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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Anton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Perceived audio quality of compressed audio in game dialogue2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A game could have thousands of sound assets, to fit all of those files to a manageable storage space it is often necessary to reduce the size of the files to a more manageable size so they have to be compressed. One type of sound that often takes up a lot of disc space (because there is so much of it) is dialogue. In the popular game engine Unreal Engine 4 (UE4) the the audio is compressed to Ogg Vorbis and has as default the bit rate is set to 104 kbit/s. The goal of this paper is to see if untrained listeners find dialogue compressed in Ogg Vorbis 104 kbit/s good enough for dialogue or if they prefer higher bit rates. A game was made in UE4 that would act as a listening test. Dialogue audio was recorded with a male and a female voice-actor and was compressed in UE4 in six different bit rates. 24 untrained subjects was asked to play the game and identify the two out of six robots with the dialogue audio they thought sound the best. The results show that the subjects prefer the higher bit rates that was tested. The results was analyzed with a chi-squared test which showed that the null-hypothesis can be rejected. Only 21% of the answers were towards UE4s default bit rate of 104 kbit/s or lower. The result suggest that the subjects prefer dialogue in higher bit rates and UE4 should raise the default bit rate.

  • 2.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Evaluation of Live Loudness Meters2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrepancies in loudness (i.e. sensation of audio intensity) has been of great concern within the broadcast community. For television broadcast, disparities in audio levels have been rated the number one cause to annoyance by the audience. Another problem area within the broadcast and music industry is the loudness war. The phenomenon is about the strive to produce audio content to be at least as loud or louder to any other audio content that it can easily be compared with. This mindset, when deciding for audio level treatment, inevitably leads to an increase in loudness over time, and also, as a technical consequence, a decrease of utilized dynamics. The effects of the loudness war is present in both terrestrial radio transmissions as well as in music production and in music distribution platforms.

    The two problems, discrepancies in loudness and the loudness war, both emanate from the same source; regulations of audio levels and the design of measurement gear have not been amended to cope with modern production techniques. At the time when the work on this thesis started, the ruling technical recommendations for audio level alignment were based on peak measurement. This measured entity has poor correspondence to loudness. To counter the above described problems, the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has developed new recommendations for audio alignment, EBU R 128 and ITU-R BS.1770. The new definitions for loudness measurement constitutes simplified models on the human perception of audio intensity. When using the new recommendations in production, the problems have been shown to diminish.

    For an engineer in a live broadcast scenario, measurement equipment also need to be updated in real-time to illustrate a time-variant loudness of the signal. EBU and ITU also has regulated how this type of measurement gear should behave. EBU Tech 3341 and ITU-R BS.1771 define properties for live loudness meters. These recommendations has since the time of publication been implemented in measurement equipment from manufacturers and become available in production facilities.

    This thesis investigates the conceptions that have led up to the present recommendations for live loudness meters. It maps out the (at the time) present ways to evaluate the same. Emanating from this knowledge, a new methodology to evaluate loudness meters is proposed that combines qualities from former methods to achieve an alternative balance between ecological validity and control in the experiment design. The methodology includes a procedure to capture data from engineers’ actions and the resulting audio levels from simulated broadcast scenarios. The methodology also incorporates a way to process this type of data into different parameters to be more accessible for interpretation. It presents an approach to model the data, by the use of linear mixed models, to describe different effects in the parameters as the result of the meters’ characteristics. In addition, a review on publications that examine the engineers’ own requests for beneficial qualities in a loudness meter has been condensed and revised into a set of meter criteria that specifically is designed to be applied on the outcome of the mixed models. The outcome of the complete evaluation yields statements on meter quality that are different and complementary to formerly proposed methods for meter evaluation.

    The methodology has been applied in two different studies, which also are accounted for in the thesis. The conclusions from these studies has led to an increased understanding of how to design live loudness meters to be satisfactory tools to the engineer. Examples of findings are: the effect of the speed of the meter, as being controlled by one or several time constants, on the readability of the meter and the dispersion in output levels – some tested candidates, with higher speed than the present recommended ones, has been shown to be adequate as tools; the three-second integration time has been shown to generate a smaller dispersion in output levels than the 400 ms integration time; the effect of the gate in BS.1771 on the resulting output levels– the gate generally leading to an increase in output levels. The acquired knowledge may be used to improve the present recommendations for audio level alignment, from EBU and ITU.

