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  • 1.
    Abdulbaqi, Dana M.
    et al.
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Al-Shaikh, Mohammed
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a Stepping Stone to Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns about carbon emissions coupled with the oil industry’s need to secure additional CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects have sparked interest in the potential that CO2-EOR may have in jumpstarting carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). However, existing studies on the viability of coupling CO2-EOR with CCS have generally placed more focus on either the engineering or economic aspects of the problem. Most engineering studies focus on the technical aspects of the CO2-EOR project to produce the maximum amount of oil, while simultaneously storing the most CO2 during the production process with the economics as an afterthought, while most economic studies found have focused on a singular aspect of the issue such as impacts of exogenously varying injection rates. Furthermore, modelling efforts have stopped at the end of the productive life of the field. We build a unique two-stage dynamic optimization model, which simultaneously addresses engineering and economic policy aspects, to study the viability of coupling CO2-EOR transitioning into CCS. Our model includes a carbon tax for emissions, which becomes a subsidy for full scale sequestration after oil production has ceased; this allows us to explore the transition from CO2-EOR, our first stage, to sole CO2 sequestration in our second stage for a single field. We maximize the operator’s profits across both stages, while tracking the responsiveness of oil production and total carbon movements to both price and policy changes. We pair our optimization model with a reservoir simulation model, allowing us to mimic actual field behavior, giving our work a more realistic representation of both production and sequestration profiles. Our results suggest that small increases in the level of carbon tax can have large and discontinuous impacts on net sequestration. This stems from the observed transition from limited natural sources of CO2 to more expensive captured CO2 resulting from the implemented policy. With appropriate taxes, total volumes of captured CO2 sequestered across both stages are equivalent to 30 to 40% of the emissions from the use of the oil produced. With the credits oil producers receive from sequestering CO2, which equate to the tax, relatively high carbon taxes incentivize additional sequestration without significantly impacting the supply of oil. This, alongside maintaining a steady stream of profits, is a win-win situation for energy security and the climate.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Lunds tekniska högskola, LTH.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Rehn, Alf
    Åbo Akademi.
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Industriell ekonomi och organisering: IE2016Book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

  • 4.
    Ackelid, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Stenmark, Gabriella
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Konsumenters uppfattning av hållbarhetsmärkningar i dagligvaruhandeln: Hur köpbeslutet påverkas2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet är en stark faktor som påverkar både konsumenter och företag i växande utsträckning. Att medvetet konsumera i enlighet med hållbara riktlinjer ligger i många konsumenters intresse, och företag utvecklar kontinuerligt strategier för att bemöta konsumentbehov och höja sin försäljning. I takt med detta ökar utbudet av hållbart märkta produkter och hållbarhetsmärkningar. För konsumenter innebär detta större valmöjligheter men också eventuella svårigheter då hållbarhetsmärkningar ofta upplevs snarlika och svåra att förstå betydelsen bakom, vilket i sin tur kan ha en motverkande effekt på konsumenters köpbeslut. Syftet med denna studie var därför att undersöka hur konsumenter i dagligvaruhandeln ställer sig till svenskt etablerade hållbarhetsmärkningar på likvärdiga produkter, för att utforska hur hållbarhetsmärkningar påverkar konsumenters köpbeslut vid köptillfället. Studien eftersträvade att identifiera de starkaste faktorerna som ligger bakom konsumenters beslut att köpa eller inte köpa hållbart märkta produkter. Avsikten var att ge företag/varumärken en bild av vad konsumenterna behöver för att effektivt vägledas i sitt köpbeslut. Insamling av data genomfördes genom enkäter med kvalitativ karaktär då studien avsåg att belysa konsumentåsikter kopplade till konsumentbeteende. Urvalet som inkluderades i studien utgjordes av individer som köper produkter i dagligvaruhandeln. Analys av data skedde med utgångspunkt i grundad teori där nyckelord och mönster mellan respondenter och svar identifierades och tolkades. Resultatet av studien visade att konsumenter främst påverkas i köpriktning vid köp av hållbart märkta produkter till följd av miljömässiga omvärldseffekter och personliga effekter på den egna hälsan, men även till viss del till följd av omvärldseffekter kopplade till socialt ansvarstagande samt tillgänglighet av information. Bristande tilltro som skapar associationer till opålitlighet samt bristande förståelse till följd av dålig kunskap är de enda faktorerna som har påverkan på köpbeslut i icke-köpriktningen enligt resultatet av studien. Genom att belysa de faktorer som påverkar konsumenter i köpriktning och motverka de faktorer som påverkar konsumenter i icke-köpriktning, kan företag/varumärken uppnå företagsnytta.

