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  • 1.
    Lindberg, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Förnybar gas för värmningsugnar i stålindustrin: Tekno-ekonomisk utvärdering av gasproduktion för SSAB Borlänge2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige strävar efter ett mer hållbart samhälle och har som mål att nå netto nollutsläpp av växthusgaser till atmosfären år 2045. Företag som agerar i Sverige måste därmed göra stora omställningar för att målet ska kunna nås. I detta arbete har möjligheten att ersätta SSAB Borlänges fossila bränslebehov i varmvalsningsprocessen med gas från termisk förgasning undersökts. Genom litteraturstudier, behovsanalys, beräkningar och modellering i Excel har fyra fallstudier med olika förgasningskoncept utvärderats. En stor utmaning har varit att finna lösningar för hantering av de stora värmelasterna i varmvalsningsugnarna. I fallstudierna har olika strategier tillämpats för att hantera dessa; gasmotorer, balansering med gasklocka eller uppgradering till SNG som lagras i kryogena behållare. Ett fall med inköp av biobränslebaserad flytande naturgas (bio-SNG) från externa producenter har också utvärderats. Den tekniska genomförbarheten samt den ekonomiska insatsen och vinningen har utvärderats för att hitta det bästa alternativet. Fallet med gasklockan (Fall 1b) visade på bäst ekonomisk prestanda med en internränta på 1,6%, en återbetalningstid på 21 år och tillverkningskostnad på 518 kr/MWh. Detta är sämre än nuvarande lösning som kostar 470 kr/MWh. De känsligaste faktorerna för kostnaden är biomassans och fossila bränslets priser. Även investeringskostnaden har stor inverkan. En stor fördel med nya lösningen är minskningen av SSAB:s användning av fossila bränslen med cirka 850 GWh som ersätts av förnybar gas.

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  • 2.
    Lundqvist, Petter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Waste Sludge: A Pre-study with Model Compounds2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The use and research of renewable fuels has become more important due to the connection between climate changes and the use of fossil fuels. With risks of decline in petroleum production derived from fossil fuels due to limitation of resources in the future, the renewable fuels are even more important in the transport sector.

    Research regarding gasification of biomass to create a syngas that can be upgraded to a biodiesel for cars is one of the approaches. By gasifying black liquor, it is possible to create a 100 % green fuel diesel. However, as this black liquor might be in limited quantities the idea to create a synthetic black liquor was sparked. The pulp industry where the black liquor originated from also has quantities of wastewater, containing a biomass sludge. Otherwise containing water in so large quantities that it is not possible to combust it without ending up with a negative energy output.

    One of the paths could be to recover the biomass from the sludge and convert it to a liquid similar to black liquor. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction has been recognized as a potential method. While biocrude is usually the target in hydrothermal liquefaction for direct upgrade to biofuel, the aqueous product could prove to be used for the gasification process. This would create a combined liquefaction-gasification process.

    Using model compounds possibly existing in the waste sludge, hydrothermal liquefaction was performed at different temperatures, together with varied alkali loads (K2CO3) and water the content to see how the different compounds reacted. Model compounds included cellulose and lignin as major compounds.

    Although the temperature was increased from 240 °C to 340 ° the lignin conversion was lower at 340 °C than at 240 °C. Re-polymerization took place and around 40 % of resulted in solid residue, while the remaining 60 % was partially converted to aqueous phase, oil phase or gas in the process. By not performing the hydrothermal liquefaction it is however possible to dissolve Kraft lignin directly in water and alkali.

    Cellulose showed an almost full conversion at 290 °C with similar results at 340 °C, with 4 – 5 % remaining as solid. At the higher temperature more gas was produced, which is not optimal for this process where liquid product is wanted. This suggest that 290 °C is enough for cellulose conversion in this process. Using an alkali load of 0.3 times the cellulose mass in the solution the final aqueous product contained about 26 % alkali, which is similar to black liquor. Increase the alkali to 0.9 times however increased the sought aqueous product, in both terms of energy and carbon content.