  • 3.
    Aspegren, Emil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Mastering Engineers, Loudness and Hyper-Compression: A survey about practises, application goals and ideas about how they impact quality2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The loudness wars have been a frequently debated topic in the audio industry. Earlier research has been done on the technical and perceptual effects of loudness and so called hyper- compression but little research has been done to investigate the opinions of the mastering engineers, those who are applying the processing. This research is set out to understand the practise and goals of mastering engineers relating to loudness and hyper-compression, trying to broaden the subject with the viewpoint of those responsible for applying this loudness processing. The goal was to find commonalities amongst the engineers regarding the topic and to investigate the reasoning of the engineers. The study is based of five semi-structured interviews with professional mastering engineers. The interviews were conducted over Skype and the analysis was of a grounded method, originating from three main categories; commercial, technical and aesthetic, and subcategories were generated by the interviews. The research showed that the use of loudness and hyper-compression is multifaceted, with different goals depending on who the user is. There seems to be a strong connection between the loudness processing and genre, that genre often dictates how the processing is used. The research also found that there is a common opinion towards a standardisation of loudness normalisation in streaming services. 

  • 4.
    Bjurman, Johanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Communicating your artistic vision2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 5.
    Björketun, Aron
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Compositing alternatives to full 3D: Reduce render times of static objects in a moving sequence using comp2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Rendering takes time, especially without access to powerful hardware. Is there any way to reduce the time of rendering? With the help of compositing reducing the time of renders is very much possible, using a range of alternative methods. A total of three different approaches will be tested in order to save time, as well as trying to maintain quality as close to a render straight from a 3D application as possible. Projections using cards and geometry as well as deep data will be used in an attempt to find the most efficient and useful way of saving time.

  • 6.
    Björnsson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Amplified Speech in Live Theatre, What should it Sound Like?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sound on-stage has always been part of the theatre experience. Today the usage of microphones to amplify speech is very common and has become more of a rule rather than an exception. This study investigates amplified speech in live theatre. The goal was to understand the sound engineers’ choice in how, when and why they would apply certain techniques when amplifying speech in live theatre. Six theatre sound engineers were interviewed using a semi-structured form and the analysis was of a grounded theory. The interviews were conducted via skype where both video and audio were recorded. Four main categories were created; microphones, voices, aesthetics and technical, and subcategories were developed from the interviews. The research showed that theatre engineers strive to optimize the illusion for the theatre audience to believe that during the performance, they’re located in the same world as the actors are located in.   

  • 7.
    Brandberg, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Is there a correlation between the natural reverberation in a critical listening environment and adjustments of an artificial reverb?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    One of the mixing engineers most important tool when listening, analyzing and taking decisions is the physical space in which the reproduction system and the monitors are placed. The space needs to fulfill certain aspects to be able to qualify as a control room considered good for taking these decisions. In this study an active listening test was conducted to investigate if the RT60 of the natural reverberation in the room affected a mixing engineers’ decisions when adjusting parameters on an artificial reverb. 16 subjects participated, the subjects adjusted reverb level and reverb time of an artificial reverb in two different acoustical environments, with two different values of RT60. The environments were based on a professional control room made for mixing and mastering. The two values for RT60 was achieved through manipulating the room with diffusors and absorbing material. It was found that the subjects were able to adapt to the different acoustical environments, although other differences were found. The order of the which of the environments the subjects started in and which parameter the subject started adjusting, showed a considerable impact on the result. As well as what kind of factors the subjects considered when adjusting the artificial reverb.