  • 5.
    Adey, E.A.
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Shail, R.K.
    University of Exeter.
    Wall, F.
    University of Exeter.
    Varul, M.
    University of Exeter.
    Whitbread-Abrutat, P.
    Eden Project.
    Baciu, C.
    University of Babes-Bolyai.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lovric, I.
    University of Mostar.
    Udachin, V.
    Institute of Mineralogy.
    Corporate social responsibility within the mining industry: case studies from across Europe and Russia2011In: Proceedings of the Aachen International Mining Symposia (AIMS): 5th International Conference – Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry (SDIMI 2011), Aachen, 14-17 June 2011, Aachen: Aachen University , 2011, p. 153-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible mining requires a company to engage with local communities throughout all stages of their operations, from exploration phases through to post mining planning. Assessment of current and potential future social impacts allows a company to maximize the positive impacts they can have on a community, whilst minimizing negative social impacts from mining. Initiating and upholding effective stakeholder relations are key to a company`s ability to obtain and maintain their "social license" to operate. The level of interaction between mining companies and stakeholders, including local communities, varies substantially between and within countries. As part of the EU funded Framework 7 "ImpactMin" Project (Impact Monitoring of Mineral Resources Exploitation), we have examined the level of community engagement in mining and related processing industries at sites across Europe, including Romania (Rosia Montana), Sweden (Kristineberg), the UK (Cornwall), Bosnia Herzegovina (Vihovici) and Russia (Karabash, Gay and Mednogorsk). These sites reflect different stages in mining and therefore reveal a diverse range of issues and differing levels of community engagement. Our aim has been to focus not only on how practice varies, but also to try to explain the complex reasons behind the relationships that exist between mining companies and different stakeholders. Findings of questionnaires undertaken across the sites (between June - October 2010), and results of interviews and focus groups of different people linked to the mining industry, will also be discussed. The expectations that "mining" communities have of their local mining company vary substantially, directly relating to what the community believes the mine company owes them. These examples highlight that the notion of corporate social responsibility in the mining sector in Europe and Russia is fluid and changes according to the differing expectations and goals of stakeholders. We will present highlights of initial results. For example, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation, in Romania, is trying to reopen closed state gold mines. They have seen international media attention relating to campaigns by NGOs to oppose the mines reopening. Our results will help reveal what samples of different stakeholder groups really think of the mines reopening. This example contrasts distinctly with a mine in Kristineberg, Sweden, where Kristineberg village was built alongside the mine. There are now distinct issues felt within the community due to the decline in the number of people employed at the mine.

  • 6.
    Admir, Dzamastagic
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Armin, Dzamastagic
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Bankers utlåning till mikroföretag: En kvalitativ studie om hur handläggare bearbetar och bedömer mjuk information2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Banks make the claim that the use of soft information is important in the credit assessment of opaque businesses. However, unlike hard information, precise guidelines on what soft information loan officers are expected to collect and report, and how it should be processed are not imposed by banks. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore what soft information loan officers consider to be of importance in the credit assessment and then to compare how it differs individually between loan officers. Further, we analyze how individual loan officers process soft information to make it sensible and usable. We examine the following factors likely to affect the approach of the loan officer: experience and knowledge, uncertainty associated with the case, and factors of time. The study is characterized by a qualitative research strategy. Semi-structured interviews including seven loan officers with different levels of expertise in commercial lending were conducted. Using the critical incident technique, we investigate how loan officers perceive their information processing and evaluation of soft information in real lending situations where hard information is insufficient or non-existent. In contrast, we also investigate how loan officers process soft information and evaluate cases that are perceived as less uncertain or more general in nature. The results show that obvious differences are present between individual loan officers and the emphasis that is being put on various soft information signals. However, soft information related to the business owner´s professional background, the presented business plan/idea, and the industry which the business operates in, seems to be of greater importance. Signals in the likes of how a business markets itself and attitude towards growing the business, are mostly of lesser to no importance. Other signals that were identified varied greatly in importance across our sample of loan officers. Next, we find that individual loan officers differ in how they go about processing different types of soft information. The results indicate that more experienced loan officers exert a greater effort in collecting and reflecting on soft information about the business owner, but are also more inclined towards processing and evaluating information about the industry in an intuitive matter, which in our case differs from inexperienced loan officers. Lower effort from inexperienced loan officers to process soft information about the business owner seems to be linked to the constraints of distinguishing and interpreting relevant soft information signals. Further, the results indicate that loan officers’ effort to be attentive towards soft information is affected by the level of uncertainty the loan officer experiences with a case. Finally, it appears as though individual loan officers assume different cognitive styles in which a combination of both analytic and intuitive methods are used in order to process soft information, rather than strictly relying on one approach. 