    Fiber sludge from a pulp mill, containing mainly cellulose, could therefore most likely be converted to a liquid product that is similar to black liquor for further upgrade

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  • 3.
    Ma, Charlie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Aspects of Ash Transformations in Pressurised Entrained-Flow Gasification of Woody Biomass: Pilot-scale studies2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurised entrained-flow gasification (PEFG) of woody biomass has the potential to produce high purity syngas for the production of vital chemicals, e.g., biofuels. However, ash-related issues such as reactor blockages and refractory corrosion need to be addressed before this potential can be realised from a technical perspective. These undesirable consequences can be brought about by slag formation involving inorganic ash-forming elements and the chemical transformations that they undergo during fuel conversion. The objective of this study was to elucidate the ash transformations of the major ash-forming elements and the slag formation process. A pilot-scale PEFG reactor was used as the basis of the study, gasifying different woody biomass-based fuels including wood, bark, and a bark/peat mixture. Different ash fractions were collected and chemically analysed. Reactor slags had elemental distributions differing from that of the fuel ash, indicating the occurrence of fractionation of ash material during fuel conversion. Fly ash particles from a bark campaign were also heterogeneous with particles exhibiting differing compositions and physical properties; e.g., molten and crystalline formations. Si was consistently enriched in the reactor slags compared to other major ash-forming elements, while analyses of other ash fractions indicated that K was likely volatilised to a significant extent. In terms of slag behaviour, near-wall temperatures of approximately 1050-1200 °C inside the reactor were insufficient to form flowing ash slag for continuous extraction of ash material during firing the woody biomass fuels alone. However, fuel blending of a bark fuel with a silica-rich peat changed the chemical composition of the reactor slags and bulk slag flow behaviour was evident. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations supported the importance of Si in melt formation and in lowering solidus and liquidus temperatures of Ca-rich slag compositions that are typical from clean wood and bark. Viscosity estimations also showed the impact that solids have upon slag flow behaviour and corresponded qualitatively to the experimental observations. Corrosion of reactor refractory was observed. The mullite-based refractory of the reactor formed a slag with the fuel ash slag, which caused the former to flux away. Reactor blockages were also resultant because of the high viscosity of this slag near the outlet.  A preliminary study into the corrosion of different refractories was also carried out, based on firing a bark/peat mixture.  Alumina-rich refractories consisting of corundum, hibonite, mullite, and andalusite tended to form anorthite and exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Infiltration of slag was evident for all the samples and was a severe mode of degradation for some refractories. For fused-cast periclase and spinel-based refractories, slag infiltration was limited to voids and no extensive signs of refractory dissolution were found. This is also supported by a thermochemical equilibrium calculations mimicking slag infiltration that incorporated viscosity estimations. The findings from this thesis contribute towards the development of woody biomass PEFG by highlighting issues concerning ash fractionation, slag behaviours and ash\slash refractory interaction that should be investigated further.

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  • 4.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Nitsos, Christos
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Vörös, Dimitrij
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    High-Titer Methane from Organosolv-Pretreated Spruce and Birch2017Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikkel-id 263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative impact of fossil fuels and the increased demand for renewable energy sources has led to the use of novel raw material sources. Lignocellulosic biomass could serve as a possible raw material for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. This work is aimed at using forest biomass, both softwood (spruce) and hardwood (birch), as a raw material for anaerobic digestion. We examined the effect of different operational conditions for the organosolv pretreatment (ethanol content, duration of treatment, and addition of acid catalyst) on the methane yield. In addition, we investigated the effect of addition of cellulolytic enzymes during the digestion. We found that inclusion of an acid catalyst during organosolv pretreatment improved the yields from spruce, but it did not affect the yields from birch. Shorter duration of treatment was advantageous with both materials. Methane yields from spruce were higher with lower ethanol content whereas higher ethanol content was more beneficial for birch. The highest yields obtained were 185 mL CH4/g VS from spruce and 259.9 mL CH4/g VS from birch. Addition of cellulolytic enzymes improved these yields to 266.6 mL CH4/g VS and 284.2 mL CH4/g VS, respectively.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Muraleedharan, Madhu Nair
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Depolymerization of Lignocellulose by Lytic Polysaccharide MonoOxygenases2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulose biomass is considered as one of the most potential and sustainable sources for the production of value-added chemicals and fuels while replacing the traditional petroleum resources. In a biorefinery, by employing biochemical conversion processes,cellulose present in the biomass is broken down into monomeric sugars which can belater converted into fuels or chemicals. This process is done with the help of different cellulose digesting enzymes (cellulases), isolated from natural cellulolytic organisms suchas saprophytic fungi.

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are considered as one of the vital classesof enzymes in the bio-conversion of lignocellulose. They are copper active enzymes present naturally in cellulose degrading fungi. Unlike the traditional cellulases, they havea unique way of breaking cellulose using molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide as cosubstratein the presence of a reducing agent. Their ability to enhance the action of other cellulases in depolymerizing the cellulose, make them an integral part of today’s commercial cellulase cocktails.