  • 8.
    Bélteky, Markus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Emotion in video game audio: Can sound effects be perceived to contain positive emotional content?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sound is an important part of almost all media. In games, sounds are used to evoke intense emotions in players. Studies has showed that music on its own can induce emotions. Soundeffects is another type of sounds that appear in games. However, do they contribute to the emotional experience? Understanding this will help sound designers enhance scenes in future video games. In this study, 23 participants were asked to conduct a test divided into two part. In the first part they were tasked to listen to four sound effects of fire and choose attributes from a predetermined list that they thought suited. Among these physical attributes were two emotional attributes. In the second part, the subjects were tasked with choosing one of the fours sound effects for a scenario with a positive emotion and motivate their choice. The results show that no sound had neither positive nor negative as an emotional attribute. Of the four sounds, two showed significance that emotion alone was an attribute for the sound. The results from the second part showed that the subjects were divided in what motivated them to choose a sound. More than a third of the subjects based their choice only on if the sound matched the emotion of the scenario presented while slightly less than a third based it only on to fit the location. The last third based it on both emotion and location.

  • 9.
    Dirin, Amir
    et al.
    Business Information Technology, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Science, Finland .
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards an Adaptive Study Management Platform: Freedom Through Personalization2018Inngår i: CSEDU 2018: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Education, SciTePress, 2018, Vol. 1, s. 432-439Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advancements have brought abundant freedom to our lives. In an educational context, however, the technology utilization is still relatively low despite recent developments on various learning platforms such as e-learning, mobile learning, MOOCs, and social networks. The contemporary technological advancement in smart gadgets enables us to bring learning resources with appropriate content format to the learners at the right time in the right learning situation. Yet there remains a need for an adaptive study management solution that would apply data mining algorithms to assist university students both before and during their studies in a personalized manner. This assistance can be of many kinds, such as campus orientation to new students, course curriculum recommendations, and customization of study paths. In this paper, we present the concept and an initial implementation the Adaptive Study Management (ASM) platform that aims at facilitating a university student’s academi c life in different phases by tracing the student’s activities and providing personalized services, such as a course curriculum recommendation, based on their behavior and achievements during a period. The ASM platform creates a profile for the student based on their achievements and competencies. Consequently, the platform aims to grant freedom to students on their study management, eases teachers’ workloads on assessing students’ performance, and assists teachers and administrators to follow up students and dropouts. The goal of this platform to increase graduation rates by personalizing study management and providing analysis services, such as dropout prediction.

  • 10.
    Eklund, Victor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Föredragen ljudkvalité: En jämförelse av ljudkvalitet hos högtalare med strömning som distributionsmedium2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning har gjorts för att ta reda på vikten i att äga ett dyrt högtalarsystem när man lyssnar på strömmad musik samt hur påverkad man blir av vetskapen om priset hos vederbörande högtalare. Tre olika högtalare i tre olika prisklasser har testats. 22 personer deltog och fick lyssna på valfri låt igenom strömmningstjänsten Spotify. Lyssnarna fick först ranka högtalarna efter uppskattad generell ljudkvalité utan att se vilka högtalare de lyssnade på, sedan fick de göra om samma test fast med möjlighet att se högtalarna och vetskapen om hur mycket de kostade. Det visade sig att vetskapen om pris eller utseende inte hade någon påverkan på lyssnaren. Inte heller källan som musiken spelades upp ifrån, Spotify eller CD visade sig ha någon betydelse. Det har också visat sig ligga ganska lite koppling mellan pris och kvalité då den billigaste högtalaren rankades bland de bästa i detta test. Detta har lett till en diskussion om betydelsen av högtalarnas karaktär. Den karaktär som i sig kan ge lyssnaren en bra eller dålig upplevelse i den uppfattade ljudkvalitén beroende på lyssnarens egna preferenser. Frekvenskaraktären kan dominera över högtalarens många andra egenskaper. En billigare högtalare kan alltså föredras över en dyrare om frekvenskaraktären för den mindre påkostade högtalaren överensstämmer med åhörarens tycke och smak.