  • 7.
    Adolfsson, Isabella
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hägge, Magdalena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Organisatorisk lojalitet i en turbulent tid av hög tillväxt: En empirisk studie av 223 anställda i svenska gasellföretag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational commitment is one important factor for organization performance and efficiency. During the last years, the interest for new and fast growing companies and their effect for the economic growth has increased. Studies within gazelle companies has earlier been based on their founders and managers. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the employees’ organizational commitment and which factors affect the commitment. The study had a quantitative approach and was carried out with the help of a survey where 223 respondents participated. All respondents are working at Swedish gazelle companies. The collected data of the study were analysed by using a multivariate regression and path analysis. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the measures reliability. The result show that there is a positive correlation between the employees’ nearness to the founder, recognition and job satisfaction with organizational commitment. The result also show that there is a negative correlation between monetary incentive and organizational commitment. The results provide indications for how managers in gazelle companies should work with these components and thereby increase the degree of organizational commitment to control the organizations growth in a better way.

  • 8.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rewolucja £upkowa: Oewiatowe rynki gazu i ropy naftowej w warunkach transformacji2015In: Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, ISSN 0860-0953, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 5-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the United States. It is expected to spread beyond the US, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for themacro-economy and politics ofmany countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries.We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 9.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Shale gas and oil: Fundamentally changing global energy markets2013In: Oil & gas journal, ISSN 0030-1388, E-ISSN 1944-9151, Vol. 111, no 12, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shale production on a significant scale arose quite recently and is so far limited to the US with gas having a few years' lead on oil. Shale has already had a significant impact on US gas and oil output. Further sizable production increases can be expected in the US, and the shale revolution is likely to spread, with a lag, across the globe. This will result in fundamental repercussions for international energy markets. The resources in focus of our attention, comprising shale gas and coalbed methane along with tight gas and tight oil, typically lack strict definitions and they often overlap. However, they are all characterized by low permeability that yields commercially insufficient flows from vertical drilling. The shale revolution is the result of technological breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that have made vast dormant gas and oil resources economically exploitable

  • 10.
    Aguilera, Roberto F
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Skifferrevolutionen: hur den kommer att transformera de globala gas- och oljemarknaderna2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 30-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Price of Oil2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on their extensive knowledge of the oil industry, Roberto F. Aguilera and Marian Radetzki provide an in-depth examination of the price of the world's most important commodity. They argue that although oil has experienced an extraordinary price increase over the past few decades, we have now reached a turning point where scarcity, uncertain supply and high prices will be replaced by abundance, undisturbed availability and suppressed price levels. They look at the potential of new global oil revolutions to bring the upward price push to an end and examine the implications of this turnaround for the world economy, as well as for politics, diplomacy, military interventions and the efforts to stabilize climate. This book will appeal to a wide readership of both academics and professionals working in the energy industry, as well as to general readers interested in the ongoing debate about oil prices

