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  • 1.
    Aban, Saman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Principalansvaret för vårdnadshavare: Föräldrars skadeståndsansvar för skada vållad av barn2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer under 15 år kan inte straffrättsligt bli ansvariga för brott de begått i enlighet med 1 kap 6§ BrB. Däremot kan en civilrättslig process gällande skadeståndsrättsligt anspråk bli aktuell i princip oberoende av skadevållarens ålder. Huvudregeln är alltså att barn kan bli skadeståndsskyldiga på samma sätt som en vuxen om de anses ha vållat skada. De större utmärkande skillnaderna mellan att hålla ett barn jämfört med en vuxen skadeståndsskyldig är att det görs en så kallad skälighetsbedömning när det gäller barn och även vid bedömning av barns culpa tar man mindre hänsyn till de subjektiva kriterierna. I denna uppsats utreds vårdnadshavarens ansvar enligt 3 kap. 5§ skadeståndslagen som infördes år 2010. Denna reglering innebär att föräldrar kan blir skadeståndsansvariga för skador som deras barn orsakar genom brott samt genom tillsynsansvaret som regleras i 6 kap. 2§ föräldrabalken. Denna paragraf reglerar att vårdnadshavaren skall ge barnet den tillsyn och uppsikt det behöver medhänsyn till ålder, utveckling och övriga omständigheter för att hindra skadevållande handlingar. Skillnaden mellan dessa respektive lagregler gällande att vårdnadshavaren skall anses vara skadeståndsansvarig är att den förra förutsätter att barnet begått ett brott och förutsätter heller ej culpa medan den senare inte gör det.

  • 2.
    Abd-Ellah, Mahmoud Khaled
    et al.
    Al-Madina Higher Institute for Engineering and Technology.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Khalaf, Ashraf A. M.
    Minia University, Egypt.
    Hamed, Hesham F. A.
    Minia University, Egypt.
    Classification of Brain Tumor MRIs Using a Kernel Support Vector Machine2016In: Building Sustainable Health Ecosystems: 6th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2016, Tampere, Finland, September 16-18, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Hongxiu Li, Pirkko Nykänen, Reima Suomi, Nilmini Wickramasinghe, Gunilla Widén, Ming Zhan, Springer International Publishing , 2016, p. 151-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of medical images has been continuously increasing, which makes manual investigations of every image a difficult task. This study focuses on classifying brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) as normal, where a brain tumor is absent, or as abnormal, where a brain tumor is present. A hybrid intelligent system for automatic brain tumor detection and MRI classification is proposed. This system assists radiologists in interpreting the MRIs, improves the brain tumor diagnostic accuracy, and directs the focus toward the abnormal images only. The proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system consists of five steps: MRI preprocessing to remove the background noise, image segmentation by combining Otsu binarization and K-means clustering, feature extraction using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) approach, and dimensionality reduction of the features by applying the principal component analysis (PCA) method. The major features were submitted to a kernel support vector machine (KSVM) for performing the MRI classification. The performance evaluation of the proposed system measured a maximum classification accuracy of 100 % using an available MRIs database. The processing time for all processes was recorded as 1.23 seconds. The obtained results have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed system.

  • 3.
    Abd-Ellah, Mahmoud Khaled
    et al.
    Electronic and Communication Department Al-Madina Higher Institute for Engineering and Technology, Giza.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Khalaf, Ashraf A. M.
    Faculty of Engineering, Minia University.
    Hamed, Hesham F. A.
    Faculty of Engineering, Minia University.
    Design and implementation of a computer-aided diagnosis system for brain tumor classification2017In: 2016 28th International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM), 2017, p. 73-76, article id 7847911Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have become very important for the medical diagnosis of brain tumors. The systems improve the diagnostic accuracy and reduce the required time. In this paper, a two-stage CAD system has been developed for automatic detection and classification of brain tumor through magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In the first stage, the system classifies brain tumor MRI into normal and abnormal images. In the second stage, the type of tumor is classified as benign (Noncancerous) or malignant (Cancerous) from the abnormal MRIs. The proposed CAD ensembles the following computational methods: MRI image segmentation by K-means clustering, feature extraction using discrete wavelet transform (DWT), feature reduction by applying principal component analysis (PCA). The two-stage classification has been conducted using a support vector machine (SVM). Performance evaluation of the proposed CAD has achieved promising results using a non-standard MRIs database.

  • 4.
    Abdulbaqi, Dana M.
    et al.
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Al-Shaikh, Mohammed
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a Stepping Stone to Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns about carbon emissions coupled with the oil industry’s need to secure additional CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects have sparked interest in the potential that CO2-EOR may have in jumpstarting carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). However, existing studies on the viability of coupling CO2-EOR with CCS have generally placed more focus on either the engineering or economic aspects of the problem. Most engineering studies focus on the technical aspects of the CO2-EOR project to produce the maximum amount of oil, while simultaneously storing the most CO2 during the production process with the economics as an afterthought, while most economic studies found have focused on a singular aspect of the issue such as impacts of exogenously varying injection rates. Furthermore, modelling efforts have stopped at the end of the productive life of the field. We build a unique two-stage dynamic optimization model, which simultaneously addresses engineering and economic policy aspects, to study the viability of coupling CO2-EOR transitioning into CCS. Our model includes a carbon tax for emissions, which becomes a subsidy for full scale sequestration after oil production has ceased; this allows us to explore the transition from CO2-EOR, our first stage, to sole CO2 sequestration in our second stage for a single field. We maximize the operator’s profits across both stages, while tracking the responsiveness of oil production and total carbon movements to both price and policy changes. We pair our optimization model with a reservoir simulation model, allowing us to mimic actual field behavior, giving our work a more realistic representation of both production and sequestration profiles. Our results suggest that small increases in the level of carbon tax can have large and discontinuous impacts on net sequestration. This stems from the observed transition from limited natural sources of CO2 to more expensive captured CO2 resulting from the implemented policy. With appropriate taxes, total volumes of captured CO2 sequestered across both stages are equivalent to 30 to 40% of the emissions from the use of the oil produced. With the credits oil producers receive from sequestering CO2, which equate to the tax, relatively high carbon taxes incentivize additional sequestration without significantly impacting the supply of oil. This, alongside maintaining a steady stream of profits, is a win-win situation for energy security and the climate.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Lunds tekniska högskola, LTH.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Rehn, Alf
    Åbo Akademi.
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Industriell ekonomi och organisering: IE2016Book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

