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  • 1.
    Clemensson, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences. 1993.
    Självledarskap som ledningsfilosofi: En kvalitativ studie om anställdas upplevelser av självledarskap i en offentlig myndighet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Davidoff, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Avvikande beteende: En kvalitativ studie om kriminalvårdsanställdas inställning till avvikelse, stämpling, stigmatisering och utanförskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine the employees’ in the forensic mental health service conceptions about deviant and normal behavior, and also if they can recognize the explanations for deviant behavior in the central theories. Furthermore it is examined how respondents’ perceptions of how the labeling, stigmatization and exclusion that affect people that show deviant behavior can be counteracted.

    Eight interviews have been conducted. Theoretical bases in this study are labeling theories, differential association theory, social control theory and techniques of neutralization.

    The results are composed of three themes that describe the characteristic features of deviant and normal behavior. These themes are: Majority paves the way for how a behavior is considered, Basic conditions in a human life and Lack of knowledge as an underlying factor in people’s uncertainty.

    Results emphasize that the respondents are aware of the concepts of normal behavior that exist in society. These conceptions are a human being’s possession of a job, a home and a family. Legality is another aspect that is considered to be something that normal people do. These conceptions result in how respondents interpret deviant behavior. Deviant behavior occurs when people are not obedient to laws and standards in a society or a group.

    Interviewees thought that all theories in this study were a simplification of reality because people that show deviant behavior could hold other things responsible for their actions. The theories could not affect how a person or a society would look at people that show deviant behavior. In real life people have to take responsibility for their own actions.

    Deviant behavior may contribute to or be a consequence of stigmatization, labeling and exclusion. These concepts will always exist therefore people have to bear responsibility for their actions themselves.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Förankring och emotionell priming vid bedömning av bilder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete undersöker effekten av emotionell priming när försökspersonen använderen bedömningsskala som förankrat bedömningar av upplevd skönhet. Tio försökspersoner fick bedöma skönhet hos bilder med varierande emotionellt innehåll. Något entydigt svar på om, och i så fall hur mycket bedömningarna påverkades av emotionellt innehåll genom en priming-effekt gick inte fastställa, men en tendens till effekt av priming påvisades. Förklaringar som främst gäller metodiska begränsningar diskuteras.

  • 4.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate reading habits in older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. We examined a sample of 1157 participants (55 years at baseline) up to 15 years after the baseline assessment using latent growth curve modeling of cognitive measures with baseline reading frequency (books, weekly magazines) as a predictor of cognitive level (intercept) and rate of change (slope). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the role of an early adult g factor in the association between reading habits and cognitive ability in midlife. Frequent reading of books, but not of magazines, was associated with higher levels of verbal fluency and recall but unrelated to rate of longitudinal decline. Subgroup analyses indicated that the g factor in early adulthood predicted reading and cognitive level in midlife and this factor removed the current association between reading habits and level of cognitive ability (both cognitive factors). The results indicate an enduring relationship between book reading and level of cognitive ability across the adult life span and provide little support of the hypothesis that frequent reading protects against latelife cognitive decline. The extent to which book reading promotes cognitive functioning in childhood/youth remains to be demonstrated. Intervention studies may be useful in this regard.

  • 5.
    Fjellström, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Imagery rehearsal therapy: Kognitiv beteendeterapi vid posttraumatiska mardrömmar hos veteraner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mental suffering costs the society amounts of money every year due to sick leave, suicide and general production loss. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the conditions that can affect anyone who has experienced a traumatic event.  This thesis examines the positive experiences and limitations of the treatment form Imagery rehearsal therapy for war veterans’ post-traumatic nightmares. The results show that this treatment reduces post-trauma nightmares both in frequency and in intensity. It also improves the quality of sleep and reduces PTSD- and depression symptoms. However, veterans with multiple traumas as a basis for their PTSD may need more sessions of imagery rehearsal therapy. The results also indicate that the treatment also can show positive results in the reduction of the nightmare frequency and intensity in individuals who suffer from other types of traumatic nightmares than the war veterans had.

  • 6.
    Hjärtström, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Distraction and facilitation: The impact of emotional sounds in an emoji oddball task2019In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 180-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional stimuli are argued to capture attention and consume attentional resources differently depending on their emotionalcontent. The present study investigates the impact of the automatic detection of unexpected and to-be-ignored emotional stimuli onhuman behavioral responses, and aims to unravel the differences in distraction between two negative emotional stimuli: sadness and anger.Forty participants (Mage= 25.5 years) performed a visual categorization task where angry and sad emoji faces were presented after eithera standard neutral tone (in 80% of trials) or a deviant emotional sound (tone changing in pitch; sad or angry sound in 10% of trials each)that was to be ignored. Deviant trials were either congruent (e.g., sad sound—sad face) or incongruent (e.g., angry sound—sad face).Although the stimuli presented to the participants were brief and to-be-ignored, results indicate that participants were significantly moredistracted by sad compared to angry stimuli (seen as prolonged response times). Findings are discussed with reference to the nature ofthe two negative emotions.