  • 12.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The shale revolution: Global gas and oil markets under transformation2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the USA. It is expected to spread beyond the USA, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for the macroeconomy and politics of many countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries. We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 13.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The synchronized and exceptional price performance of oil and gold: Explanations and prospects2017In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 54, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the global markets for gold and oil so as to explain the surprisingly high correlation of the two materials’ prices since 1970, and the exceedingly impressive rise of both price series compared with that of virtually all other primary commodities. We propose that developments in the oil market, and the resulting effects on the macroeconomy, influenced investment activity in gold, thus providing the most plausible explanation for the two commodities’ price synchronization. Our view on the extraordinary price increases of oil and gold, compared to a broad category of metals and minerals, is that oil prices rose first based on above-ground hurdles that restrained the capacity to produce, and gold prices then reacted as they were pushed up by rising safe-haven investment to store value – an attribute not shared by other metals and minerals. The paper also comments on the likely future price evolution of these important materials, arguing that oil prices will stagnate at levels observed from late 2014, or even weaken in the coming decades, but that gold prices will continue to ride relatively high – thus leading to a collapse of the oil/gold price connection.

  • 14.
    Ahl Bollesparr, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Andrea John, Michelle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Fondförvaltning: Går det fortfarande inte att generera en större riskjusterad avkastning än marknadens?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many Swedish households are investors, in 2018 investments in funds reached an average of 434 000 Swedish Crowns per person. The Nobel laureate Fama showed that yielding a higher risk-adjusted return than the market is not possible. Simultaneously, a great amount of actively conducted funds that pledges a higher return than the market is still launched today. Which arises a disorientation among small savers if passive or active conducted funds generate higher returns. Unlike previous studies, the range of funds were increased in this study. The purpose is to examine the returns of the funds with the performance measures Sharpe-ratio and Jensen’s Alpha. The results indicate that it is not possible to outperform a higher risk-adjusted yield than the market for the chosen time period. Overall, the passive funds had higher risk-adjusted returns compared to the active funds, which indicates that a higher fee for the funds is unjustified.

  • 15.
    Ahlborg, Helene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Broäng, Frida
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 87, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues.

  • 16.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lin, Janet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Sandström, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    LTU Teaching guide to e-learning: how to clear the mist of teaching through the cloud2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Estimating the Cross-Price Elasticity of Regular Gasoline with Respect to the Price of Premium Gasoline2018In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 157-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasoline demand has been extensively researched, yet there has been no attempt to estimate cross-price elasticities of different grades of gasoline. Such knowledge will allow accurate determination of the impact of a fuel pricing policy that has different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the gasoline grade. Using monthly data on the Mexican gasoline market from 1999 to 2014, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an ARDL model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticity between regular and premium gasoline is found to be 0.875, confirming high substitutability among gasoline with different grades.

  • 18.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Simulation of price controls for different grade of gasoline: The case of Indonesia2017In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 68, p. 373-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gasoline subsidy is one of the most prevalent strategies for distributing welfare to the people in oil-producing countries. However well-intentioned, the policy will distort the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies. Furthermore, the gasoline subsidy takes a great amount of government's budget. Arguably, these funds could be spent elsewhere with a greater impact on economic growth. These governments are aware of the cost of such a policy, yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This paper looks at the unique case of Indonesia that only provides a subsidy for regular gasoline and in turn proposes an alternative policy that introduces a subsidy for premium gasoline at a lower rate to reduce the overall gasoline subsidy cost. There has yet to be any research that simulates price controls for gasoline with different grades. The aggregate demand for gasoline in Indonesia is replicated using a translog cost calibration approach. Simulations based on the calibrated demand are then performed and the results confirm the existence of potential savings that are largely determined by the cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline. The benchmark scenario, based on a recent study of substitutability between gasoline by grades, results in an 11.5% reduction in subsidy cost of around 950 million USD with a subsidy rate of Rp 2254/liter. Furthermore, the optimal rate of subsidy for premium gasoline results in a reduction of inefficiency as consumers' welfare increase by 6.8 trillion rupiahs (or 560 million USD).