  • 7.
    Ackelid, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Stenmark, Gabriella
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Konsumenters uppfattning av hållbarhetsmärkningar i dagligvaruhandeln: Hur köpbeslutet påverkas2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet är en stark faktor som påverkar både konsumenter och företag i växande utsträckning. Att medvetet konsumera i enlighet med hållbara riktlinjer ligger i många konsumenters intresse, och företag utvecklar kontinuerligt strategier för att bemöta konsumentbehov och höja sin försäljning. I takt med detta ökar utbudet av hållbart märkta produkter och hållbarhetsmärkningar. För konsumenter innebär detta större valmöjligheter men också eventuella svårigheter då hållbarhetsmärkningar ofta upplevs snarlika och svåra att förstå betydelsen bakom, vilket i sin tur kan ha en motverkande effekt på konsumenters köpbeslut. Syftet med denna studie var därför att undersöka hur konsumenter i dagligvaruhandeln ställer sig till svenskt etablerade hållbarhetsmärkningar på likvärdiga produkter, för att utforska hur hållbarhetsmärkningar påverkar konsumenters köpbeslut vid köptillfället. Studien eftersträvade att identifiera de starkaste faktorerna som ligger bakom konsumenters beslut att köpa eller inte köpa hållbart märkta produkter. Avsikten var att ge företag/varumärken en bild av vad konsumenterna behöver för att effektivt vägledas i sitt köpbeslut. Insamling av data genomfördes genom enkäter med kvalitativ karaktär då studien avsåg att belysa konsumentåsikter kopplade till konsumentbeteende. Urvalet som inkluderades i studien utgjordes av individer som köper produkter i dagligvaruhandeln. Analys av data skedde med utgångspunkt i grundad teori där nyckelord och mönster mellan respondenter och svar identifierades och tolkades. Resultatet av studien visade att konsumenter främst påverkas i köpriktning vid köp av hållbart märkta produkter till följd av miljömässiga omvärldseffekter och personliga effekter på den egna hälsan, men även till viss del till följd av omvärldseffekter kopplade till socialt ansvarstagande samt tillgänglighet av information. Bristande tilltro som skapar associationer till opålitlighet samt bristande förståelse till följd av dålig kunskap är de enda faktorerna som har påverkan på köpbeslut i icke-köpriktningen enligt resultatet av studien. Genom att belysa de faktorer som påverkar konsumenter i köpriktning och motverka de faktorer som påverkar konsumenter i icke-köpriktning, kan företag/varumärken uppnå företagsnytta.

  • 8.
    Adey, E.A.
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Shail, R.K.
    University of Exeter.
    Wall, F.
    University of Exeter.
    Varul, M.
    University of Exeter.
    Whitbread-Abrutat, P.
    Eden Project.
    Baciu, C.
    University of Babes-Bolyai.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lovric, I.
    University of Mostar.
    Udachin, V.
    Institute of Mineralogy.
    Corporate social responsibility within the mining industry: case studies from across Europe and Russia2011In: Proceedings of the Aachen International Mining Symposia (AIMS): 5th International Conference – Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry (SDIMI 2011), Aachen, 14-17 June 2011, Aachen: Aachen University , 2011, p. 153-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible mining requires a company to engage with local communities throughout all stages of their operations, from exploration phases through to post mining planning. Assessment of current and potential future social impacts allows a company to maximize the positive impacts they can have on a community, whilst minimizing negative social impacts from mining. Initiating and upholding effective stakeholder relations are key to a company`s ability to obtain and maintain their "social license" to operate. The level of interaction between mining companies and stakeholders, including local communities, varies substantially between and within countries. As part of the EU funded Framework 7 "ImpactMin" Project (Impact Monitoring of Mineral Resources Exploitation), we have examined the level of community engagement in mining and related processing industries at sites across Europe, including Romania (Rosia Montana), Sweden (Kristineberg), the UK (Cornwall), Bosnia Herzegovina (Vihovici) and Russia (Karabash, Gay and Mednogorsk). These sites reflect different stages in mining and therefore reveal a diverse range of issues and differing levels of community engagement. Our aim has been to focus not only on how practice varies, but also to try to explain the complex reasons behind the relationships that exist between mining companies and different stakeholders. Findings of questionnaires undertaken across the sites (between June - October 2010), and results of interviews and focus groups of different people linked to the mining industry, will also be discussed. The expectations that "mining" communities have of their local mining company vary substantially, directly relating to what the community believes the mine company owes them. These examples highlight that the notion of corporate social responsibility in the mining sector in Europe and Russia is fluid and changes according to the differing expectations and goals of stakeholders. We will present highlights of initial results. For example, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation, in Romania, is trying to reopen closed state gold mines. They have seen international media attention relating to campaigns by NGOs to oppose the mines reopening. Our results will help reveal what samples of different stakeholder groups really think of the mines reopening. This example contrasts distinctly with a mine in Kristineberg, Sweden, where Kristineberg village was built alongside the mine. There are now distinct issues felt within the community due to the decline in the number of people employed at the mine.

