment need to be considered and further studies are necessary for secondary construction materials as well as for conventional materials. Existing data indicate both possibilities and problems.In the long term issues of material interactions will remain and the mechanical impact of mineral changes in the secondary construction materials may be added to the list of issues to clarify. Some of the material changes may be beneficial for the function of the construction, e.g. clay formation in liner materials may make them more impervious, but there may also be negative changes caused by deteriorated material properties. The rate and extent of such processes and the factors that enhance or retard them need to be understood better.Secondary construction materials have always been used and some of the "traditional" materials used today were wastes before. There is no reason to believe that this development should not continue.

  • 11.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Utvärdering av fullskaleanvändning av askor och andra restprodukter vid sluttäckning av Tveta Återvinningsanläggning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2000 Telge Återvinning - a waste management recycling company - started investigating ashes from incineration of industrial and biowaste waste. The company was given a permit from the Swedish Environmental Court to cover four hectares of the house hold waste landfill area. In 2006 the company received an unlimited permit to cover the remaining part of the landfill when the works end some thirty years later.Ashes were used the first time in 1966 for testing. Literature studies indicated the ashes can have a low hydraulic conductivity under certain conditions. In 1999 collaboration started with the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleå University of Technology.Residuals from household and industrial waste were subject to investigation. Initially, biowaste incineration products were subject to testing and were later extended to other waste products, e.g. sludge, contaminated soils, foundry, and compost material. Several different sub-fractions of ashes were included in the investigation e.g. bottom and fly ash, various slag products after up-grading including dewatering, separation and sifting. Subsequently, a complete covering system of a landfill consists of residuals.Six test areas were outlined in order to give a good representation for cover construction in flat and steep areas with different compositions of liner material.The results show that in all areas the hydraulic conductivity construction yields less then 50 liters per square meters and years and can be less the than 5 liters in a repository for hazardous waste if required. In accordance with literature data the field observations show the liner material constructed only by ash material under certain conditions can form a monolithic structure due to very slow processes thus indicating small pore volumes that unable water - air to interact with other media.The concept of using ash can be related to natural analogues of volcanic ashes and has been used in old defence walls and other buildings thousand years back. The last part of the report brings a number of topics for future research and a discussion about problems to with the authorities to use residuals for covering landfills.

  • 12.
    Andreas, Lale
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Sweco AB.
    Leaching behaviour of ashes in a landfill cover construction2012In: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, 39- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Arm, Maria
    et al.
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Vestin, Jenny
    Statens Geotekniska Institut.
    Lind, Bo
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nordmark, Desiree
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hallgren, Per
    Skogsstyrelsen.
    Pulp mill fly ash for stabilization of low-volume unpaved forest roads: field performance2014In: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 41, no 11, 955-963 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased temperatures and rainfalls will give more settlements and less bearing capacity in gravel roads, which will have implications for the forestry. Pulp mill fly ash without additives was used for stabilizing the road base of a low-volume gravel road. A two-year monitoring of the road was conducted, including measurements of achieved ash content, density, water infiltration capacity, and load bearing capacity. The results showed that the ash-stabilized sections performed better than conventionally upgraded sections and also achieved increased bearing capacity over time. Hydration of the fly ash increased the stiffness and decreased the permeability of the road base. The differences were more pronounced during spring thaw. Best performance was achieved in the section with thicker ash stabilized layer.

  • 14.
    Ascher, J.
    et al.
    University of Florence.
    Ceccherini, M.T.
    University of Florence.
    Guerri, G.
    University of Florence.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Landi, L.
    University of Florence.
    Mench, Michel
    Bordeaux 1 University.
    Nannipieri, P.
    University of Florence.
    Pietramellara, G.
    University of Florence.
    Renella, Giancarlo
    University of Florence.
    Is microbial species richness increased by aided phytostabilization of trace element contaminated soils?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Asplund, Erik
    et al.
    inno Scandinavia AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Heydebreck, Peter
    inno AG.
    Dahlén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Norberg, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Framsyn för Norrbotten och Västerbotten: en idéskrift om utvecklingsinsatser idag och imorgon2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapport från DARE delprojekt regional framsyn. Etapp 1; scenarier och förslag på aktiviteter.Detta dokument är slutrapporten från den regionala framsynsprocessen som drevs 2008-2009 inom projektet DARE – Development Arena for Research and Entrepreneurship.Framsynen har verkat efter ett normativt och handlingsinriktat angreppssätt. Ledmotiv för processen har varit frågor som: Hur vill vi ha det? Varför är det inte så nu? Vad behöver vi göra nu och i framtiden? Regionen kan sägas kännetecknas av att den är rik på naturresurser och fattig på folk. Det är bakgrunden till de fokusområden som framsynen behandlat- Grönare näringsliv (hur kan nya och miljöeffektivare produkter och tjänsterutvecklas effektivare?)- Demografiutveckling (hur kan samhällsfunktionerna bestå med inverteradebefolkningspyramider och hur kan utvecklingen mot en åldrande befolkningvändas?)Lite tvärs över båda frågorna ovan hamnar ett annat fokus; regionens attraktivitet. Inom detta område har en ung framsyn genomförts med deltagare från olika delar av Norrbotten.Framsynen har gått steg för steg genom visioner, analys av framgångsfaktorer, scenarieskapande, förslag på åtgärder och prioritering av dessa. Under genomförandet har det uppstått ett antal avknoppningar i form av t ex nya samarbeten och projekt. Ett av de sistnämnda var den unga framsynen som genomfördes med finansiering av Norrbottens läns landsting.Bland de prioriterade förslagen som redovisas i denna rapport dominerar olika aktiviteter för att knyta samman olika aktörer och grupper inom regionen och på så sätt göra mer av mindre. Många av förslagen visar regionala aktörers förväntningar på universitetens roll i den regionala utvecklingen och markerar ett intresse av tätare samverkan meduniversiteten. Förslagen berör alla verksamheter inom universiteten, såväl utbildning, forskning och förvaltning. Bland de prioriterade förslagen finns:• Stimulera gröna affärs och teknikutvecklingsallianser för regionens småföretag• Stimulera ”den lille forskaren” – en modell för småföretagens forskarkollektiv• Utred grönare näringsliv som gemensamt profilområde för regionens universitet• Stärk företagsnyttig forskning & utvecklingsinsatser kring ”age management”• Etablera ett ”integrationsnätverk” för universitetens studenter & det regionalasamhället• Utveckla dialogen mellan universiteten & avnämargrupper i utvecklingen avutbildningar • Skapa regionalt utvecklingslab för bättre samverkan mellan universiteten ochomgivande samhälleInom DARE-projektet kommer nu det material som utvecklats inom framsynsprocessen att användas för utveckling av samverkan inom universiteten, mellan universiteten och med andra intressenter av den regionala utvecklingen, inte minst då de som deltagit i framsynen.