  • 7.
    Jenny, Ripa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    En granskning av Narrative Exposure Theraphy: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka det vetenskapliga stödet för teorin bakom behandlingsmetoden Narrative exposure therapy(NET).I NET-modellen delas det autobiografiska minnet upp i varma och kalla minnen och mellan dessa minnestyper finns en koppling. Då en individ utsätts för en traumatisk händelse bryts denna koppling och PTSD kan uppkomma. Avbrottet gör att de som lider av flashbacks blir fast i ångest och rädsla och blir oförmögna att lokalisera en flashback i tid och rum. Med NET kopplas det varma och kalla minnet samman igen i syfte att göra ett traumatiskt minne tillgängligt för terapeutisk bearbetning.Denna minnesmekanism samt minnesindelningen varma och kalla minnen, har en oklar grund.Metoden som användes i detta examensarbete var litteraturstudie. Frågeställningarna var, existerar vetenskapligt underlag,som visar att minnen kan delas upp i varma och kalla minnenochkan PTSD uppstå om kopplingen mellan dessa minnen bryts? I de källor som granskats i denna litteraturstudie fanns inget stöd för NET-modellens minnesindelning och förklaring till uppkomsten av PTSD.Dock finns likheter mellan NET-metoden och forskningsunderlag men de är inte tillräckliga för att kunna ge stöd till NET-modellen. Likheter fanns bland annat mellan NET-modellen och S-reps och C-reps (Brewin, Gregory, Burgess & Lipton 2010) samt datadriven bearbetning av traumaminnen(Halligan, Ehlers & Clark, 2003).

  • 8.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå. Sweden b School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK.
    Parmentier, Fabrice B R
    Department of Psychology, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain. School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Jones, Dylan M
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK. School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Marsja, Erik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Neely, Gregory
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    ‘What’s in a name?’ ‘No more than when it's mine own’. Evidence from auditory oddball distraction2014In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 150, p. 161-6, article id S0001-6918(14)00125-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research of the distractor value of hearing the own name has shown that this self-referring stimulus captures attention in an involuntary fashion and create distraction. The behavioral studies are few and the outcomes are not always clear cut. In this study the distraction by own name compared to a control name was investigated by using a cross-modal oddball task in two experiments. In the first experiment, thirty-nine participants were conducting a computerized categorization task while exposed to, to-be ignored own and matched control names (controlling for familiarity, gender and number of syllables) as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (12.5% trials for each name category) and a sine wave tone as a standard stimulus (75% of the trials). In the second experiment, another group of thirty-nine participants completed the same task but with the additional deviant stimulus of an irrelevant word added (10% trials for each deviant type and 70% trials with the standard stimulus). Results showed deviant distraction by exposure to both the irrelevant word, own and the control name compared to the standard tone but no differences were found showing that the own name captured attention and distracted the participants more than an irrelevant word or a control name. The results elucidate the role of the own name as a potent auditory distractor and possible limitations with its theoretical significance for general theories of attention are discussed.

  • 9. Ljungberg, Jessica K
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Andrés, Pilar
    Josefsson, Maria
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e73029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178) between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  • 10. Ljungberg, Jessica K
    et al.
    Parmentier, Fabrice
    The impact of intonation and valence on objective and subjective attention capture by auditory alarms.2012In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 826-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the involuntary capture of attention by spoken words varying in intonation and valence.

    BACKGROUND: In studies of verbal alarms, the propensity of alarms to capture attention has been primarily assessed with the use of subjective ratings of their perceived urgency. Past studies suggest that such ratings vary with the alarms' spoken urgency and content.

    METHOD: We measured attention capture by spoken words varying in valence (negative vs. neutral) and intonation (urgently vs. nonurgently spoken) through subjective ratings and behavioral measures. The key behavioral measure was the response latency to visual stimuli in the presence of spoken words breaking away from the periodical repetition of a tone.

    RESULTS: The results showed that all words captured attention relative to a baseline standard tone but that this effect was partly counteracted by a relative speeding of responses for urgently compared with nonurgently spoken words. Word valence did not affect behavioral performance. Rating data showed that both intonation and valence increased significantly perceived urgency and attention grabbing without any interaction.

    CONCLUSION: The data suggest a congruency between subjective ratings and behavioral performance with respect to spoken intonation but not valence.