  • 9.
    Admir, Dzamastagic
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Armin, Dzamastagic
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Bankers utlåning till mikroföretag: En kvalitativ studie om hur handläggare bearbetar och bedömer mjuk information2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Banks make the claim that the use of soft information is important in the credit assessment of opaque businesses. However, unlike hard information, precise guidelines on what soft information loan officers are expected to collect and report, and how it should be processed are not imposed by banks. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore what soft information loan officers consider to be of importance in the credit assessment and then to compare how it differs individually between loan officers. Further, we analyze how individual loan officers process soft information to make it sensible and usable. We examine the following factors likely to affect the approach of the loan officer: experience and knowledge, uncertainty associated with the case, and factors of time. The study is characterized by a qualitative research strategy. Semi-structured interviews including seven loan officers with different levels of expertise in commercial lending were conducted. Using the critical incident technique, we investigate how loan officers perceive their information processing and evaluation of soft information in real lending situations where hard information is insufficient or non-existent. In contrast, we also investigate how loan officers process soft information and evaluate cases that are perceived as less uncertain or more general in nature. The results show that obvious differences are present between individual loan officers and the emphasis that is being put on various soft information signals. However, soft information related to the business owner´s professional background, the presented business plan/idea, and the industry which the business operates in, seems to be of greater importance. Signals in the likes of how a business markets itself and attitude towards growing the business, are mostly of lesser to no importance. Other signals that were identified varied greatly in importance across our sample of loan officers. Next, we find that individual loan officers differ in how they go about processing different types of soft information. The results indicate that more experienced loan officers exert a greater effort in collecting and reflecting on soft information about the business owner, but are also more inclined towards processing and evaluating information about the industry in an intuitive matter, which in our case differs from inexperienced loan officers. Lower effort from inexperienced loan officers to process soft information about the business owner seems to be linked to the constraints of distinguishing and interpreting relevant soft information signals. Further, the results indicate that loan officers’ effort to be attentive towards soft information is affected by the level of uncertainty the loan officer experiences with a case. Finally, it appears as though individual loan officers assume different cognitive styles in which a combination of both analytic and intuitive methods are used in order to process soft information, rather than strictly relying on one approach. 

  • 10.
    Adolfsson, Isabella
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hägge, Magdalena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Organisatorisk lojalitet i en turbulent tid av hög tillväxt: En empirisk studie av 223 anställda i svenska gasellföretag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational commitment is one important factor for organization performance and efficiency. During the last years, the interest for new and fast growing companies and their effect for the economic growth has increased. Studies within gazelle companies has earlier been based on their founders and managers. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the employees’ organizational commitment and which factors affect the commitment. The study had a quantitative approach and was carried out with the help of a survey where 223 respondents participated. All respondents are working at Swedish gazelle companies. The collected data of the study were analysed by using a multivariate regression and path analysis. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the measures reliability. The result show that there is a positive correlation between the employees’ nearness to the founder, recognition and job satisfaction with organizational commitment. The result also show that there is a negative correlation between monetary incentive and organizational commitment. The results provide indications for how managers in gazelle companies should work with these components and thereby increase the degree of organizational commitment to control the organizations growth in a better way.

  • 11.
    Aerila, Juli-Anna
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Kokkola, Lydia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Multicultural literature and the use of literature in multicultural education in Finland2013In: Bookbird: A Journal of International Children's Literature, ISSN 0006-7377, E-ISSN 1918-6983, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 39-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper traces the presentation of these traditional minority groups in Finland and the emergence of literature incorporating the more recently arrived groups of immigrants in the history of Finnish language children’s literature. We contextualize the development of multicultural themes in children’s literature within the history of Finnish nation-building and the country’s struggles for independence. We conclude with a brief consideration of how these less than ideal books might, nevertheless, serve to promote pluralism.

  • 12.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rewolucja £upkowa: Oewiatowe rynki gazu i ropy naftowej w warunkach transformacji2015In: Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, ISSN 0860-0953, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 5-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the United States. It is expected to spread beyond the US, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for themacro-economy and politics ofmany countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries.We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 13.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Shale gas and oil: Fundamentally changing global energy markets2013In: Oil & gas journal, ISSN 0030-1388, E-ISSN 1944-9151, Vol. 111, no 12, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shale production on a significant scale arose quite recently and is so far limited to the US with gas having a few years' lead on oil. Shale has already had a significant impact on US gas and oil output. Further sizable production increases can be expected in the US, and the shale revolution is likely to spread, with a lag, across the globe. This will result in fundamental repercussions for international energy markets. The resources in focus of our attention, comprising shale gas and coalbed methane along with tight gas and tight oil, typically lack strict definitions and they often overlap. However, they are all characterized by low permeability that yields commercially insufficient flows from vertical drilling. The shale revolution is the result of technological breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that have made vast dormant gas and oil resources economically exploitable

  • 14.
    Aguilera, Roberto F
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Skifferrevolutionen: hur den kommer att transformera de globala gas- och oljemarknaderna2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 30-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Price of Oil2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on their extensive knowledge of the oil industry, Roberto F. Aguilera and Marian Radetzki provide an in-depth examination of the price of the world's most important commodity. They argue that although oil has experienced an extraordinary price increase over the past few decades, we have now reached a turning point where scarcity, uncertain supply and high prices will be replaced by abundance, undisturbed availability and suppressed price levels. They look at the potential of new global oil revolutions to bring the upward price push to an end and examine the implications of this turnaround for the world economy, as well as for politics, diplomacy, military interventions and the efforts to stabilize climate. This book will appeal to a wide readership of both academics and professionals working in the energy industry, as well as to general readers interested in the ongoing debate about oil prices

  • 16.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The shale revolution: Global gas and oil markets under transformation2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the USA. It is expected to spread beyond the USA, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for the macroeconomy and politics of many countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries. We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 17.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The synchronized and exceptional price performance of oil and gold: Explanations and prospects2017In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 54, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the global markets for gold and oil so as to explain the surprisingly high correlation of the two materials’ prices since 1970, and the exceedingly impressive rise of both price series compared with that of virtually all other primary commodities. We propose that developments in the oil market, and the resulting effects on the macroeconomy, influenced investment activity in gold, thus providing the most plausible explanation for the two commodities’ price synchronization. Our view on the extraordinary price increases of oil and gold, compared to a broad category of metals and minerals, is that oil prices rose first based on above-ground hurdles that restrained the capacity to produce, and gold prices then reacted as they were pushed up by rising safe-haven investment to store value – an attribute not shared by other metals and minerals. The paper also comments on the likely future price evolution of these important materials, arguing that oil prices will stagnate at levels observed from late 2014, or even weaken in the coming decades, but that gold prices will continue to ride relatively high – thus leading to a collapse of the oil/gold price connection.