  • 16.
    Barlaz, Morton
    et al.
    North Carolina State University.
    Lagerkvist, AndersLuleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.Matsuto, ToshihikoHokkaido University.
    Proceedings from the 3rd Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Toya Lake, Japan, November 29 - December 2, 2004. ICLRS proceedings2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bergman, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Characterisation of industrial wastes1996Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Carbonate precipitation in alkaline wastes1996In: 12th International conference on solid waste technology and management, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonate precipitation is known to occur in landfilled ashes and is often reported as a problem because of the precipitates tendency to clog drains and other leachate transport facilities. The Up-take of carbon dioxide by alkaline wastes and leachates will influence their properties e.g.; The hydraulic and gas conductivity of solid wastes will decrease as carbonates precipitate in the pores of the waste. The pH will change towards neutral values as carbonates form changing the mobility of metals and other elements A neutral pH will also allow biological reactions to act on the waste, especially if the waste contain organic material as e.g. ashes often do. Adding carbon dioxide to wastes can thus be a cheap and powerful treatment, yielding a less hazardous waste.

  • 19.
    Bergman, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Metanoxidation i täckskikt på avfallsupplag1995Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Bert, Valérie
    et al.
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Neu, S.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Wood and Plant Chemistry.
    Zdanevitch, Isabelle
    NERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang
    AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Energy Department.
    Collet, Serge
    INERIS, Sources and Emissions Unit, DRC/CARA, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Gaucher, Rodolphe
    INERIS, Clean and Sustainable Technologies and Processes Unit, DRC/RISK, Parc Technologique Alata.
    Puschenreiter, Markus
    University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna – BOKU, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences.
    Müller, Ingo
    Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    How to manage plant biomass originated from phytotechnologies?: Gathering perceptions from end-users2017In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 19, no 10, 947-954 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey was carried out in 4 European countries to gather end-user's perceptions of using plants from phytotechnologies in combustion and anaerobic digestion (AD). 9 actors of the wood energy sector from France, Germany and Sweden, and 11 AD platform operators from France, Germany and Austria were interviewed. Questions related to installation, input materials, performed analyses, phytostabilization and phytoextraction. Although the majority of respondents did not know phytotechnologies, results suggested that plant biomass from phytomanaged areas could be used in AD and combustion, under certain conditions. As a potential advantage, these plants would not compete with plants grown on agricultural lands, contaminated lands being not suitable for agriculture production. Main limitations would be related to additional controls in process' inputs and end-products and installations that might generate additional costs. In most cases, price of phytotechnologies biomass was mentioned as a driver to potentially use plants from metal-contaminated soils. Plants used in phytostabilisation or phytoexclusion were thought to be less risky and, consequently, benefited from a better theoretical acceptance than those issued from phytoextraction. Results were discussed according to national regulations. One issue related to the regulatory gap concerning the status of the plant biomass produced on contaminated land.

  • 21.
    Beylich, Achim A.
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Botanical Institute, Plant Ecology, Gothenburg University.
    Luthbom, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gintz, Dorothea
    Institute for Geological Sciences, Hydrogeology, Free University of Berlin.
    Rates of chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation in an arctic oceanic periglacial environment, Latnjavagge drainage basin, northernmost Swedish Lapland2005In: Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine research, ISSN 1523-0430, E-ISSN 1938-4246, Vol. 37, no 1, 75-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A process geomorphological investigation was started in 1999 to study present denudation rates and the mutual relationship of chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation in periglacial environments. Latnjavagge (9 km2; 950-1440 m a.s.l.; 68°20'N, 18°30'E) was chosen as a representative drainage basin of the arctic-oceanic mountain area in northernmost Swedish Lapland. Atmospheric solute inputs, chemical denudation, and mechanical fluvial denudation were analyzed. During the arctic summer field seasons of 2000, 2001, and 2002 measurements of daily precipitation, solute concentrations in precipitation, and in melted snow cores, taken before snowmelt, were recorded. In addition, solute and suspended sediment concentrations in creeks were analyzed, and bedload tracer movements were registered during the entire summer seasons (end of May until beginning of September). Results show a mean annual chemical denudation net rate of 5.4 t km-2 yr-1 in the entire catchment. Chemical denudation in Latnjavagge is less than one third of chemical denudation rates reported for Kärkevagge (Swedish Lapland) but seems to be at a similar level as in a number of other subarctic, arctic, and alpine environments. Mechanical fluvial denudation is lower than chemical denudation. Most sediment transport in channels occurs in the early summer season during a few days with snowmelt generated runoff peaks. The main sediment sources in the drainage basin are mobilized channel bed pavements exposing fines, ice patches/fields, and material mobilized by slush flows. The calculated mean mechanical fluvial denudation rate is 2.3 t km-2 yr-1 at the inlet of lake Latnjajaure, situated in Latnjavagge close to the outlet of the valley. A very stable vegetation cover and rhyzosphere in this environment mainly explain the low value. The mean mechanical fluvial denudation rate at the outlet of the entire Latnjavagge drainage basin, below lake Latnjajaure, is only 0.8 t km-2 yr-1. Both chemical and mechanical fluvial denudation show low intensity. The results from Latnjavagge support the contention that chemical denudation is a somewhat important denudational process in periglacial environments.