  • 11.
    Eliasson, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Comparing Compressor Interface Designs: How do visual displays on digital compressors impact how audio engineers navigate an interface and the choices they make? 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This research tested to see how audio engineers navigate and use compressors differently with alternative designs. A pre-study in the form of a semi-structured interview with a focus group was held to determine a compressor considered having a “good design” and a compressor considered having a “bad design”. An active test was conducted with audio engineer students to investigate if there is any connection between time it takes for an engineer to navigate a compressor depending on its design. The test also investigated patterns in how audio engineers use compressors differently depending on their design, and what makes it easier to navigate and more satisfactory to use. 6 paired T-test were made between different compressor designs and a video and screen capture was annotated to investigate how audio engineers navigated the compressor. The results showed that 2 out of 6 T-tests gave a significant result, meaning that the time it took to navigate some of the compressors against each other were affected by the design of the compressor interface. Results showed that there are many contributing factor towards why a compressors is easier navigate and more satisfactory to use, but with a slight tendency that “parameter controls”, “visual information” and “aesthetically pleasing” are the most important factors. No findings on how engineers might use compressors differently depending on its design were found. Some additional patterns for audio engineers using compressors were found as well.

  • 12.
    Emilsson, Adrian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Artificial Reverb vs. Real Recorded Reverb in the Back Channels in a 5.1 Surround Setup2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When recording music for surround audio engineers sometimes face limitations in time, ideal microphone positions or a noisy audience. If this cannot be dealt with at the location, artificial reverbs are often used in the mixing to “fill in the blanks”. In this study, three instruments were recorded separately with two 5.1 surround microphone setups. Two audio engineer students created artificial reverbs that replaced the back channels of each microphone setup. A listening test was conducted where test subjects compared the 5.1 real recording to the two other stimuli with artificial back channels in terms of realism, envelopment and preference. The result showed that the real recording and the artificial back channels were interchangeable, but that the artificial back channels pointed towards more envelopment, and that the real recording pointed towards more realism.

  • 13.
    Enlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    How do bass enhancement algorithms impact mixing decisions when monitoring on headphones?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As music production moves from the big professional studios into small bedroom studios, Headphones become more commonly used for monitoring. This brings a new set of problems based on the limitations of headphones compared to loudspeakers. This research explores how a bass enhancement algorithm impacts the results when mixing low frequency audio on headphones. This is done through a simple mixing experiment where subjects are tasked with balancing the amplitude of a low frequency element in a song, both with and without a bass enhancement algorithm enhancing the headphone monitoring. It is shown that while subjects do not perceive a difference in difficulty with this task, the results differ as subjects overall mix the bass frequencies lower in amplitude when aided by the bass enhancement algorithm. It is concluded that the bass enhancement algorithm is useful in this manner.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Per-Robin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    A Comparison Of Two Commercially Available Alternatives For Spatializing Audio Over Headphones In A Game Setting2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The video game industry is experiencing tremendous growth and developing games that stand out against the competition requires ever increasing production budgets. Graphics have been a selling point for video games for a long time, resulting in huge technical advancements in visuals. Audio has received more attention during the recent years, both in terms of sound-design and technical developments.

    This study compared two alternatives for spatializing audio over headphones in a game setting, while also comparing them against a more traditional stereo output. A commercial game was used to provide the game setting and participants rated the three different outputs based on three attributes and described their experience using Microsoft Product Reaction Cards. No statistically significant differences were found between the three outputs in any of the six rated attributes when doing a paired t-test or a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test. Further analysis of frequency content, participants’ comments and Microsoft Product Reaction Cards were done to find out what sets the spatializing alternatives and stereo apart from each other.

  • 15.
    Fahlgren, Maja
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Automatic Level Generation in Games2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 180 hpOppgave
  • 16.
    Hulthe, Christoffer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Self-produced sound and kinesonic feedback in FPS games: do players have a preference between binaural and monophonic Foley?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Based on prior research on concepts such as kinesonic feedback, and the here presented concept of kinesonic perspective, this study investigates whether or not players prefer binaurally recorded Foley over monophonically recorded Foley in a first-person video game environment, and whether or not binaural Foley has an impact on their relationship to, or perception of, the avatar. A game environment was created, in which players could switch at will between two audio modes; one containing binaurally recorded Foley, and the other containing monophonically recorded Foley. In the study, subjects were asked to state their preference between the two modes, motivate said preference, rate the two modes on three attributes, and answer questions regarding their perceived relationship to the avatar. Results showed no statistical significance regarding the preference of the sample, but a potential link was found between subjects’ preference and their perceived believability of the Foley sounds. The qualitative results showed that the binaural Foley had a complex impact on the subjects’ perception of and relationship to the avatar. The qualitative data also showed that subjects generally felt that the binaural Foley originated from their own body. Due to the small sample size and diversity of subject opinions it is however difficult to make any generalizations regarding the average player. Further research could investigate what role sound plays in the player’s ability to embody the avatar, as well as more thoroughly investigate the complex relationship between the kinesonic perspective of the avatar and that of the player.