    APPLICATION: This study demonstrates the usefulness and feasibility of objective measures of attention capture to help design efficient alarm systems.

  • 11. Ljungberg, Jessica K
    et al.
    Parmentier, Fabrice B R
    Cross-modal distraction by deviance: functional similarities between the auditory and tactile modalities.2012In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 355-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unexpected task-irrelevant changes in the auditory or visual sensory channels have been shown to capture attention in an ineluctable manner and distract participants away from ongoing auditory or visual categorization tasks. We extend the study of this phenomenon by reporting the first within-participant comparison of deviance distraction in the tactile and auditory modalities. Using vibro-tactile-visual and auditory-visual cross-modal oddball tasks, we found that unexpected changes in the tactile and auditory modalities produced a number of functional similarities: A negative impact of distracter deviance on performance in the ongoing visual task, distraction on the subsequent trial (post-deviance distraction), and a similar decrease - but not the disappearance - of these effects across blocks. Despite these functional similarities, deviance distraction only correlated between the auditory and tactile modalities for the accuracy-based measure of deviance distraction and not for response latencies. Post-deviance distraction showed no correlation between modalities. Overall, the results suggest that behavioral deviance distraction may be underpinned by both modality-specific and multimodal mechanisms, while post-deviance distraction may predominantly relate to modality-specific processes.

  • 12. Ljungberg, Jessica K
    et al.
    Parmentier, Fabrice B R
    Leiva, Alicia
    Vega, Nuria
    The informational constraints of behavioral distraction by unexpected sounds: the role of event information.2012In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 1461-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sounds deviating from an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli (deviant sounds among standard sounds) are known to capture attention and impact negatively on ongoing behavioral performance (behavioral oddball distraction). Traditional views consider such distraction as the ineluctable consequence of the deviant sounds' low probability of occurrence relative to that of the standard. Contrary to this contention, recent evidence demonstrates that distraction by deviant sounds is not obligatory and occurs only when sounds (standards and deviants), though to be ignored, act as useful warning cues by providing information as to whether and when a target stimulus is to be presented (Parmentier, Elsley, & Ljungberg, 2010). The present study aimed to extend this finding by disentangling the roles of event information (target's probability of occurrence) and temporal information (target's time of occurrence). Comparing performance in a cross-modal oddball task where standard and deviant sounds provided temporal information, event information, both, or none, we found that distraction by deviant sounds emerged when sounds conveyed event information. These results suggest that unexpected changes in a stream of sounds yield behavioral distraction to the extent that standards and deviants carry relevant goal-directed information, specifically, the likelihood of occurrence of an upcoming target.

  • 13.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Neely, Gregory
    Hansson, Patrik
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Spatial Change In Multisensory Distractors Impact On Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unexpected changes (known as deviant sounds) in a repetitive stream ofstandardsounds are known to prolong responses in visual categorization tasks (Parmentier, 2014) and disrupt short-term memory (Hughes, Vachon, & Jones, 2005; 2007). While this deviation effect,has been studied extensively, unexpected changes in multisensory irrelevant stimuli have yet to be explored. A further issue is whether a spatial change in either tactile, auditory, or in both modalities simultaneously, affects verbal and spatial short-term memorysimilarly. We explored how spatial and verbal memory performance were affected by a spatial change unexpectedly presented in a multisensory stream consisting of task-irrelevant vibrations and sounds.The sounds were presented from headphones and the vibrations from coin-like vibrating motors strapped to the upper arms of the participants. In the majority of trials (approximately 80%) the multisensory stream was presented on one side of the body whereas on deviant trials the irrelevant stimuli changed to the other side of the body. Preliminarily results suggest that a spatial change in a multisensory stream of irrelevant stimuli affects short-term memory performance both the spatial and verbal domains similarly. We conclude by discussing the results in the framework of multisensory views of short-term memory and attention (e.g., Cowan's, 1988; 1995) and the predictive coding framework (e.g., Talsma, 2015)

  • 14.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden,.
    Neely, Greg
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden,.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Investigating Deviance Distraction and the Impact of the Modality of the To-Be-Ignored Stimuli2018In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: It has been suggested that deviance distraction is caused by unexpected sensory events in the to-be-ignored stimuli violating thecognitive system’s predictions of incoming stimuli. The majority of research has used methods where the to-be-ignored expected (standards)and the unexpected (deviants) stimuli are presented within the same modality. Less is known about the behavioral impact of deviancedistraction when the to-be-ignored stimuli are presented in different modalities (e.g., standard and deviants presented in different modalities).In three experiments using cross-modal oddball tasks with mixed-modality to-be-ignored stimuli, we examined the distractive role ofunexpected auditory deviants presented in a continuous stream of expected standard vibrations. The results showed that deviance distractionseems to be dependent upon the to-be-ignored stimuli being presented within the same modality, and that the simplest omission ofsomething expected; in this case, a standard vibration may be enough to capture attention and distract performance.