  • 22.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Vahter, Marie E.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Jaresjö, Jerker
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Nieuwegein.
    Sparrenbom, Charlotta Jönsson
    Department Geology, Quaternary Sciences, Lund University.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Donselaar, Marinus Eric
    Department of Geoscience and Engineering, Delft Univ. of Technology.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Naidu, Ravi
    Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), Faculty of Science & Information Technology, The University of Newcastle.
    Editors’ foreword2016In: Arsenic Research and Global Sustainability: Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, AS 2016 / [ed] Bhattacharya, Prosun; Vahter, Marie; Jarsjo, Jerker; Kumpiene, Jurate; Charlotte, Sparrenbom, London: CRC Press, 2016, xlv-xlvi p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bjurström, Henrik
    et al.
    ÅF-Industry AB.
    Lind, B.B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Unburned carbon in combustion residues from solid biofuels2014In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 117, no Part A, 890-899 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unburned carbon (UC) in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels has been examined using several methods of analysis (including LOI and TOC) as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. The concentration of unburned carbon in the residues varied over an order of magnitude and in several samples accounted for about 10% of the ash mass. It was observed that TOC had a poor correlation to organic carbon, especially for fly ashes. LOI at all tested temperatures showed a better correlation than TOC to the organic carbon content, whereas the TOC is better correlated to elemental carbon. LOI550 gave a larger variation and a less complete mobilisation of unburned carbon than LOI at 750 or 975 °C did, but at the highest temperature metal oxidation was notably affecting the mass balance to the extent that some samples gained mass. For this reason, and of the temperatures tested, LOI750 seem to be the most stable indicator for organic remains in the incineration residuals. Most of the unburned carbon is elemental, and only slowly degradable, so the potential emissions of organic compounds from ashes should not be assessed by using a TOC test. The structure of the detected elemental carbon in UC is similar to that of activated carbon, which indicates a potentially large specific surface. This should be borne in mind when assessing the environmental impact of using ash for different purposes, including use as a construction material. Field studies are needed to verify the actual impact as it may depend on environmental conditions.

  • 24.
    Bogner, Jean E.
    et al.
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Early diagenesis of garbage: landfills as engineered anoxic basins1996In: Geological Society of America, 28th annual meeting, Denver, CO, United States, Oct. 28-31, 1996, Geological Society of America, 1996, 257- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Early diagenesis of buried organic carbon in anoxic basins is dominated by microbial decomposition processes at temperatures and pressure slightly above ambient. Such conditions also describe decomposition of refuse in sanitary landfills and provide a reasonable model for systematic studies of their long-term geochemistry. For shorter time frame (decades), controlled high-solids anaerobic digestion systems provide a second model for investigation of optimized landfill systems. In this paper, we introduce both models through a series of preliminary mass-balances to develop a realistic overview of landfill processes, especially emphasizing carbon cycling in field settings over various time-frames. The terminal product of short-term anaerobic decomposition is methane--produced by methanogenic bacteria from some fraction of organic carbon landfilled. Laboratory studies of optimized landfill systems (ours and from the literature) indicate that, at best, 25-45% of organic carbon is converted to biogas carbon (methane and carbon dioxide); such percentages are rarely attained in field settings. Most of the methane is produced from cellulosic substrates while lignin substrates are recalcitrant, with lignin carbon entering sedimentary storage for time frames longer than the four decades of widespread landfilling experience in the U.S. and western Europe. Over time frames in excess of centuries, further transformations via kerogen pathways are possible but highly speculative. Certainly, exhumation of old refuse at archeologic sites indicates that organic carbon preservation can be documented for at least one or two millenia. From controlled incubation of unamended field samples and from field studies of net methane emissions, it is clear that rates of methane production and consumption both vary of several orders of magnitude in field settings; their dynamic are rapid and complex spatially and temporally. Unraveling these dynamics is necessary to suggest the overall relevance of these engineered anoxic basins to issues of atmospheric methane increases and terrestrial carbon storage.

  • 25.
    Bolan, Nanthi
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia.
    Kunhikrishnanc, Anitha
    Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science.
    Thangarajan, Ramya
    Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Park, Jinhee
    Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, University of Queensland.
    Makino, Tomoyuki
    Soil Environmental Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba.
    Kirkham, Mary Beth
    Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Kansas State University.
    Scheckel, Kirk
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 5995 Center Hill Avenue, Cincinnati.
    Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils: To mobilize or to immobilize?2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 266, 141-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    nlike organic contaminants, metal(loid)s do not undergo microbial or chemical degradation and persist for a long time after their introduction. Bioavailability of metal(loid)s plays a vital role in the remediation of contaminated soils. In this review, the remediation of heavy metal(loid) contaminated soils through manipulating their bioavailability using a range of soil amendments will be presented. Mobilizing amendments such as chelating and desorbing agents increase the bioavailability and mobility of metal(loid)s. Immobilizing amendments such of precipitating agents and sorbent materials decrease the bioavailabilty and mobility of metal(loid)s. Mobilizing agents can be used to enhance the removal of heavy metal(loid)s though plant uptake and soil washing. Immobilizing agents can be used to reduce the transfer to metal(loid)s to food chain via plant uptake and leaching to groundwater. One of the major limitations of mobilizing technique is susceptibility to leaching of the mobilized heavy metal(loid)s in the absence of active plant uptake. Similarly, in the case of the immobilization technique the long-term stability of the immobilized heavy metal(loid)s needs to be monitored.

  • 26.
    Brundin, Herman
    et al.
    SÖRAB.
    Kihl, Anders
    Rang-Sells Avfallsbehandling AB.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pusch, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rihm, Thomas
    RVF service AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge Återvinning AB.
    Långtidsegenskaper hos tätskikt innehållande bentonit2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bentonit är en starkt vattenupptagande och svällande naturlig lera med låg vattengenomsläpplighet. Huvudkomponenten är mineralet montmorillonit, som tillhör gruppen smektiter och som ger bentoniten dess unika egenskaper. Syftet med uppdraget är att söka identifiera vilka mekanismer och faktorer som kan vara begränsande för funktionen på kort och lång sikt hos tätskikt innehållande bentonitmattor samt blandningar av bentonit och andra material. I rapporten ges underlag för projektering, utformning och drift av deponier med tätskikt innehållande bentonit. Där redovisas också tre fallstudier från Högbytorp, Löt och Tveta.