  • 19.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale, UNU-WIDER, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra.
    Abidoye, Babatunde
    CEEPA, University of Pretoria.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Simbanegavi, Witness
    African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi.
    Public disclosure for carbon abatement: African decision-makers in a PROPER public good experiment2017In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 548-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    linear public good experiment adopted from Holt and Laury [1997. Classroom games: Voluntary provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(4), 209–215.] has been employed to investigate strategic behaviour in pollution abatement among African climate decision-makers. The experiment consisted of three groups, of which groups 2 and 3 received one and two treatments, respectively. The first treatment entailed publicly disclosing the pollution of each member of a group by placing a corresponding colour-coded card in front of each subject, while the second involved the withdrawal of the public disclosure. Group 2 received the first treatment; Group 3 received both the first and second treatments in succession. We found that the untreated group (baseline) polluted more than the two treated groups, and there was no statistically significant difference between the pollution abatement of the two treated groups. These results suggest that public disclosure potentially drives pollution abatement and that its eventual withdrawal does not obliterate abatement behaviour. We did not observe conditional cooperation but average pollution declined over time. Furthermore, individuals who thought it was unfair for Africa to reduce emissions polluted more. We also found that pollution levels differ significantly between males and females.

  • 20.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Zikhali, Precious
    Centre for World Food Studies (SOW-VU), Vrije Universiteit.
    Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in southern Africa?: A bioeconomic modelling approach2009In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 587-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mopane worm, which is the caterpillar form of the Saturnid moth Imbrasia belina Westwood, is like other edible insects and caterpillars a vital source of protein in southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which have alternative uses. With increasing commercialization of the worm, its management, which was hitherto organized as a common property resource, has been degraded to almost open access. This paper uses a bioeconomic modelling approach to show that for some optimal allocation of the mopane forest stock, the restrictive harvest period policy advocated by community leaders may not lead to sustainable harvesting of the worm

  • 21.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.

  • 22.
    Alatalo, Frida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Maja, Nilsson
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Paradoxen mellan styrning och inflytande: En fallstudie inom en svensk myndighet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen har aviserat att nya styrmodeller ska utvecklas inom offentlig sektor som ger medarbetarna större frihet och ökat inflytande. Dessa modeller förväntas prägla nya styrmodeller inom offentliga organisationer. Ur ett teoretiskt perspektiv kan styrning och inflytande betraktas som varandras motsatser och mellan dessa kan det uppstå spänningar som skapar ett paradoxalt förhållande. Syftet med examensarbetet är att öka kunskapen om hur styrning och inflytande kan ge upphov till spänningar. Syftet uppnås genom att konceptualisera styrning, inflytande och otydlighet. Examensarbetet baseras på ett fall inom offentlig sektor. En kvalitativ forskningsansats har tillämpats och semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med både chefer och medarbetare. Resultatet visar att ökat inflytandet har lett tillen otydligare styrning som i sin tur gett upphov till förvirring och missnöje bland anställda. Spänningarna som ger upphov till paradoxen består av skilda uppfattningar kring organisatoriska mål samt motstridiga intressen. För att mildra spänningarna som uppstår av paradoxen behöver graden av rolltydlighet och förståelsen för de politiska målen ökas innan ledningen ger medarbetare ökat inflytande. Ledningen kan använda metoder för att reducera kulturella spänningar i syfte att uppnå en samsyn genom hela organisationen. Den optimala graden av inflytande beror även av olika situationsfaktorer. Styrningen kan därför anpassas efter både verksamhet och miljö. Detta paradoxala förhållande mellan styrning och inflytande har funnits inom Polisen och det finns skäl att tro att samma typ av spänningar även finns inom andra offentliga organisationer. Ur skattebetalarnas perspektiv är det av största vikt att offentliga organisationer styrs på ett så effektivt sätt som möjligt för att medborgarna ska erhålla största möjliga värde av de offentliga tjänsterna.