  • 17.
    Jerner, Joel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    On Exaggeration of Sound Detail as a Way of Affecting Perceived Realism in Sound Effects and Musical Instruments2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Based on previous research into realism in sound effects, this experiment was intended to study the effect of exaggerating minor details as a way of increasing perceived realism in sound effects. To do this, a framework for discussing components and subcomponents of sounds was constructed and a listening test designed using the framework was conducted. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to measure the two main effects exaggeration (yes/no) and sound type (musical/non-musical). There was no effect of exaggeration by itself (p = 0.224). Musical sounds were perceived to be more realistic than non-musical sounds (p = 0.004). There was some evidence (p = 0.102), non-significant but interesting, of an interaction effect but it cannot be declared with confidence.

  • 18.
    Jönsson, Ingela
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    En jämförelse av inspelningar gjorda med tidsskillnad och amplitudskillnadför lyssning i 5.1 i en hemmiljö2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats jämför vilken av två olika inspelningar som är att föredra då konsumenten lyssnar på musik i sitt hem med en 5.1 konsumentanläggning. Inspelningarna som jämförs är gjorda med amplitud- och tidsskillnad.  Ett lyssningstest gjordes då tio stycken ljudtekniker fick lyssna och jämföra de två olika inspelningar sittande i fyra olika positioner. Resultatet visade att tidsskillnad var att föredra oberoende av var lyssnaren sitter. Vad detta beror på är oklart då de attribut som utvärderades sällan gav något signifikant resultat. 

  • 19.
    Kamlund, Robin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Can white noise be processed in order to affect the perceived scariness of a game level2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, a horror game level was created using ”Unreal Engine 4” (Epic games, 2017) where white noise and processed noises was used as ambiences in order to see how it affects the perceived emotions amongst the participants. A pre-study was conducted in order to choose the stimuli for the main experiment and to test attributes. A pilot test was conducted to test the game level to find out any flaws. In the main experiment twenty participants took part in playing the finalized game level and answering a questionnaire. The results showed a change in the emotional quality depending on the noise being present, but it’s unclear if this is caused by the filtering of the noises alone or the filtering of the noises combined with other factors. A post hoc test was also conducted where a valence and arousal chart was created by letting the participants pin point the emotional attributes used in the experiments.

  • 20.
    Kristal-Ern, Alfred
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Can sound be used to effectively direct players' attention in a visual gameplay oriented task?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the understanding about multimodal perception from previous studies has been used to create a perceptually demanding visual search task inside a game. Also, a subtle multimodal cue was created to be in-directly informative about the visual search target’s location by attracting subjects’ attention. 20 subjects were divided equally among the experiments two conditions, one where the subjects had no access to the multimodal information and one where the subjects did have access to the multimodal information. The multimodal information conveyed to the subjects in this experiment was temporal synchrony between a visual light pulsating and a sound being modulated using level and low-pass filtering. Results showed that the subjects that were given the multimodal information improved more on the search task than the group without multimodal information, but the subjects in the multimodal group also perceived the pace of the task as higher. However, it is unclear exactly how the multimodal cue helped the subjects since the playing subjects did not seem to change their search movement pattern to favor the location of the search target, as was expected. Further, the difficulties and considerations of testing in a game environment is discussed and it is concluded that the gamer population is a very varied group which has big impacts on methodology of in-game experiments. To identify sub-groups, further research could study why different players use different search behaviors.