  • 27.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Accelerate ageing of refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ashes2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ashes have properties that can be exploited in various applications, e.g. some ashes can be used in the construction of barriers in a landfill final top cover. A landfill top cover is a multilayer construction that protects the environment in several ways, for instance hindering gas emissions from the landfill body and water infiltration into the waste.Impervious natural materials like clay, synthetic materials like geomembranes or bentonite carpets, geosynthetic clay liners or combinations of such materials are commonly used in landfill top cover constructions. Since differential settlement may occur and the lifetimes of the synthetic materials are uncertain, it is advantageous to use thick mineral constructions. There is a great need for these materials, and substantial savings of resources can be made if alternative waste materials, like ashes, are used. Currently, ashes are either landfilled or used as construction materials. They are subject to weathering processes, including physical, chemical and mineralogical changes caused (inter alia) by fluctuations of temperature and humidity, atmospheric gases or acid rain. Ashes contain various potentially hazardous and non-hazardous chemical compounds. Therefore, precautions must be taken to avoid leaching of substances such as heavy metals into the surrounding environment. Mineral phases that are initially present and/or that form during the ageing are primarily responsible for the immobilization or leaching of diverse metals and salts. Newly formed mineral phases like clay minerals are of main interest, because of their very high cation exchange capacity, swelling and expansion properties.The conditions found in a landfill environment are likely to favour clay mineral formation. This thesis is based on studies on the effects of accelerated ageing on refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ashes, in experiments under controlled laboratory conditions, intended to derive models to predict the stability of RDF fly ashes used in a landfill liner and the mineralogical changes that occur in them. A reduced factorial design was applied, followed by multivariate data analysis, to evaluate the effects of five factors - carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, temperature, relative air humidity (RH), time and the quality of added water - on mineral transformations within the ashes, and their acid neutralization capacity (ANC) and leaching behaviour.Minerals (ettringite and hydrocalumite) promoting the immobilization of hazardous compounds were found in both fresh ash and ash aged under atmospheric conditions, but these minerals disappeared upon carbonation. The main phases in ash at 20% and 100% CO2 were calcite, gypsum/anhydrite and vaterite. The abundance of gypsum and anhydrite was directly related to the temperature at which ashes were aged. The major mineral phases detected in ashes aged under 20% CO2, 65% RH and 30°C (corresponding to conditions generally found in a landfill cover) were calcite and gypsum/bassanite. The pH values of these ash specimens ranged from 7.2 to 7.6, indicating advanced carbonation. Ageing decreased pH values from 12.4 to 7.2, consequently affecting the leaching behaviour of most chemicals measured in the leachates. Levels of Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Pb, K and Na decreased over the study period while those of Mg, Zn and SO4 increased. No clay minerals were detected by XRD and SEM analysis in either fresh or aged ashes. However, geochemical modelling indicated that such minerals may precipitate. The modelling also indicated that clay minerals like saponite, vermiculite, chrysotile and hydrotalcite were likely to precipitate in most leachates from ash aged for 3, 10 and 22 months. Smectite, montmorillonite and illite may precipitate in leachates of ash aged for 31 months. The formation of smectite, montmorillonite and vermiculite would be advantageous due to their very high cation exchange capacities, which would favour the stabilization/immobilization of heavy metals in the mineral phases.

  • 28.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Suitability of fly ash for construction and land applications2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste incineration fly ash is often landfilled or sent abroad for stabilization because it is considered a hazardous waste. These approaches to fly ash are both costly, and highlight the need for alternative and sustainable ash recycling. Both the needs of waste recycling and preservation of natural resources can be solved by using fly ashes as a secondary construction material and as soil fertilizer.Three types of fly ashes have been investigated in the laboratory experiments. Namely municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) and biofuel fly ashes. Factors influencing changes in chemical properties and mineralogical composition of RDF fly ash exposed to environmental conditions close to those that are found in a landfill top cover were evaluated in the accelerated ageing experiment. Element availability to leaching and plant uptake in soil amended with MSWI, biofuel fly ashes and biosolids was also evaluated.RDF fly ash exposed to the conditions found in a landfill top cover (20% CO2, 65% RH, 30°C T) lead to the chemical and mineralogical transformations that resulted in reduced leaching of most of the elements studied here. Only concentrations of Cl- in the leachates were an issue, because they still exceeded the leaching limit values; nevertheless the leaching of this element in aged ash decreased by 50% compared to fresh ash.Application of pelletized MSWI fly ash with biosolids on soil resulted in elevated total concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in soil (by 29%, 100% and 300%), but dissolved concentrations of these elements in soil pore water, except the As, were low as in the range of drinking water concentrations (98/83/EC). Furthermore, the concentrations of Cd and Pb in plant biomass were negligible regardless of the type of ash used.Based on the observations, RDF fly ash is considered as a suitable material to be used in a landfill liner. Whereas MSWI and biofuel fly ashes based on element availability for plants studies, could be considered suitable for land applications. But doses to be applied on soil should be adjusted to the type of ashes used to avoid accumulation of potentially toxic elements in soil over time.