    This thesis comprises the study about the action of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenaseson various cellulose substrates, both model and natural. The first part of the thesis focuses on the ability of an LPMO (MtLPMO9) and a traditional cellulase (MtEG5A), to act insynergism. The evaluation was done based on the release of oxidized and non-oxidized sugars and also on the ability to liquefy the substrates. It was observed that together, these two enzymes resulted in enhanced release of oxidized and non-oxidized sugars. Both were able to reduce viscosity of the substrates but no further synergistic effect was observed when added together.

    The second part focuses on the ability of LPMOs to accept electrons from lignins for their action of breaking cellulose chains. Three LPMOs, MtLPMO9, PcLPMO9D and NcLPMO9C, lignins from agricultural and forest biomass pretreated by various pretreatment methods were selected. It was demonstrated that lignins, both in isolatedand substrate bound form were able to act indirectly as reducing agents, by releasingsoluble low-molecular-weight molecules that act as mediators between enzyme and bulklignins. The structural and compositional properties of lignins also affected their ability toact as electron donors. In addition, the effect of biomass pretreatment methods on the lignin properties was also studied. The lignins from acid catalyzed organosolv pretreatment were found as the best candidates in supplying electrons to the enzymes.Interestingly, NcLPMO9C was not able to utilize lignins as electron donors requiring further investigation on their mechanism both in vivo and in vitro.

  • 6.
    Olofsson, Oscar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik. Höganäs AB.
    Biochar in the Höganäs sponge iron process – techno-economic analysis of integrated production2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass-based reducing agents have a potential to substitute fossil reducing agents in the steel industry. However, the industrial use of biomass-based reducing agents is currently in an early stage of development and has not yet been considered as a means to reduce fossil CO2 emissions, even though the use of fossil-based reducing agents for the iron and steel making cause the highest share of CO2 emissions. This master thesis presents a techno-economic analysis of a 10 MW biochar production plant integrated with sponge iron production in Höganäs. In this study, a steady-state process model was developed, where state-of-the-art research and development in biochar production for increased biochar yield was applied and adapted, using the principle of bio-oil recycle. The developed process model was used to evaluate the biochar production plant, in terms of conversion efficiency, production costs and CO2 emissions, for different process configurations. The results show that bio-oil recycle with 20 wt.% bio-oil increases the energy yield of biochar with 14%. However, it was found that bio-oil recycle increases the required heat input of pyrolysis which led to reduced plant efficiency with 4%-units and increased biochar production costs of 500-1000 SEK/ton biochar. It was found that system integration with Höganäs can reduce the production cost of biochar from over 5000 SEK/ton to under 2000 SEK/ton, where the most significant integration aspect was flue gas integration. The sensitivity analysis showed that the cost of biomass feedstock and total capital investment were the most sensitive input parameters. It was found that system integration with Höganäs was essential to achieve production costs of biochar below the price of fossil reducing agents. It was also found that co-produced bio-oil becomes a main product, essential for the economic performance of the biochar plant, even though the intended main product was the biochar.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 7.
    Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Pitchot, Romain
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Andefors, Alf
    Future Eco North Sweden AB.
    Norberg, Niclas
    Future Eco North Sweden AB.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Production of metallurgical charcoal from biomass pyrolysis: pilot-scale experiment2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Wang, Liang
    SINTEF Energy Research .
    Romar, Henrik
    University of Oulu, Research Unit of Applied Chemistry.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Ramser, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Skreiberg, Øyvind
    SINTEF Energy Research .
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Effects of pyrolysis oil recycling and reaction gas atmosphere on the physical properties and reactivity of charcoal from wood2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Xiong, S.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Martín, C.
    Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eilertsen, L.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Center, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wei, M.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden. Guangxi University, College of Agronomy, Nanning, China.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Larsson, S.H.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lestander, T.A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterial and Technology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Atterhem, L.
    Biosteam AB, Burträsk, Sweden.
    Jönsson, L.J.
    Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden.
    Energy-efficient substrate pasteurisation for combined production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) and bioethanol2019Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 274, s. 65-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hot-air (75 -100°C) pasteurisation (HAP) of birch-wood-based substrate was compared to conventional autoclaving (steam at 121 °C) with regard to shiitake growth and yield, chemical composition of heat-pretreated material and spent mushroom substrate (SMS), enzymatic digestibility of glucan in SMS, and theoretical bioethanol yield. Compared to autoclaving, HAP resulted in faster mycelial growth, earlier fructification, and higher or comparable fruit-body yield. The heat pretreatment methods did not differ regarding the fractions of carbohydrate and lignin in pretreated material and SMS, but HAP typically resulted in lower fractions of extractives. Shiitake cultivation, which reduced the mass fraction of lignin to less than half of the initial without having any major impact on the mass fraction of glucan, enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of glucan about four-fold. The choice of heating method did not affect enzymatic digestibility. Thus, HAP could substitute autoclaving and facilitate combined shiitake mushroom and bioethanol production.