  • 21.
    Liljeblad, Hugo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Does dynamic compression impact how well the player tracks multiple targets in a FPS game2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    When navigating a spatially immersive environment like a game, sound can be used to get anapproximate direction and distance of objects, like targets headed for the player. Game sounddesigners can use this knowledge to create interactions. However, processing sound mightalso interfere with players’ abilities to track targets. By reducing the dynamic range of soundswith compression it might change how players interact in games. Whether the ability to trackseveral targets is affected by compression of sounds was investigated with an interactivelistening test where participants were asked to track objects in a game like environment. Thisgame environment was developed through a set of pre-studies that investigated tracking tasksin games and in vision experiments, as well as sound design. The study developed a methodthat is ecologically valid for games and also utilizes prior research in tracking. In the mainexperiment, Subjects tracked four targets among eight objects in four tracking scenarios. Thetracking scenarios were divided into two different conditions, one with compressed soundsand one with uncompressed sounds. Subjects abilities to correctly identify targets in eachcondition were statistically analyzed with a two-paired t-test. The results showed the ability totrack several targets was better in the condition with sounds compressed and the results werestatistically significant.

  • 22.
    Louthander, Anton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Perceived Audio Quality In Popular Music Encoded To MP3 And Opus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For storage restriction purposes, audio streaming services often rely on lossy compression formats as files used for playback. In 2018, the audio streaming giant SoundCloud went from using 128 kbps MP3 files to 64 kbps Opus files, and shortly after this was unveiled, music press and users of the service claimed it to be an audio quality impairment. To investigate the reliability in these claims, listening tests using popular songs were performed, having 17 trained listeners assessing perceptual audio quality in 128 kbps MP3 and 64 kbps Opus compared to 44.1 kHz, 24 bit WAV files. When counting scores of all used audio stimuli combined, results showed MP3 outperforming Opus with statistical significance.

  • 23.
    Lundén, Niklas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Comparison of sound field microphone techniques for classical music recordings in virtual reality2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual reality (VR) as a field is currently seeing big technological advancement and an increase in both interest and content. At the same time, the production workflows for creating content for VR are still in their infancy and there are few commonly accepted conventions within the field. This study aims to compare different sound field microphone techniques for classical music recording in virtual reality. A Sennheiser AMBEO microphone, a double MSZ array and an INA-5 array as well as a 360° camera were used to record a rehearsal of The Royal Swedish Orchestra. These recordings were then used to conduct a listening test in VR where subjects scored the different microphones techniques on “localisation” and “naturalness”. A t-test between the results of the different techniques showed that the AMBEO microphone was significantly better than the INA-5 array for localisation and that the double MSZ array was significantly better in terms of naturalness compared to the INA-5 array. However, these results should be interpreted with caution as many variables during the process might be unique to this particular study.

  • 24.
    Nykänen, Arne
    et al.
    Cultures of Digital Economy Research Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge.
    Lundkvist, André
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Lindberg, Stefan
    Interactive Institute, Piteå.
    Lopez, Mariana
    Cultures of Digital Economy Research Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge.
    Safe and Sound Drive: Sound Based Gamification of User Interfaces in Cars2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the AES International Conference / [ed] Spriet A.,Murphy D.,Goetze S, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Safe and Sound Drive project concerns the design of an audio-only serious game for cars that will help drivers to increase eco-driving skills, lower fuel consumption and encourage safe and environmentally friendly approaches to driving. Methods and procedures for the design of sounds for audio-only user interfaces are reviewed and discussed, and design work and preliminary results from user studies of prototypes of the audio interface are presented. Contextual Inquiry Interviews with three participants using the audio interface in a car while driving on a test track showed that opinions about beeps and audio signals vary among subjects. Music and podcast based contents were generally well received. Alteration of media content, e.g. by actively adjusting BPM, volume, spectral balance, or music mix could form working mechanisms for providing game related cues to the driver.