  • 23.
    Albadvi, Amir
    et al.
    Tarbiat Modares University.
    Gharaee, Roudabeh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Tarbiat Modares University.
    Drivers and barriers of E-banking adoption: case of Karafarin bank2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Digital Society: ICDS 2009 : 1 - 7 February 2009, Cuncun, Mexico / [ed] Yutaka Takahashi, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009, p. 235-240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates drivers, determinants and barriers of electronic banking adoption in Iran. Results of the analysis of information gathered through comprehensive interviews with the key managers of the pioneer private bank for e-banking adoption in Iran (KB) indicate that the adoption status is the transition of pre-development to development phase and the main drivers for adopting e-banking are downsizing, gaining competitive advantage, increasing market share and improving bank's image. The analysis further reveals that inefficient ICT infrastructure, political challenges and traditional organizational culture are barriers for adoption of e-banking in Iran. We conclude that banks in Iran need to web-enable themselves sooner or later and in order for the banks to overcome some of their barriers identification of the drivers for e-banking adoption would be a helpful tool.

  • 24.
    Al-Doori, Noor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Nedskrivningsprövning av goodwill enligt IAS 36: En jämförande studie av dess efterlevnad i börsnoterade bolag på large cap-listan under åren 2005–20152017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More than 10 years ago, IFRS 3 / IAS 36 was introduced and it became mandatory for all

    listed companies in Sweden to report goodwill. The problem is that IAS 36 is a complicated

    rule and studies show a low level of compliance. The companies are trying to avoid applying

    the rule because companies think it gives a negative image of the companies. This study aims

    at describing how well listed companies in the telecommunications industry comply with IAS

    36 and comparing how it changes over time. This study examines the annual reports of all

    four companies listed on the large-cap list in the telecommunications industry on a

    quantitative method. This is to choose a standard which is IAS 36 p. 134 with a quantitative

    method. The results are presented in tables and diagrams. The study shows that the level of

    compliance is very different among the companies and that the degree of compliance is

    improved over time.

  • 25.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 26.
    Alipour, Mehrdad
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran.
    Damavandi, Mohammadreza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The impact of E-procurement implementation on performance of ship management companies: case study of IRISL2011In: 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN),, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, p. 618-622Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of competition in the market and the consequent changes in economic conditions impose organizations and firms to implement new technologies to stay competitive. Those firms which have not implemented technology at the proper time are at the risk of losing customers or suppliers [6]. Transportation industry in general and maritime transportation industry in particular are not exception in this regard. Operation in a very competitive market is the character of maritime transportation industry and the main driving factor toward implementing of technology in maritime transportation industry is continuous pressure for reducing overheads, costs and increasing efficiency and security [5]. Customers, partners, agents, collaborators, shippers, port operators, suppliers and service agencies are involved in the ship transport industry supply chain, and one of the major requirements in such a supply chain in which all concerned parties are scattered all over the world, is the high speed transferring of data between them. In order to achieve competitive advantage over the rivals, the e-commerce and e-business with their attributes are focal points for ship owners and other stakeholders [14]. In maritime transportation procurement process plays an essential role. Ships usually purchase a large quantity of supplies for maintaining daily operations. The procurement process in maritime industry should be organized in a way that enables efficient transfer of goods and services into vessels. Today, a major goal of a maritime's supply chain management is to apply information technology to their procurement systems efficiently and cost effectively. Moving away from traditional and paper based offline purchase processing to online procurement enables shipping lines to gain better procurement practices in terms of cost efficiency

  • 27.
    Allmén Sjöberg, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Nordström, Jakob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Key factors for success in SMEs for developing market shares in Sweden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Competitive advantage has been an important aspect of strategy ever since Porter introduced the term in 1985. Today, small and medium enterprises (SME) make up a large part of the world´s economy. SMEs often operate in fast changing markets where innovation and growth are essential for success. To be able to survive they must ensure their competitiveness towards both SMEs and also larger competitors. Since many SMEs face limitations in their resources it is necessary for them to know how to use them efficiently. All this puts pressure on many SMEs to ensure their success and they need knowledge about how to create a competitive advantage while still managing their business limitations. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to create a better understanding for what existing resources SMEs can use to gain a competitive advantage on the market.