  • 18.
    Ahlborg, Helene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Broäng, Frida
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 87, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues.

  • 19.
    Ahluwalia, Ritu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Omplaceringsrätten: - och dess begränsningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Aho, Seppo
    et al.
    University of Lapland.
    Ananyina, Anastasia N.
    Petrozavodsk State University.
    Espiritu, Aileen
    Barents Institute, Kirkenes.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Gerashchenko, Ludmila
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Kiselev, Alexey
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Kotyrlo, Elena
    Umeå university.
    Mulina, Tatiana
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Pavlova, Ella N.
    Petrozavodsk State University.
    Ryzhkova, Inna
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Shestova, Yulia
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Silinskaya, Tatiana
    Agency for Tourism and International Cooperation of the Arkhangelsk Region.
    Skupchenko, Julia
    Syktyvkar State University.
    Viken, Arvid
    Tromsø University.
    Tourism: history2016In: Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 2, N-Y / [ed] editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 401-400Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Aho, Seppo
    et al.
    University of Lapland.
    Ananyina, Anastasia N.
    Petrozavodsk State University.
    Espiritu, Aileen
    Barents Institute, Kirkenes.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Gerashchenko, Ludmila
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Kiselev, Alexey
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Kotyrlo, Elena
    Umeå university.
    Mulina, Tatiana
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Pavlova, Ella N.
    Petrozavodsk State University.
    Ryzhkova, Inna
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Shestova, Yulia
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Silinskaya, Tatiana
    Agency for Tourism and International Cooperation of the Arkhangelsk Region.
    Skupchenko, Julia
    Syktyvkar State University.
    Viken, Arvid
    Tromsø University.
    Tourism in the Barents Region2016In: Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 2, N-Y / [ed] editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 395-400Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22. Ahonen, Arto
    et al.
    Alerby, EvaLuleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.Johansen, Ole MartinRajala, RaimoRyzhkova, InnaSohlman, Eiri
    Barns trivsel i nord: aktiviteter for psykososial trivsel fra skoler i Barentsregionen2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ser på betingelsene for psykososial trivsel for barn i de fire landene i Barentsregionen - Norge, Sverige, Finland og Russland. Forfatterne gir teoretiske perspektiver på barns trivsel, og ser på hvordan disse kan overføres til praksis i skolehverdagen. Eksempler på vellykkede undervisningsopplegg gjennomført i skoler i Nordområdene er nøye beskrevet, slik at de kan være til inspirasjon for andre. Boken egner seg for lærere, pedagoger og beslutningstakere som ønsker å skape et læringsmiljø som fremmer vekst og utvikling, med vekt på psykososial trivsel og flerkulturelt samarbeid. Boken er et resultat av forskningsprosjektet ArctiChilden

  • 23. Ahonen, Arto
    et al.
    Alerby, EvaLuleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.Johansen, Ole MartinRajala, RaimoRyzhkova, InnaSohlman, EiriVillanen, Heli
    Crystals of schoolchildren's well-being: cross-border training material for promoting psychosocial well-being through school education2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crystals of Schoolchildren's Well-Being is an investigative experiment carried out in four countries, involving a topic that is very much of this time, and very global. Children's behaviour at home, at school and in the immediate community says a great deal about the environment, sphere of life and world the children are living in. Despite economic, social, cultural and ethnic differences between countries, the ability of children to cope in the societies of the future is crystallised into a question about the present quality of life, the psychosocial well-being the natural and developed living environment should be able to provide. Health and well-being are supported in a safe and caring school environment free of bullying. At their best, the schools, parents and nearby communities offer a growth environment in which the children's psychosocial health and well-being are the focus of at¬tention. Teachers and educators are more and more conscious of the ways in which they can foster a child's health and development by applying teaching methods related to social interaction and health promotion as well as by utilising the opportunities provided by art and culture in teaching. This book examines the theme by offering both carefully reflected knowledge and practical examples of applications with which psychosocial well-being is being produced in schoolwork. The book is meant for teachers, planners and decision makers who are interested in developing growth environments that support psychosocial well-being as well as cross-cultural co-operation.

  • 24.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lin, Janet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Sandström, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    LTU Teaching guide to e-learning: how to clear the mist of teaching through the cloud2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Estimating the Cross-Price Elasticity of Regular Gasoline with Respect to the Price of Premium Gasoline2018In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Simulation of price controls for different grade of gasoline: The case of Indonesia2017In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 68, p. 373-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gasoline subsidy is one of the most prevalent strategies for distributing welfare to the people in oil-producing countries. However well-intentioned, the policy will distort the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies. Furthermore, the gasoline subsidy takes a great amount of government's budget. Arguably, these funds could be spent elsewhere with a greater impact on economic growth. These governments are aware of the cost of such a policy, yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This paper looks at the unique case of Indonesia that only provides a subsidy for regular gasoline and in turn proposes an alternative policy that introduces a subsidy for premium gasoline at a lower rate to reduce the overall gasoline subsidy cost. There has yet to be any research that simulates price controls for gasoline with different grades. The aggregate demand for gasoline in Indonesia is replicated using a translog cost calibration approach. Simulations based on the calibrated demand are then performed and the results confirm the existence of potential savings that are largely determined by the cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline. The benchmark scenario, based on a recent study of substitutability between gasoline by grades, results in an 11.5% reduction in subsidy cost of around 950 million USD with a subsidy rate of Rp 2254/liter. Furthermore, the optimal rate of subsidy for premium gasoline results in a reduction of inefficiency as consumers' welfare increase by 6.8 trillion rupiahs (or 560 million USD).