  • 25.
    Nyqvist, Simon J.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    What Audio Quality Attributes Affect the Viewer's Preference, Comparing Overhead and Underneath Boom Microphone Techniques2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The boom microphone has been used to record dialogue on a film set for decades. As a boom operator it can be difficult in certain situations to acquire an ideal placement for the boom microphone. It depends on the frame and the lighting on the set. There are situations where the boom operator is forced to place the microphone underneath the actors instead of the standard overhead position. To investigate the difference between these techniques, and what audio quality attributes that affect the viewers’ choice of preference, a listening test has been constructed. The subjects were instructed to choose preferences in four trials of stimuli that had been recorded with both microphone techniques. To collect further data the subjects were also instructed to describe the differences they perceived between the stimuli. A statistically significant result was not found, except for one of the trials, the trained listeners preferred the underneath microphone technique for the second female stimuli. A difference between the techniques was difficult to determine from the answers given by the subjects. The conclusion was made that there is not a clear preference between the microphone techniques. Even though one of the trials was significant a clear difference could not be found in the analysis of the qualitative data.

  • 26.
    Ragnarsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Evaluation of a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm for polyphonic guitar to MIDI in real-time2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master's thesis is an evaluation of an algorithm for detection and separation of polyphonic guitar notes in real-time. The method used is known as Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) and the algorithm is evaluated for future use in a musical recording and live performance system. The purpose is to let guitarists use the MIDI protocol to play synthesized sounds live using only an electric guitar, a common laptop and a sound card. Requirements for a system like this includes very low latency and high accuracy, demands that work against each other, often leading to a compromise between the two. Implementations of the algorithm are developed in Python and C++ and evaluated with respect to latency, accuracy and feasibility for use on a common laptop. The results shows that the algorithm works fairly well, but the time it takes to gather enough samples for the Fast Fourier Transform to produce results with high enough frequency resolution leads to a too high latency for the purpose of the system. The goal of the thesis is to answer the question whether NMF is a good method for implementation of polyphonic note detection of chords in the system previously mentioned. Based on the results and analysis performed, the thesis concludes in an answer of MAYBE due to yet unsolved problems. Motivations for this answer is provided in the discussion and conclusion sections at the end of the document.

  • 27.
    Savvateev, Anton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Which compound-earcon's attributes may improve a player's performance in a search-oriented gameplay: rhythm vs timbre?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Earcons are commonly used by sound designers in order to support visual cues in a game andto make a gaming experience more enjoyable. This study covers two earcons’ attributes: rhythm and timbre. Rhythm and timbre attributes were chosen according to the earcon sounddesign guidelines from the previous studies. An experiment in a form of a video game was conducted in order to research whether one of the conditions can increase a players’performance. A subject had to choose the correct key to the door in order to go to the next location. There were 3 different locations and there were totally 5 different own-designed earcons: 1 incorrect earcon in the both conditions and 2 different correct earcons in each condition. 20 subjects with various gaming experience from the Luleå University of Technology participated in the experiment. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups with different conditions: rhythm and timbre. The amount of wrong trials and completion time were analyzed for each condition and the results were given with the help of Mann-Whitney U-test and t-test calculations. The results of U-test showed that there was a significant difference between two groups in terms of the wrong trials amount. Group with rhythm condition showed better performance in terms of the wrong trials amount. The t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of completion time. Group with timbre condition showed better timing performance, although considering the analysis it did not increase their performance in terms of making correct choices. Further research might be recommended on comparing various earcon attributes in different ecologically valid scenarios.

  • 28.
    Strandberg, Carl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Mediating Interactions in Games Using Procedurally Implemented Modal Synthesis: Do players prefer and choose objects with interactive synthetic sounds over objects with traditional sample based sounds?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Procedurally implemented synthetic audio could offer greater interactive potential for audio in games than the currently popular sample based approach does. At the same time, synthetic audio can reduce storage requirements that using sample based audio results in. This study examines these potentials, and looks at one game interaction in depth to gain knowledge around if players prefer and chooses objects with interactive sounds generated through procedurally implemented modal synthesis, over objects with traditionally implemented sample based sound. An in-game environment listening test was created where 20 subjects were asked to throw a ball, 35 times, at a wall to destroy wall tiles and reveal a message. For each throw they could select one of two balls; one ball had a modal synthesis sound that varied in pitch with how hard the ball was thrown, the other had a traditionally implemented sample based sound that did not correspond with how hard it was thrown but one of four samples was called at random. The subjects were then asked questions to evaluate how realistic they perceived the two versions to be, which they preferred, and how they perceived the sounds corresponding to interaction. The results show that the modal synthesis version is preferred and perceived as being more realistic than the sample based version, but wether this was a deciding factor in subjects’ choices could not be determined. 