  • 29. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Diener, Silvia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB, Södertälje.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Influence of accelerated ageing on acid neutralization capacity and mineralogical transformations in refuse derived-fuel fly ashes2009In: SARDINIA 2009: Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium ; [5 - 9 October 2009, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy] / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre , 2009, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a part of a long-term collaboration between Telge Återvinning AB at Södertälje in South Sweden and Lulea University of Technology (LTU) in the Northern part of Sweden. Ashes and other industrial wastes used for landfill cover construction have been studied for several years. However, there is a need for further investigations with regard to the long-term mechanical and chemical stability of ash liners in landfill cover constructions. Long-term changes of ashes are investigated by laboratory studies on accelerated weathering (ageing) using experimental design. With regard to weathering, several stages can be identified: hydration and carbonation are well known processes while the processes surrounding the conversion of ash to clay minerals are less well known. There are a number of studies showing that the process of mineral transformation during the ageing of coal or MSWI ashes is quite similar to that of volcanic ashes in nature. Yet, the time frames are quite different: while volcanic ashes need several thousands of years for clay mineral development, there are evidences as well that e.g. clay illite is formed from glass phases in MSWI bottom ash after only 12 y or that clay like amorphous material can be formed in micro-scale throughout the surfaces of coal ash particles after 8 y of natural weathering (Zevenbergen et al., 1999; Zevenbergen et al., 1998). There are a lot of studies performed on rapid fly ash conversion into zeolites by hydrothermal alkaline treatment, the success of which strongly depends on alkaline conditions and the silica-alumina composition of the fly ash source (Inada et al., 2005). These results provide further support to the hypothesis that the observed rapid clay like mineral formation arose as a result of the initially high pH of ash, which promotes rapid dissolution of certain components of aluminosilicate glasses. Furthermore, in a long term perspective these aluminosilicates can transform into zeolites, smectites or halloysites dependent on the solution pH and leaching rate. Based on these studies on volcanic, coal or MSWI ashes we presume that refuse derived fuel (RDF) ashes, like those that are used in the Tveta landfill cover, will be subject to analogical weathering and mineral transformation processes.In order to investigate the mineral transformation in RDF fly ashes, a designed laboratory experiment was performed. A reduced factorial experimental design for accelerated ageing has been applied to evaluate the influence of five factors: carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative air humidity, time and, quality of added water (Table 1). Table 1 Factors and levels tested in the reduced multivariate factorial design for the study of accelerated ageing of RFD fly ashesFactorLowMiddleHighCarbon dioxide, CO2 (%)Atmosphere (0.038)20*100Temperature, ºC5 3060Relative air humidity, Rh (%)3065100Time, months31022Water qualityDistilled -LeachateThe influence of these factors on mineralogical composition, leaching behaviour and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) is analysed and evaluated with the aid of multivariate data analysis. The MVDA modelling was performed with SIMCA-P+ 11.5 version program developed by Umetrics AB (Eriksson and Umetrics Academy, 2006). Principle component analysis (PCA) technique was used and presented in this paper. PCA is an interdependence model where all variables are analysed simultaneously as a single set in a data matrix X. Triplicates were tested for each factor combination. Sampling was performed after 3, 10 and 22 months of accelerated ageing. Mineral composition was analysed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Acid neutralisation capacity was performed at 8.3 and 4.5 pH with 0.1 M HCl solution. The experimental set-up of accelerated ageing of RDF fly ashes is showed in Fig. 1. Preliminary evaluation of the mineral transformations in aged RDF fly ashes revealed that the carbonation process was not yet completed in the some of the specimens (Fig.2). This still caused high pH (pH=12.7) in the solution even though a calcite phase was found in all aged fly ashes. Multivariate data analysis confirmed that carbon dioxide affects the pH and ANC of fly ashes during ageing of RDF fly ashes. The specimens prepared with leachate water had higher ANC than the specimens with distilled water. The ANC8.3 was most influenced by 30 ºC temperature and 65 % relative humidity (ANC8.3 = 0.05 mmol/g) and this well corresponds to the results found in the literature. The ageing time factor has the highest influence on ANC4.5. A more detailed analysis of other mineral phases including clay-like minerals in aged fly ashes will be performed later.The results of this study will contribute to the better understanding of ash formation processes and improved possibilities to make beneficial use of ashes as an alternative to landfilling.Figure 1. Experimental set-up for investigations of the long-term behaviour of the ashes under different environmental conditions. Figure 2. XRD patterns of RDF fly ashes at different ageing conditions. a) N33, b) N71, c) N15, d) N85, and e) N51. The peaks are labelled A (anhydrite), C (calcite), E (ettringite), F (Friedel's Salt), Ge (gehlenite), H (halite), He (hematite), P (portlandite), Q (quartz), S (sylvite), V (vaterite).

  • 30. Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Andreas, Lale
    Diener, Silvia
    Tham, Gustav
    Telge AB.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Formation of secondary mineral phases during the ageing of RDF fly ashes2010In: The 6th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium, 2010, 110-112 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Diener, Silvia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Factors influencing chemical and mineralogical changes in RDF fly ashes during aging2014In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 140, no 3, 4013014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of aging should be considered for reliable long-term assessments of the environmental risks of the use of refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ash as landfill top cover liner material. Mineral transformations that occur in RDF fly ash, and the effects of selected factors on these transformations, were studied on compacted fly ash specimens in an accelerated aging experiment using a reduced factorial design. Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, relative air humidity, time, and the quality of added water were varied in six factor combinations. Acid neutralization capacity and leaching behavior were analyzed after four different periods of time. The results were evaluated with multivariate data analysis. A significant change in the acid neutralization capacity, a decrease in leaching of Ba, Ca, Cl − , Cr, Cu, Pb, K, and Na, and an increase in solubility of Mg, Si, Zn, and SO 2− 4 could be attributed to different aging conditions

  • 32.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Changes of fly ash properties during the ageing2015In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 141, no 5, 4014083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) fly ashes was investigated in a long-term laboratory experiment. Aging affected the chemical stability of RDF fly ash in terms of leaching behavior, ANC, and mineralogical transformations. The design of experiment model evaluation showed that the use of RDF ashes in a top cover liner construction has the following advantages: most of the investigated hazardous elements like Pb, Cl, Cr, Cu, etc., will not be released from the ashes, and their buffer capacity will increase with time. However, aging has the disadvantage that leaching of Zn and SO 4 is likely to increase. The multivariate data analysis of the coefficients of variation did not reveal any systematic errors in the performance of the experiment. However, batch leaching test not always reflect the real situation in the landfill top cover environment.