  • 10.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Forest based biorefinery supply chains - Identification and evaluation of economic, CO2, and resource efficiency2018Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries for production of fuels, chemicals, or materials, can bean important contribution to reach a fossil-free economy. Large-scaleforest-based biorefineries are not yet cost competitive with their fossil counterparts and it is important to identify biorefinery supply chain configurations with good economic, CO2, and biomass performance if biorefineries are to be a viable alternative to the fossil refineries.

    Several factors influence the performance of biorefinery supply chains,e.g. type of conversion process, geographical localisation, and produc-tion capacity. These aspects needs to be analysed in conjunction to identify biorefineries with good supply chain performance. There ares everal approaches to improve the performance of biorefineries, wheree.g. integration with other industries can improve the economic perfor-mance by utilisation of excess heat and by-products. From a Swedish perspective the traditional forest industry is of interest as potential host industries, due to factors such as by-product availability, opportunity for heat integration, proximity to other biomass resources, and their experience in operating large-scale biomass supply chains.

    The objectives of this work were to investigate how different supply chain configurations influence the economic, biomass, and CO2 perfor-mance of thermochemical biorefineries integrated with forest industries,as well as methods for evaluating those supply chains.

    This work shows that there is an economic benefit for integration with the traditional forest industry for thermochemical biorefineries.This is especially true when the biorefinery concept can replace cur-rent old industrial equipment on site which can significantly improvethe economic performance of the biorefinery, highlighting the role the Swedish forest industry could play to reach a cost efficient large-scale implementation of lignocellulosic biorefineries.

    The cost for biomass is a large contributor to the total cost of biore-fineries and for traditional techno-economic evaluations, the biomass prices are considered as static variables. A large-scale biorefinery will likely have an impact on the biomass market, which could lead to both changes in the biomass price, as well as changed biomass demand for other industries. A framework where this is accounted for was intro-duced, combining a techno-economic perspective for evaluating the sup-ply chain performance, with a market model which identifies changes in biomass price and allocation due to the increased biomass competition.

    The biorefinery performance can be determined from several per-spectives and system boundaries, both from a plant-level and a national perspective. To facilitate a large-scale introduction of biorefineries and  maximise the benefit from their implementations, there is a need to identify biorefinery concepts with high performance considering severa system boundaries, which has been explored in this work.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Joakim, Lundgren
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Evaluating investments in integrated biofuel production - factoring in uncertainty through real options analysis2019Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF ECOS 2019 / [ed] Wojciech Stanek, Paweł Gładysz, Sebastian Werle, Wojciech Adamczyk, 2019, s. 1921-1932Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the endeavour to reduce CO2 emissions from the transport sector, biofuels from forest industry by-products are key. The adaptation of forest-based biorefinery technologies has so far been low which can partly be attributed to uncertainties in the form of policy instability, market prices, and technology costs. These uncertainties in combination with technology learning, which can be expected to reduce future investment costs, could make it favourable to postpone an investment decision. When applying real options theory, it is recognised that there is an opportunity cost associated with the decision to invest, since the option to wait for more favourable market conditions to occur is forfeited. In traditional discounted cash flow analysis, the impact of uncertainty and the value of reducing it (e.g. by waiting), is usually not taken into consideration. This paper uses a real options framework that incorporates the option to postpone an investment to reduce market uncertainties and wait for technology learning to occur. The focus is to investigate how the usage of an investment decision rule based on real options analysis affects technology choice, the economic performance, and when in time it is favourable to invest in pulp mill integrated biofuel production, compared with using a decision rule based on traditional discounted cash flow analysis. As an illustrative case study we examine a pulp mill which has the option, but not the obligation, to invest in either of two different biofuel production technologies that both use the pulp mill by-product black liquor as feedstock: (1) black liquor gasification followed by fuel synthesis, and (2) membrane separation of lignin followed by hydrodeoxygenation. With the usage of the real options framework and the inclusion of the uncertainties regarding future market prices and investment costs, the decision to invest is made later, compared with using traditional cash flow analysis. The usage of real options also reduces the likeliness of a net loss occurring if an investment is made, as well as increases the expected economic returns, showing the added economic value of flexibility in the face of uncertain future conditions.

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