    To create a deeper understanding of what resources that Swedish SMEs can use to gain a competitive advantage a qualitative research approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three different Swedish SMEs. The gathered data was then analyzed with a thematic approach to easier compare it with previous literature. The findings of this analysis showed that factors such as knowledge, relations, niche strategy and internationalization were considered important for SMEs to gain a competitive advantage.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Andrew
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lagom kontroversiellt eller kränkande?: En kvantitativ studie om kontroversiell reklam och konsumenter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was inspired from observing ads that stirredup controversy and thereby got a lot of attention from consumers.The purpose of this study was to investigate how factors like gender and age may affectconsumers impression of controversial advertisements, but also to investigate how controversial advertisements may affect consumers attitudes towards brands that have used advertisements that were deemed as controversial. Lastly,the study investigates the probability that consumers will spread word of mouth/electronicword of mouth about the brands.

    The study was conducted through a survey with standardized answers and the data was analyzed with a Chi2 test, bivariate correlation analysis,and multiple regression analysis. The analysis indicated that women were more negative and less positive towards controversial advertisement than men were, atleastwithin the categories that were tested in the study. Furthermore, the study indicated that consumers attitudes towards a brand will be affected in the same way as the consumers impression of the controversial ad. Finally, results indicated that the probability for WOM is also affected in the same way as the consumers impression of the controversial advertisement.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Karlsson, Josefine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Vad tycker egentligen Baby boomers respektive Generation Y om belöningar?: En fallstudie i humankapitalintensiva organisationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en humankapitalintensiv organisation är det viktigt att behålla kunskapen, därför behöver ledningen vetskap om hur personalen styrs och motiveras för att behålla kunskapen inom företaget. Detta sker lättast med hjälp av styrverktyg varav belöningar är ett av de vanligaste verktygen, dessa är oftast utformat som finansiell eller icke-finansiell belöning. Det finns svårigheter att ta fram belöningar som motiverar hela personalstyrkan då det finns tre generationer som styrs och motiveras på olika sätt, vi har valt att studera de två extremerna Baby boomers och Generation Y. Dessa generationer representerar etablerade aktörer på arbetsmarknaden samt yngre aktörer som är i början av sin karriär, dessa har olika motivationsbehov. Litteraturen säkerställer inte hur organisationer effektivt motiverar generationer med hjälp av styrverktyg. Syftet med denna studie är att skapa ökad förståelse för hur humankapitalintensiva organisationer bör använda finansiella och icke-finansiella belöningar för att motivera sin personal. Vidare vill vi beskriva Baby boomers och Generation Y ́s syn på dessa belöningar, jämföra om motivationen vid användningen av belöningarna skiljer sig åt mellan generationerna och slutligen analysera vad eventuella skillnader kan bero på. För att nå vårt syfte har vi, på aktörsnivå, intervjuat åtta bankanställda. Vi delade upp aktörernas svar i motivationsfaktorer som vi sedan testade mot studiens uppställda teser. Analysen resulterade i att Baby boomers motiveras och styrs bäst med hjälp av icke-finansiella belöningar medan Generation Y behöver en blandning av båda belöningsformerna. Fortsatt forskning kan vara att även ta in Generation X i jämförelsen för att se hur hela personalstyrkan kan motiveras.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Markstedt, Frida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Micro-Celebrities: Konsumenters syn på sponsring via sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur sponsring av micro-celebrities på Instagram påverkar följares attityder mot träningsrelaterade produkter. Detta gjordes med en deduktiv studie med ett kvalitativt metodval som genomfördes genom  semi-strukturerade intervjuer baserade på ett bedömningsurval. Slutsatserna som drogs var att följarna av micro-celebrities visade sig vilja uppleva sponsrade profiler som trovärdiga för att bli intresserade av ett sponsrat inlägg. Inlägget skulle vara av en naturlig karaktär för att väcka intresse. Att en profil kunde påvisa samt förklara hur och varför denne använde produkten framstod som ett effektivt sätt att generera en genuin känsla hos följaren. Följarna såg inte träningsprofilerna som traditionella kändisar. Snarare som en kombination av en känd person som gav inspiration samt en person som följarna kunde ta emot rekommendationer från.   