  • 33.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Travar, Igor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ageing of ashes in a landfill top cover2011In: SARDINIA 2011: Thirteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3 - 7 October 2011 / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Cagliari: CISA Publisher, Italy , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on studies on the effects of accelerated ageing on refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) fly ashes, in experiments under controlled laboratory conditions, intended to derive models to predict the stability of RDF fly ashes used in a landfill liner and the mineralogi-cal changes that occur in them. A reduced factorial design was applied, followed by multivariate data analysis, to evaluate the effects of five factors — carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, temperature, relative air humidity (RH), time and the quality of added water — on mineral transformations within the ashes, and leaching behaviour. The pH values of these ash specimens ranged from 7.2 to 7.6, indicating advanced carbonation. Ageing decreased pH values from 12.4 to 7.2, conse-quently affecting the leaching behaviour of most chemicals measured in the leachates. Levels of Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Pb, K and Na decreased over the study period while those of Mg, Zn and SO4 increased. Clay minerals could not be detected neither in fresh nor in aged ashes. However, geo-chemical modelling indicated that such minerals may precipitate.

  • 34.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Belmonte, Carles
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Characterisation of waste material mixtures for landfill top cover application2012In: Abstract proceedings of 7th Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium: Södra Sunderbyn, June 25th to 27th, 2012 / [ed] Anders Lagerkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2012, 54- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Changes in Element Solubility in Fly Ash and Biosolid Mixtures Used for Soil Fertilization2013In: 12th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements, Athens, Georgia, USA, June 16-20, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Fly ash in landfill top covers: a review2016In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 18, no 1, 11-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increase of energy recovery from municipal solid waste by incineration results in the increased amounts of incineration residues, such as fly ash, that have to be taken care of. Material properties should define whether fly ash is a waste or a viable resource to be used for various applications. Here, two areas of potential fly ash application are reviewed: the use of fly ash in a landfill top cover either as a liner material or as a soil amendment in vegetation layer. Fly ashes from incineration of three types of fuel are considered: refuse derived fuel (RDF), municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and biofuel. Based on the observations, RDF and MSWI fly ash is considered as suitable materials to be used in a landfill top cover liner. Whereas MSWI and biofuel fly ashes based on element availability for plant studies, could be considered suitable for the vegetation layer of the top cover. Responsible application of MSWI ashes is, however, warranted in order to avoid element accumulation in soil and elevation of background values over time.

  • 37.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Potential mobility of trace elements in soil as affected by organic matter and redox conditions2011In: 11th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements, Florence, Italy July 3-7, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Taraškevičius, Ricardas
    Institute of Geology and Geography.
    Zinkutė, Rimante
    Institute of Geology and Geography.
    Spatial variability of topsoil contamination by trace elements on the territories of kindergartens in Vilnius, Lithuania2009In: 10th International Conference on Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements: Frontiers in Trace Elements Research and Education, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support, Externfinansiering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Nilsson, Malin
    Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University. Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology.
    Effect of residue combinations on plant uptake of nutrients and potentially toxic elements2014In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 132, 287-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the plant pot experiment was to evaluate potential environmental impacts of combined industrial residues to be used as soil fertilisers by analysing i) element availability in fly ash and biosolids mixed with soil both individual and in combination, ii) changes in element phytoavailability in soil fertilised with these materials and iii) impact of the fertilisers on plant growth and element uptake.Plant pot experiments were carried out, using soil to which fresh residue mixtures had been added. The results showed that element availability did not correlate with plant growth in the fertilised soil with. The largest concentrations of K (3534mg/l), Mg (184mg/l), P (1.8mg/l), S (760mg/l), Cu (0.39mg/l) and Zn (0.58mg/l) in soil pore water were found in the soil mixture with biosolids and MSWI fly ashes; however plants did not grow at all in mixtures containing the latter, most likely due to the high concentration of chlorides (82g/kg in the leachate) in this ash. It is known that high salinity of soil can reduce germination by e.g. limiting water absorption by the seeds. The concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in grown plants were negligible in most of the soils and were below the instrument detection limit values.The proportions of biofuel fly ash and biosolids can be adjusted in order to balance the amount and availability of macronutrients, while the possible increase of potentially toxic elements in biomass is negligible seeing as the plant uptake of such elements was low. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 40.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support, Externfinansiering.
    Wolters, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Elements availability in soil fertilized with pelletized fly ash and biosolids2015In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 159, 27-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of combined and pelletized industrial residues on availability and mobility of nutrients and potentially toxic elements in soil, plant growth and element uptake. Plant pot experiments were carried out using soil to which 2% of pelletized residue containing biosolids mixed with either municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MFA) or biofuel fly ash (BFA) was added. The tests showed that the plant growth did not correspond to the content of available nutrients in fertilised soil. MFA application to soil resulted in elevated concentrations of P (506 mg/kg), As (2.7 mg/kg), Cd (0.8 mg/kg) and Pb (12.1 mg/kg) in soil, lower plant uptake of Al (25 mg/kg) and Ba (51 mg/kg), but higher accumulation of As (4.3 mg/kg) and Cd (0.3 mg/kg) in plants compared to the unamended soil and soil amended with BFA. On average, the biomass of the plants grown in the soil containing MFA was larger than in other soils.Considering the use of industrial residue mixtures as soil amendments or fertilizers, the amount of added elements should not exceed those taken up by plants, by this preventing the increase of soil background concentrations.

  • 41.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Zamora, Carles Belmonte
    LTU.
    Sjöblom, Rolf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 276, 171-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g. N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd.