  • 27.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale, UNU-WIDER, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra.
    Abidoye, Babatunde
    CEEPA, University of Pretoria.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Simbanegavi, Witness
    African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi.
    Public disclosure for carbon abatement: African decision-makers in a PROPER public good experiment2017In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 548-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    linear public good experiment adopted from Holt and Laury [1997. Classroom games: Voluntary provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(4), 209–215.] has been employed to investigate strategic behaviour in pollution abatement among African climate decision-makers. The experiment consisted of three groups, of which groups 2 and 3 received one and two treatments, respectively. The first treatment entailed publicly disclosing the pollution of each member of a group by placing a corresponding colour-coded card in front of each subject, while the second involved the withdrawal of the public disclosure. Group 2 received the first treatment; Group 3 received both the first and second treatments in succession. We found that the untreated group (baseline) polluted more than the two treated groups, and there was no statistically significant difference between the pollution abatement of the two treated groups. These results suggest that public disclosure potentially drives pollution abatement and that its eventual withdrawal does not obliterate abatement behaviour. We did not observe conditional cooperation but average pollution declined over time. Furthermore, individuals who thought it was unfair for Africa to reduce emissions polluted more. We also found that pollution levels differ significantly between males and females.

  • 28.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Zikhali, Precious
    Centre for World Food Studies (SOW-VU), Vrije Universiteit.
    Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in southern Africa?: A bioeconomic modelling approach2009In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 587-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mopane worm, which is the caterpillar form of the Saturnid moth Imbrasia belina Westwood, is like other edible insects and caterpillars a vital source of protein in southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which have alternative uses. With increasing commercialization of the worm, its management, which was hitherto organized as a common property resource, has been degraded to almost open access. This paper uses a bioeconomic modelling approach to show that for some optimal allocation of the mopane forest stock, the restrictive harvest period policy advocated by community leaders may not lead to sustainable harvesting of the worm

  • 29.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.

  • 30.
    Alakärppä, Ismo
    et al.
    University of Lapland.
    Riekki, Jukka
    University of Oulu.
    Larsson, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Jaakkola, Elisa
    University of Lapland.
    Sound aided interface of a pervasive pain monitoring system2011In: 5th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology: ISMICT 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a new version of a pervasivesystem for monitoring and recording subjective painexperiences. The most important service the system offers to itsusers is real-time delivery of reported pain values from patientsto nurses. Pain experiences are expressed on a six-value scalefrom "no pain" to "worst possible pain". The system was testedin four sessions with 23 test users from Finland and Sweden. Themain goal of this study was to evaluate user experience of thepatient application and the sounds we designed for the userinterface. We tested four sound options; spoken, synthetic,xylophone and mute. The material was collected through groupdiscussions and questionnaires. Familiarity, the extent to whicha sound can be identified, and the quality and the pleasantnessof the sound were found to have an effect on forming a positiveexperience. Sounds describing pain levels have to be convincing.The context of use has to be taken into account as a primarydesign driver in a sound design process.

  • 31.
    Alatalo, Frida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Maja, Nilsson
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Paradoxen mellan styrning och inflytande: En fallstudie inom en svensk myndighet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen har aviserat att nya styrmodeller ska utvecklas inom offentlig sektor som ger medarbetarna större frihet och ökat inflytande. Dessa modeller förväntas prägla nya styrmodeller inom offentliga organisationer. Ur ett teoretiskt perspektiv kan styrning och inflytande betraktas som varandras motsatser och mellan dessa kan det uppstå spänningar som skapar ett paradoxalt förhållande. Syftet med examensarbetet är att öka kunskapen om hur styrning och inflytande kan ge upphov till spänningar. Syftet uppnås genom att konceptualisera styrning, inflytande och otydlighet. Examensarbetet baseras på ett fall inom offentlig sektor. En kvalitativ forskningsansats har tillämpats och semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med både chefer och medarbetare. Resultatet visar att ökat inflytandet har lett tillen otydligare styrning som i sin tur gett upphov till förvirring och missnöje bland anställda. Spänningarna som ger upphov till paradoxen består av skilda uppfattningar kring organisatoriska mål samt motstridiga intressen. För att mildra spänningarna som uppstår av paradoxen behöver graden av rolltydlighet och förståelsen för de politiska målen ökas innan ledningen ger medarbetare ökat inflytande. Ledningen kan använda metoder för att reducera kulturella spänningar i syfte att uppnå en samsyn genom hela organisationen. Den optimala graden av inflytande beror även av olika situationsfaktorer. Styrningen kan därför anpassas efter både verksamhet och miljö. Detta paradoxala förhållande mellan styrning och inflytande har funnits inom Polisen och det finns skäl att tro att samma typ av spänningar även finns inom andra offentliga organisationer. Ur skattebetalarnas perspektiv är det av största vikt att offentliga organisationer styrs på ett så effektivt sätt som möjligt för att medborgarna ska erhålla största möjliga värde av de offentliga tjänsterna.