  • 15.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Greg
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parmentier, Fabrice
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Maintenance of the distractive effect of deviating vibrotactile stimuli in a cross-modal oddball paradigm2013In: Fechner day 2013: Proceedings of the29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Jiri Wackermann, Marc Wittmann, Wolfgang Skrandies, 2013, p. 1-126Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ma, Lichen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cross-modality matches of intensity and attention capture dimensions of auditory and vibrotactile stimuli2015In: Fechner Day 2015. The 31st Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, Québec, Canada, August 17-21, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parmentier, Fabrice
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Deviance Distraction Is Contingent on Stimuli Being Presented Within the Same Modality2014In: Abstracts of the Psychomic Society, The Psychonomic Society , 2014, p. 101-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sudden and unexpected changes in the auditory and visual channel are known to capture attention. This attention capture has been shown to negatively impact performance in an ongoing task (i.e., deviance distraction). In three experiments we examined if deviant stimuli presented in a different modality than astandard stimuli caused distraction in a visual categorization task, using a multi-sensory oddball task. In two experiments a deviant sound was presented (20 % of trials) against 80 % vibrotactile standard trials. In one the standard was omitted on deviating sound trials, while in the other the standard and deviants were presented simultaneously. In the third experiment the standard vibration was omitted in 20 % of the trials without any presentation of a deviant sound. Results showed distraction by deviating sounds (p < .05), but not when standard vibrations were presented simultaneously (p >.05). Interestingly, the omission of a standard vibration showed distraction (p < .05). In conclusion, deviance distraction might be bound to within rather than between modalities.

  • 18.
    Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sörman Eriksson, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, .School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    The impact of spoken action words on performance in a cross-modal oddball task2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a cross-modal oddball task was employed to study the effect that words spokeneither non-urgently or urgently would have on a digit categorization task and if women wouldexhibit greater behavioral inhibitory control. The words were unrelated to the task itself, butrelated to the action required to complete the task. Forty participants (21 women) conducteda computerized categorization task while exposed to a sinewave tone as a standard stimulus(75% of the trials) or a to-be ignored word (press, stop) spoken either non-urgently orurgently as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (6.25% trials for each category). Urgentwords had sharp intonation and an average fundamental frequency (F0) ranging from 191.9(stop) to 204.6 (press) Hz. Non-urgent words had low intonation with average F0 rangingfrom 103.9.9 (stop) to 120.3 (press) Hz. As expected, deviant distraction and longerresponse times were found by exposure to the word stop, but deviant distraction was notfound to be significant with the word press or due to intonation. While the results showedthat women had in general longer reaction times, there were no gender differences foundrelated to the deviant distraction caused by word or intonation. The present results do notsupport the hypothesis that women have greater behavioral inhibitory control, but there wasevidence that the meaning of the word could influence response times.

  • 19. Parmentier, Fabrice B R
    et al.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K
    Elsley, Jane V
    Lindkvist, Markus
    A behavioral study of distraction by vibrotactile novelty.2011In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 1134-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research has demonstrated that the occurrence of unexpected task-irrelevant changes in the auditory or visual sensory channels captured attention in an obligatory fashion, hindering behavioral performance in ongoing auditory or visual categorization tasks and generating orientation and re-orientation electrophysiological responses. We report the first experiment extending the behavioral study of cross-modal distraction to tactile novelty. Using a vibrotactile-visual cross-modal oddball task and a bespoke hand-arm vibration device, we found that participants were significantly slower at categorizing the parity of visually presented digits following a rare and unexpected change in vibrotactile stimulation (novelty distraction), and that this effect extended to the subsequent trial (postnovelty distraction). These results are in line with past research on auditory and visual novelty and fit the proposition of common and amodal cognitive mechanisms for the involuntary detection of change.

  • 20.
    Sörman, Daniel Eriksson
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Marsh, John
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking2017In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40–65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

  • 21.
    Åslund, Tova
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Extroverta och introverta personlighetsdrag och hur de värderas2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine preferences for personality traits within the spectrum of extroversion and introversion. Based on previous research, the hypothesis of this study was that extroversion was valued higher than introversion. The differences between men and women’s preferences were also examined. The material being used was based on research on the fundamental lexical hypothesis and its semantic similarity to the Big Five. Seventy two students filled in a questionnaire where they were asked to rate 18 personality adjectives as positive or negative. The results indicate a preference for extroversion which supports the hypothesis. However, no significant difference between men and women could assuredly be established.

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