  • 29.
    Swords, Edward
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Virtual bass synthesis and balancing bass in pop music2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A bass enhancement technique using the missing fundamental called VBS is presented. There are Several different approaches for using VBS in different applications. The technique is most useful in speakers that has a poor low frequency capability. It is presented in this report how it can be used for mixing purposes. How can a mix engineer use this technique to get a more balanced mix in laptop speakers without sacrificing the balance in large loudspeakers and headphones? To investigate this question an A/B style listening test is conducted, where the subjects get to answer both quantitative and qualitative questions. The answers are then analyzed using simple t-tests and categorizations of the qualitative information. The results of the test indicate that the mix with VBS is preferred in both the headphones and the laptop. There are no information indicating that the VBS has affected the mix in a poor or good way in the Loudspeakers.

  • 30.
    Timan, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande.
    Creating Natural Variation in Game Dialogue2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The interactive and non-linear aspects of video games bring forth the problem of repetition.In game sound, dialogue is particularly susceptible to repetition because of our hearing’ssensitivity to human speech. The most common way to avoid repetition in game dialogue isto record multiple takes of every phrase as to have several naturally varied samples, whereasthis study explores the possibility to create these natural variations by manipulation of pitchand/or time of one recorded phrase using a readily available software. A listening test wasconducted where 23 subjects rated the variation, naturalness and artifacts of a recordedspoken phrase where three altered versions manipulated by altering the pitch, timing and bothpitch and timing where compared to the original recording, examining which manipulationtype yielded the most variation while also considering the naturalness and artifacts. Arepeated measures factorial ANOVA and pairwise comparisons showed a significantdifference between all manipulation types regarding the three dependent variables. Theresults show that the pitch manipulated sample had the best compromise between perceivedvariation, naturalness and artifacts, and would therefore be the recommended method forcreating variation of recorded dialogue.

  • 31.
    Vænerberg, Henri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Stereo Enhancement Systems for headphones - What Shapes the Preference of a Listener?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Headphones and loudspeakers sound notably different from each other and music is often mixed on loudspeakers. The headphone listener therefore doesn’t hear what the engineer intended. A fix for this problem is introducing crosstalk to headphone listening and several ways of introducing said crosstalk have been implemented in the past. This study aims to find out why some stereo enhancement systems are preferred over others and how this could be used in the future. Attributes were ranked and rated to find possible correlations between what the listener hears and what he pays attention to when hearing music processed by different algorithms. Results show that clarity is the most important attribute while mid-frequencies seem to be the least important.

  • 32.
    Wennerberg, Daniel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
    Auditory immersion and the believability of a first-person perspective in computer games: Do players have a preference between mono and stereo foley, and is one perceived as more believable?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Based on previous research on spatial attributes in foley and the concept that auditory immersion in first-person perspective computer games is enhanced by believable sound effects, this study explores if there is a connection between stereo foley and the believability of the first-person perspective, and regardless, if there is a preference to either mono or stereo foley. An interactive listening test was created in unreal engine 4, where 20 subjects, all considered gamers, played three levels that differed visually and in auditory content. In these levels, subjects auditioned two versions of avatar-related foley sounds. One version was mono, the other stereo. The test prompted the subjects to complete two tasks for each level, whereupon the foley version changed upon completion of the first task. The subjects then answered questions in between each level, regarding the foley version. They were asked to rate believability and choose a preference, as well as provide motivations for their choices. The quantitative data showed next no evidence that either mono or stereo was generally perceived as more believable or preferred. However, the qualitative data indicates that the majority of players tend to prefer and rate stereo foley as more believable in certain game environments. Furthermore, the data indicates that some subjects prefer a sensory replication of reality in foley. It is also shown that preference for stereo width vary between subjects and therefore argued that there cannot be a perfect standardized setting for stereo foley.

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