  • 32.
    Albadvi, Amir
    et al.
    Tarbiat Modares University.
    Gharaee, Roudabeh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Tarbiat Modares University.
    Drivers and barriers of E-banking adoption: case of Karafarin bank2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Digital Society: ICDS 2009 : 1 - 7 February 2009, Cuncun, Mexico / [ed] Yutaka Takahashi, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009, p. 235-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates drivers, determinants and barriers of electronic banking adoption in Iran. Results of the analysis of information gathered through comprehensive interviews with the key managers of the pioneer private bank for e-banking adoption in Iran (KB) indicate that the adoption status is the transition of pre-development to development phase and the main drivers for adopting e-banking are downsizing, gaining competitive advantage, increasing market share and improving bank's image. The analysis further reveals that inefficient ICT infrastructure, political challenges and traditional organizational culture are barriers for adoption of e-banking in Iran. We conclude that banks in Iran need to web-enable themselves sooner or later and in order for the banks to overcome some of their barriers identification of the drivers for e-banking adoption would be a helpful tool.

  • 33.
    Aldenbo Rova, Tina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Några nyp får man räkna med: En kvalitativ studie om hot och våld inom äldreomsorgen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att beskriva de anställdas upplevelse av hot och våld samt få en fördjupad kunskap i hur verksamheten hanterar hot och våld. Detta ville jag göra för att bidra till en ökad kunskap om hur arbetssituationen kan se ut i äldreomsorgen. För att reda ut detta utförde jag en kvalitativ studie och intervjuade undersköterskor samt enhetschefer som alla arbetade på olika äldreboenden. Empirin analyserade jag med hjälp av tidigare forskning som visade på att hot och våld ökat främst inom vård-och omsorgsyrkena samt att hot och våld är ett dilemma för dessa yrkesgrupper. De arbetsmiljöföreskrifter jag använt mig av är systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete samt våld och hot i arbetsmiljön. Vetenskapligt vedertagna teorier som jag använt mig av är Karaseks krav-kontroll och stödmodell samt Antonovskys begrepp KASAM.

    Samtliga informanter beskrev hot och våld som en individuell upplevelse från en uppkommen situation. Undersköterskorna liksom enhetscheferna kändetill i vilka situationer hot och våld uppstod. Rutinerna vad gäller riskbedömningar och handlingsplaner följs av alla, däremot fannsdet brister i avvikelserapporteringen trots att det var något som de ansåg som viktigt. Vidare visaderesultatet att samtliga informanter har lång erfarenhet av hot och våld samt att det är något som de kan hanterapå ett ansenligt sätt tack vare en lång och gedigen kunskap i bemötande. För att överhuvudtaget kunna hantera hot-och våldssituationer var det sociala stödet frånarbetskamraterna den viktigaste faktorn. Undersköterskorna kände sig trygga på arbetsplatsen trots hot och våld, förklaringen till det kan vara att de har en hög känsla av sammanhang i kombination med att arbetskraven samt egenkontrollen var höga. Hot ochvåld sågs inte direkt som ett arbetsmiljöproblem utan bedömdes vara omedvetna handlingar utförda av personer med exempelvis demenssjukdomar.

  • 34.
    Al-Doori, Noor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Nedskrivningsprövning av goodwill enligt IAS 36: En jämförande studie av dess efterlevnad i börsnoterade bolag på large cap-listan under åren 2005–20152017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More than 10 years ago, IFRS 3 / IAS 36 was introduced and it became mandatory for all

    listed companies in Sweden to report goodwill. The problem is that IAS 36 is a complicated

    rule and studies show a low level of compliance. The companies are trying to avoid applying

    the rule because companies think it gives a negative image of the companies. This study aims

    at describing how well listed companies in the telecommunications industry comply with IAS

    36 and comparing how it changes over time. This study examines the annual reports of all

    four companies listed on the large-cap list in the telecommunications industry on a

    quantitative method. This is to choose a standard which is IAS 36 p. 134 with a quantitative

    method. The results are presented in tables and diagrams. The study shows that the level of

    compliance is very different among the companies and that the degree of compliance is

    improved over time.

  • 35.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 36.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    A Picture Tells More than a Thousand Words2015In: Children’s Images of Identity: Drawing the Self and the Other, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 15-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘A picture tells more than a thousand words’, is a common saying. Given that a picture tells more than a thousand words – how can we understand and use this expression? How can a picture, or an image, be analysed and used as part of educational research? In this chapter the use of images, and more specifically drawings, will be explored.

  • 37.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    A way of visualising children´s and young people´s thoughts about the environment: a study of drawings2000In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 205-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article attempts to visualise the way in which children and young people think about a specific topic, namely the environment. The aim is to make the thinking of children and young people available and to interpret the meaning of their thoughts about our environment. The theoretical roots of the study are to be found within the phenomenology of the lifeworld. The study is based on empirical material consisting of drawings produced by 109 children and young people, combined with subsequent oral comments. During the drawing analysis different structures and patterns gradually crystallised, and eventually four different themes emerged, consisting of thoughts which focus on the following: the good world, the bad world, the dialectics between the good and the bad world, and symbols and actions protecting the environment. It can be stated that the results which emerged, in the form of the thoughts of the children and young people on the environment, reflect a thinking characterisedby many nuances, such as clean and unspoilt nature in different manifestations, the need for human beings to use nature for recreation and well-being, environmental destruction in different forms, and direct or indirect ways of taking care of the prevailing environmental situation.