  • 42.
    Båve, Eric
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kretslopp och framtidshopp på Tuna: kompostering och växthusodling i kv. Kristallen i Luleå1996Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Carabante, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Adsorption of As (V) on iron oxide nanoparticle films studied by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy2009In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 346, no 1-3, 106-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stabilization of arsenic contaminated soils by iron oxides has been proposed as a remediation technique to prevent leaching of arsenate into the environment. Fundamental studies are needed to establish under which conditions the complexes formed are stable. In the present work, a powerful technique, viz. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, is adapted to studies of adsorption of arsenate species on iron oxides. This technique facilitates acquisition of both quantitative and qualitative in situ adsorption data.In the present work, about 800 nm thick films of 6-lineferrihydrite were deposited on ZnSe ATR crystals. Arsenate adsorption on the ferrihydrite film was studied at pD values ranging from 4 to 12 and at an arsenate concentration of 0.03 mM in D2O solution. The amount of adsorbed arsenate decreased with increasing pD as a result of the more negatively charged iron oxide surface at higher pD values. The adsorption and desorption kinetics were also studied. Arsenate showed a higher adsorption rate within the first 70 minutes and a much lower adsorption rate from 70 up to 300 minutes. The low adsorption rate at longer reaction times was partly due to a low desorption rate of already adsorbed carbonate species adsorbed at the surface. The desorption of carbonate species was evidenced by the appearance of negative absorption bands. The desorption of adsorbed arsenate complexes was examined by flushing with D2O at pD 4 and 8.5 and it was found that the complexes were very stable at pD 4 suggesting formation of mostly inner-sphere complexes whereas a fraction of the complexes at pD 8.5 were less stable than at pD 4, possibly due to the formation of outer-sphere complexes.In summary, the ATR technique was shown to provide in situ information about the adsorption rate, desorption rate and the speciation of the complexes formed within a single experiment, which is very difficult to obtain using other techniques.

  • 44.
    Carabante, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Influence of Zn(II) on the adsorption of arsenate onto ferrihydrite2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 24, 13152-13159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addition of iron oxide to arsenic-contaminated soil has been proposed as a means of reducing the mobility of arsenic in the soil. Arsenic and zinc are common coexisting contaminants in soils. The presence of zinc therefore may affect the adsorption properties of arsenic on iron oxide, and may thus affect its mobility in the soil. The influence of Zn(II) on the adsorption of arsenate ions on iron oxide was studied. Batch adsorption experiments indicated that Zn(II) increased the arsenate removal from a solution by ferrihydrite at pH 8. However, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed that no adsorption of arsenate on a ferrihydrite film occurred at pD 8 in the presence of Zn(II). Precipitation of zinc hydroxide carbonate followed by arsenate adorption onto the precipitate was found to be a plausible mechanism explaining the arsenate removal from a solution in the presence of Zn(II) at pH/pD 8. The previously suggested mechanisms attributing the enhanced removal of arsenate from solution in the presence of Zn(II) to additional adsorption on iron oxides could not be verified under the experimental conditions studied. It was also shown that at pH/pD 4, the presence of Zn(II) in the system did not significantly affect the adsorption of arsenate on ferrihydrite.

  • 45.
    Carabante, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    A powerful method for studying the adsorption of As(V) on iron oxides in situ2008In: Arsenic in the environment - Arsenic from nature to humans: Book of Abstracts, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Carabante, Ivan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mouzon, Johanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Andreas
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Reutilization of porous sintered hematite bodies as effective adsorbents for arsenic(V) removal from water2014In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 53, no 32, 12689-12696 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed to enhance the arsenic adsorption capacity of porous bodies of sintered hematite. The method comprised the formation of a coating of 1 wt % iron oxide nanoparticles on the raw material. The nanoparticles showed two distinct habits: spherical habit, likely ferrihydrite, and acicular habit, likely goethite and/or akaganéite. The specific surface area of the hematite raw material increased from 0.5 to 3.75 m2/g, and the adsorption capacity increased from negligible to 0.65 mg of [As]/g as calculated from equilibrium and breakthrough adsorption data. Equilibrium adsorption data of arsenate on the adsorbent from a solution at pH 5 followed the Langmuir model, while breakthrough adsorption data for a 500 μg/L arsenate solution at pH 5 followed the Thomas model. The adsorbed arsenic could be desorbed using distilled water at pH 12. These results show the potential for the reutilization of waste products comprising coarse hematite bodies as adsorbents.

  • 47.
    Carlsson, My
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Pre-treatment of substrates for anaerobic digestion: potential and development needs2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Substrate pre-treatment has been gaining interest in anaerobic digestion (AD) as a means to increase biogas yields with nowadays more diversified substrate sources. The objective of this thesis is to identify improvement potentials and development needs within applications of substrate pretreatment in anaerobic digestion (AD) based on literature and specific examples, with special focus on the impact assessment and exemplified by the case of electroporation(EP) pre-treatment.The substrate inherent limitations to conversion of organic material to methane include content of non-biodegradable organic compounds, incorporation of biodegradable matter into recalcitrant structures and large particle size. WAS and lignocellulosic material are specific substrates that express significant substrate inherent limitations, especially WAS from WWTPs with long sludge age and lignocellulosic material with high lignin content.Improved AD performance relies on increasing operational methane yield as to approximate as much as possible the actual potential methane yield of the substrate at the highest possible digestion rate. This could potentially be achieved by the application of a pre-treatment, via the mechanisms of particle size reduction/solubilisation of biodegradable/bioavailable matter and/or conversion/exposure of non-biodegradable/non-bioavailable matter as to make it available or degradable. Pre-treatment mechanisms that could potentially counteract these effects are the removal of organic matter and/or the formation of refractory compounds. Pre-treatment by electroporation has the potential to affect substrates and, in some cases improve AD process performance. However, the effect of a specific pre-treatment may differ depending on the type of substrate upon which it is applied. The assessment of pre-treatment effects may be performed on different levels, representing impacts from micro to macro scale. On a substrate level, COD solubilisation is commonly measured, but the interpretation is aggravated by the application of different measurement approaches. In addition, solubilisation of COD as a result of pre-treatment does not necessarily translate into increased operational methane yield, and vice versa, the increased operational yield is not necessarily caused by increased COD solubilisation. On an AD process performance level, BMP tests have been used to assess both increased biodegradability and increased rate of degradation. Both applications rely on appropriate set-up as well as understanding of the limitations of the test. Substrate pre-treatment affects the quality of the outputs as well as the downstream processes of an AD process. A systematic approach is therefore necessary to understand how the introduction of a pre-treatment process as well as the changes in process performance with respect to qualities and quantities of outputs affect the balances of the system with respect to assessment bases such as energy, CO2 or economics.Several areas that would gain from further development can be identified within the area of substrate pre-treatment. These include improved understanding of substrate characteristics with improved descriptors, such as improved understanding of COD composition, and of BMP applicability and limitations. In addition, improved understanding of the relationship between substrate composition and process performance would be helpful to improve the understanding of different pre-treatment effects.Improved understanding of system effects where case-specific conditions can be considered is necessary for the full-scale implementation of pre-treatments to a larger extent. The application of tools for systems analysis to systems including pre-treatment should be further evaluated and a sensitivity analysis with respect to which specific conditions may render pre-treatments beneficial or non-beneficial should be performed.The practical applicability of electroporation pre-treatment for different substrates needs further development and the energy efficiency of the pre-treatment should be evaluated considering upscaling effects.