  • 38.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    About silence: a matter for educational settings2012In: Abstract book: the 40:th Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, Copenhagen: Nordic educational research association, NERA , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ”… if we know more about silence, we will know more about ourselves”, states Jaworski. What then do we know about silence? Sometimes people are silent of their own free will, while others have silence thrust upon them. Others are perhaps silent to demonstrate their position of strength or superiority with regard to others. To have understanding of and insight into the meaning and different aspects of silence is of importance to life itself, as well as to different educational settings. Within the framework of this paper, the significance of silence for educational settings will be highlighted and discussed. The discussion will be based on the recently published book ”Om tystnad - i pedagogiska sammanhang” [About Silence - in educational settings] (Alerby, 2012).The presentation will deal with issues like - is it accepted for students to be silent? Or is this seen as a problem? Some students are experienced by others or by themselves as silent. Perhaps they are neither given, nor do they take, the silent space that is required for participation in the conversation. They remain silent even though the ongoing discussion wakens thoughts and opinions, and they continue to be silent even though they know the answer to the question which the teacher has just asked. Most silent students probably have an opinion to add to the discussion or an answer to give to the question, but they choose for some reason not to express this, and therefore remain silent in the eyes (or ears) of others. But are they really silent? One way to approach these issues is to take the phenomenological movement as a point of departure. To be more precise - this paper will discuss silence in educational settings using a phenomenological life-world approach.

  • 39.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Aktivt lärande: kompetensutveckling inom skolan i Pajala kommun : ett värdegrundsprojekt2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Pajala kommun har med stöd från Skolverket bedrivit kompetensutveckling inom skolan i form av värdegrundsprojektet ”Aktivt lärande i Pajala”. Projektet vände sig till personal inom Pajala kommuns skolverksamhet, och det anordnades av Pajala kommun, inre rektorsområdet, i samarbete med Centrum för forskning i lärande, Luleå tekniska universitet. Kompetensutvecklingens huvudmål var att tydliggöra skolans värdegrund samt att arbeta med mål och utvärdering. Detta arbete har kopplats till olika utvecklingsarbeten som genomförts inom ramen för de deltagande arbetsenheterna. Vidare har ett aktionsinriktat arbetssätt tillämpats under hela projektets gång. Ett antal av lärarnas A-dagar samt Pedagogiska caféer har använts för gemensam kompetensutveckling. Övriga A-dagar och även viss tid av den reglerade arbetstiden användes till de utvecklingsområden som varje arbetslag arbetade med utifrån sina behov enligt respektive projektplan. Vid utvärderingen framkom att projektdeltagarna upplever att värdegrundsfrågorna, i och med projektet, har legaliserats och även getts ett stort utrymme i verksamheten. Detta genom att frågorna på ett naturligt och självklart sätt fått en framträdande plats, men även genom skolledningens stöd samt universitetets medverkan. Personalen upplever framför allt att de fått mer tid att fokusera ett gemensamt uppdrag, nämligen att arbeta med och utifrån värdegrunden. Lärarna upplever även att eleverna har givits större möjligheter till delaktighet vid såväl planering som utvärdering. Vidare betonas vikten av man från ledningshåll avsätter tid och att ledningen på ett aktivt och konkret sätt visar projektet intresse och uppmärksamhet. Genom den process som det aktionsinriktade arbetssättet startade ledde projektarbetet till såväl kompetensutveckling som till skolutveckling, eller för att använda andra ord – till det livslånga lärandet.

  • 40.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Att fånga en tanke: en fenomenologisk studie av barns och ungdomars tänkande kring miljö1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to clarify the way in which young people think about our envíronment, based on their experiences as the starting point. The aim is to make the thinking of people available and to interpret the meaning of these thoughts, whose content comprises the environment. The theoretical roots of the study are to be found within the phenomenology of the lifeworld. I also use the phenomenological method as a type of analysis method to use as inspiration when analysing the empirical material. The children and young people who are included in the study are between the ages of 7 and 16. The data collection is based on two partial studies. In one partial study, empirical material is analysed consisting of the production of drawings by 105 children and young people with attached oral comments, and in the other partial study interviews which were conducted with 16 children and young people are analysed. These two studies are partially connected and partially dependent on one another. The drawing study is aimed at developing an understanding of the thinking of the children and young people and also forms the basis for the selection of subjects for the interview study. The interview study for its part is aimed at further deepening the understanding of the thinking process and the interviews took place on two occations with each person. In the drawing analysis four themes of thoughts were crystallised which focus on: the good world, the bad world, the dialectics between the good and bad world, and symbols and actions promoting the environment. In the interview analysis eight themes emerged of thoughts which focus on: pragmatic perspectives, emotional perspectives, future and visionary perspectives, philosophical perspectives, aesthetic perspectives and romantic perspectives. It can be stated that the results which emerged in the form of the thinking of the children and young people on the environment reflect their thinking as having many nuances. If these many-faceted thoughts are to be taken seriously it is necessary in the teaching and learning situation to take into account the thinking of young citizens. Teaching and learning situations should therefore create time and room for conversation and thinking. This is to stimulate the growing power which the experiences of young people have, experiences which are in turn requirements for thinking: thinking which is constituted by beeing-in-the-world.

  • 41.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Constitution of learning: a view of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Gregory Bateson notions of learning2002In: The many faces of philosophy of education: traditions, problems and challenges : conference proceedings : International Network of Philosophers of Education, / [ed] Tone Kvernbekk; Birgit Nordtug, Oslo: University of Oslo, Institute of Educational Research , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Det pedagogiska rummet: Om erfarenheter, känslor och den rumsliga gestaltningen2015In: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundets årsbok. 2016 / [ed] red: Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundet , 2015, p. 69-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    During the break we have fun: a study concerning pupils' experience of school2003In: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to elucidate pupils' experience of school and to interpret the meaning of their experiences. The theoretical roots of this study are to be found within the phenomenology of the lifeworld. The pupils' experience of school is made apparent with the aid of creative activity in the form of the production of drawings, combined with subsequent oral comments. During the analysis of the empirical material, different patterns and structures were noticed, and eventually six different themes emerged, which are presented without any relative order of precedence. The themes are in the space of experience of: learning and knowledge, social relations, orderliness and rules, subjects, feelings and time-dimensions. The results which emerged, in the form of the pupils' experience of school, show multifaceted experiences which have many nuances, such as a lack of time to accomplish schoolwork, the importance of breaks and relations between friends, the importance of the relations between the teacher and the pupils, the fact that rules are decided upon over the pupils' heads and the fact that learning things and developing knowledge are positive even if school is sometimes experienced as boring.

  • 44.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Goda lärmiljöer: ett kompetensutvecklingsprojekt inom Pajala kommuns skolor och förskolor2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Pajala kommun har i samarbete med Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap, Luleå tekniska universitet och Regionalt utvecklingscentrum, Karlstads universitet, under läsåret 2002/2003 bedrivit kompetensutveckling inom förskola och skola genom projektet ”Uppdraget – att utveckla lärandet genom att skapa goda lärmiljöer”. Syftet med kompetensutvecklingen var att utveckla barns, ungdomars och vuxnas lärande genom att skapa goda lärmiljöer utifrån det uppdrag som skolan har. Projektet vände sig till all personal inom sju rektorsområden i Pajala kommuns skolverksamhet, från förskola till och med gymnasiet. I kompetensutvecklingen deltog sammanlagt 180 personer fördelade på 30 arbetslag. Ett antal gemensamma kompetensutvecklingsdagar har använts till pedagogiska caféer samt seminarier. Under dessa caféer och seminarier har styrdokument, pedagogisk litteratur och aktuell forskning diskuterats och behandlats. De olika arbetsenheterna har däremellan kontinuerligt fört diskussioner i respektive arbetslag. Ett antal uppgifter, både muntliga och skriftliga, har genomförts i syfte att föra processen framåt och koppla ihop diskussionerna från de gemensamma träffarna till arbetslagsnivå. De olika arbetslagen har även arbetat med olika utvecklingsarbeten där elev- och/eller föräldrainflytande fokuserats. Utvecklingsarbetena har behandlats vid de erfarenhetsseminarier som anordnats varje termin. Vid utvärderingen av detta projekt framkom att projektdeltagarna upplever att de genom projektet fått möjlighet att arbeta med förståelsen av uppdraget genom att tid har avsatts och möten har anordnats. Det framgår tydligt att förståelsen av uppdraget varierar såväl inom som mellan arbetslagen. Genom ett medvetet arbete med styrdokumenten har man nu fått ökade kunskaper om uppdraget och känner sig därför säkrare i sin profession. Kunskaper om det egna lärandet har ökat och vikten av att skapa goda lärmiljöer har blivit tydligare för samtliga berörda. Projektdeltagarna poängterar vidare att de genom projektet lärt sig och praktiserat olika pedagogiska samtal som ett redskap för att utveckla skolan. Deltagarna anser att det är viktigt att samtalen och reflektionerna fortsätter och en förutsättning för att så ska ske är att skolledningen tar ansvar för att möjliggöra detta. Vidare framkom att tid har avsatts för att tillsammans med barnen och ungdomarna samtala kring samt förankra skolans demokratiska värden i enlighet med uppdraget. Arbetet har fokuserat inflytande och delaktighet, men personalen upplever att det finns mycket kvar att göra innan inflytandet för barn och ungdomar blir en naturlig del av skolans verksamhet. Att utveckla ett reellt inflytande är en process som måste fortsätta under en längre tid innan resultat syns i verksamheten. Därför är det angeläget att processerna som startat får ytterligare tid för att kunna utvecklas vidare.

  • 45.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    In school you learn to get on in life: Sámi Children in Sweden2008In: Voices from the margins: school experiences of refugee, migrant and indigenous children, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2008, p. 31-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Jan Bengtsson (1949–2013): A Phenomenological Scholar of Our Time2015In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 10-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Knowledge as a ‘body run': learning of writing as embodied experience in accordance with Merleau-Ponty's theory of the lived body2009In: Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, ISSN 2079-7222, E-ISSN 1445-7377, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What significance does the body have in the process of teaching and learning? In what way can the thoughts of a contemporary junior-level teacher in this regard be connected to the theory of the lived body formulated by the French phenomenologist philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961), and vice versa? The aim of this paper is to illuminate, enable understanding and discuss the meaning of the body in the learning process, with specific focus on the learning of writing as embodied experience. In the process, the boundaries of learning are also explored. While understanding the significance both of learning as embodied experience and of the boundaries of learning is essential within the educational field, in this paper the discussion is limited to exploring how learning as embodied experience and the boundaries of learning can be viewed by taking Merleau-Ponty's notions as theoretical starting points. In an attempt to answer the aim and connect the paper's theoretical point of departure with a voice from a teacher, an interview with a junior-level teacher was conducted. The paper thus offers a theoretical contribution to the field of educational research, but one in which the theory is exemplified by, and connected to, a teacher's voice. Accordingly, the paper concludes by summarising the common understandings of learning held theoretically by Merleau-Ponty and made real in the activities of the contemporary junior-level teacher.

  • 48.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Knowledge must take a run through the whole body: some notes concerning the learning of writing as embodied experience2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Knowledge must take a run through the whole body before it becomes real knowledge. If it just goes in one ear, without a ‘body run', it will immediately disappear out of the other ear and no knowledge will emerge." A junior-level teacher formulated these thoughts. In this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of learning. The aim of the paper is to illuminate, understand and discuss the meaning of the body in the learning process - the learning of writing as embodied experience. Furthermore, the boundary of learning will be highlighted. Understanding the importance of learning as embodied experience as well as the boundary of learning are probably essential elements within the educational field. In this paper I limit the discussion to raising some ideas of how learning as embodied experience and the boundary of learning can be viewed taking Maurice Merleau-Ponty's notions as theoretical starting points. Merleau-Ponty's thoughts will be discussed in relation to the contemporary junior-level teacher's view.

  • 49.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Laver: beskrivning av Sveriges modernaste gruvsamhälle under åren 1937-1947, med speciell tonvikt på skolan1994Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Learning as embodied experience2003In: NERA congress, Nordic educational research association, NERA , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
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