  • 48.
    Carlsson, My
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    When and why is pre-treatment of substrates for anaerobic digestion useful?2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays a key role in the recovery of renewable energy, in the form of biogas, and nutrients from waste materials. Pre-treatment of AD substrates has the potential to improve process performance in terms of increased methane yield and solids reduction, but pretreatments are not yet widely implemented into full-scale AD systems. The aims of this thesis were to identify conditions that determine when pre-treatment has a positive impact on an AD system and ways to improve the practical utility of pre-treatment impact assessment. Key steps towards meeting these aims were to determine and critically analyse effects of pre-treatments on AD, and current evaluation schemes at three levels: AD substrate level – Direct effects on the substrate’s chemical and physical characteristics and its biodegradability/bioavailability; Local AD system level – Effects of pre-treatment on the AD process and its outputs, required inputs and (local) upstream and downstream processes. System boundaries are “at the gate” of the AD plant and the system analysis may consider energy and/or financial parameters; Expanded AD System level – Includes indirect effects of pre-treatment, with system boundaries including external processes. The system analysis may address environmental and/or economic effects. Different substrate traits represent different types and degrees of limitations to optimal AD performance that can be met by different pre-treatment mechanisms. Most importantly, potential mechanical problems must be handled by dilution and/or homogenisation and unwanted components, as generally found in source-sorted food waste from households (FW), must be separated. These traits may hinder the actual operation of AD and the potential for recovery of nutrients, which is often the motivation for biological waste treatment. When these practical barriers are overcome, pre-treatment focus may be directed towards maximizing the conversion of organic material to biogas, which is potentially limited by the rate and/or extent of hydrolysis. Lignocellulosic structures and aerobically stabilised biological sludge represent significant barriers to hydrolysis, which can be overcome by pre-treatment-induced solubilisation. Other particulates are merely hydrolysis-limited by their size, which can be reduced by specific pre-treatments. Finally, substrates may contain non-biodegradable organic compounds, which need to be chemically transformed in order to be converted to biogas. The substrates considered for AD incorporate these traits in varying degrees and even among substrates of the same category, such as plant material and excess sludge from wastewater treatment (WWT), the potential effect of pretreatments may vary considerably. Overcoming the substrate barriers via pre-treatment may potentially improve the AD system by enhancing operational stability, increasing methane yields and solids reduction under similar operating conditions to those without pre-treatment or by increasing methane productivity by allowing reductions in hydraulic retention time without changing the methane yield. However, the required inputs as well as the associated effects on related sub-processes must also be considered. The ultimate usefulness of a pre-treatment in a specific system is determined by the mass- and energy balance and the associated financial or environmental costs/values of inputs and outputs. The accuracy and applicability of pre-treatment impact assessment is challenged by method limitations and lack of transparency. A common measure of the pre-treatment effects is COD solubilisation, but the interpretation is complicated by the application of different measurementapproaches. In addition, solubilisation of COD as a result of pre-treatment does not necessarily translate into increases in operational methane yields. This is due to potential formation of refractory compounds and the fact that hydrolysis is not necessarily rate limiting for all particulates. Pre-treatments’ effects on biodegradability and degradation rates can be better assessed by BMP tests (biochemical methane potential), provided that the test conditions are appropriate and the tests’ limitations are properly considered. However, extrapolation of BMP results to continuous processes is complicated by the batch mode of the tests. On the other hand, results from continuous trials allow assessments of methane yields in practical systems and the digestate’s physico-chemical properties, but are inevitably tied to the specific process conditions tested. Thus, results from multiple experimental conditions, possibly strengthened by computer simulations, are necessary for generalisations of pre-treatment effects on AD process performance. Pre-treatments have the potential to considerably improve AD systems, but their implementation must to be guided by the actual improvement potential of the specific substrate and valued in theirspecific context with respect to process design and framework conditions.

  • 49.
    Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Holmström, David
    Profu AB, Mölndal.
    Bohn, Irene
    NSR, North Western Scania Waste Management Company, Helsingborg.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Mölndal.
    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando
    AnoxKaldnes AB, Klosterängsvägen 11A, 226 47 Lund.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Impact of physical pre-treatment of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste on greenhouse-gas emissions and the economy in a Swedish anaerobic digestion system2015In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 38, 117-125 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several methods for physical pre-treatments of source sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SSOFMSW) before for anaerobic digestion (AD) are available, with the common feature that they generate a homogeneous slurry for AD and a dry refuse fraction for incineration. The selection of efficient methods relies on improved understanding of how the pre-treatment impacts on the separation and on the slurry’s AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the performance of physical pre-treatment of SSOFMSW on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and on the economy of an AD system including a biogas plant with supplementary systems for heat and power production in Sweden. Based on the performance of selected Swedish facilities, as well as chemical analyses and BMP tests of slurry and refuse, the computer-based evaluation tool ORWARE was improved as to accurately describe mass flows through the physical pre-treatment and anaerobic degradation. The environmental and economic performance of the evaluated system was influenced by the TS concentration in the slurry, as well as the distribution of incoming solids between slurry and refuse. The focus to improve the efficiency of these systems should primarily be directed towards minimising the water addition in the pre-treatment provided that this slurry can still be efficiently digested. Second, the amount of refuse should be minimised, while keeping a good quality of the slurry. Electricity use/generation has high impact on GHG emissions and the results of the study are sensitive to assumptions of marginal electricity and of electricity use in the pre-treatment.

  • 50. Carlsson, My
    et al.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ecke, Holger
    Electroporation for enhanced methane yield from municipal solid waste2008Conference paper (Refereed)
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