  • 31.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Counterproductive Counternarcotic Strategies?2013In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0002-9092, E-ISSN 1467-8276, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 917-931Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    Environment and Climate Research center at the Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Addis Ababa.
    Mannberg, Andrea
    School of Business and Economics, UiT the Arctic University of Norway.
    The Ethiopian Commodity Exchange and spatial price dispersion2017In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 66, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study the impact of an institutional intervention on market efficiency in Ethiopia. More specifically, we analyze to what extent the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) in combination with regional warehouses have contributed to a reduction in price spreads between regional markets. Our hypothesis is that warehouses connected to the ECX reduce the dispersion between export prices and local retail prices in different coffee growing areas, as well as the dispersion between export prices and local retail prices in different coffee growing areas. By doing so, the ECX has the potential to improve the market efficiency. To identify the causal effect, we combine retail price data with information on the gradual rollout of warehouses connected to the ECX from 2007 to 2012. Our results suggest that, when two markets both have access to an operating warehouse, the average price spread is 0.86–1.78 ETB lower than it is for markets where at least one part lacks warehouse access. This is a substantial reduction considering that the average price spread over the full period is 3.33 ETB. The main results are robust to various econometric specifications, and our analysis thus suggests that local warehouses connected to the ECX have indeed improved market efficiency

  • 33.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Chege, Christine C.K.
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Qaim, Matin
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Rao, Elizaphan
    International Livestock Research Institute.
    Following up on smallholder farmers and supermarkets in Kenya2015In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0002-9092, E-ISSN 1467-8276, Vol. 97, no 4, p. 1247-1266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many developing countries, supermarkets are expanding rapidly. This affects farmers' marketing options. Previous studies have analyzed welfare effects of smallholder participation in supermarket channels from a static perspective, using cross-section data. We develop a conceptual framework and use panel data to better understand participation and impact dynamics. The analysis focuses on vegetable producers in Kenya. Participation in supermarket channels is associated with income gains. However, many farmers have dropped out of the supermarket channel due to various constraints. The initial income gains cannot be sustained when returning to the traditional market. Organizational support may be needed to avoid widening income disparities.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Umeå University.
    MacGregor, James
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Towards inclusion through lessons from informal money lenders2018In: Financial inclusion for poverty alleviation: Issues and case studies for sustainable development / [ed] Essam Yassin Mohammed and Zenebe Bashaw Uraguchi, Oxon: Routledge , 2018, p. 68-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. National Institute of Economic Research.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 76, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish legislation makes municipalities responsible for recycling or disposing of household waste. Municipalities therefore play an important role in achieving Sweden’s increased levels of ambition in the waste management area and in achieving the goal of a more circular economy. This paper studies how two municipal policy instruments – weight-based waste tariffs and special systems for the collection of food waste – affect the collected volumes of different types of waste. We find that a system of collecting food waste separately is more effective overall than imposing weight-based waste tariffs in respect not only of reducing the amounts of waste destined for incineration, but also of increasing materials recycling and biological recovery, despite the fact that the direct incentive effects of these two systems  should be similar. Separate food waste collection was associated with increased recycling not only of food waste but also of other waste. Introducing separate food waste collection indirectly signals to households that recycling is important and desirable, and our results suggest that this signalling effect may be as important as direct incentive effects.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Oscar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Vad motiverar eliten?: En kvalitativ studie om monetär ersättning som statussymbol2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har undersökt vad som motiverar eliten inom svenskt näringsliv. Syftet med denna uppsats var att beskriva och skapa förståelse för vad som motiverade eliten att prestera och utvecklas. Avsikten var att förstå om det kunde finnas andra orsaker till strävan efter större monetär ersättning än själva behovet av ersättningen. Som grund för studien har teorier använts inom styrning av individer i organisationer tillsammans med teori om makt och status till följd av ekonomisk ställning. Det empiriska materialet bestod av kvalitativa intervjuer med VD:ar på fyra större svenska företag, där fokus låg på vad som motiverade personer på toppositioner inom sin yrkeskategori. En slutsats av studien var att arbetet i sig var den främsta motivationsfaktorn hos intervjupersonerna, följt av ens prestation på arbetet och att få erkännande genom bekräftelse. Att ha makt att påverka det företag intervjupersonerna ledde ansågs även vara motiverande. Däremot att monetär ersättning skulle vara drivande var inget som lyftes fram i studien, men det visade sig ändå vara grundpelaren för att få den ekonomiska eliten att bli motiverade till själva arbetet. För vidare forskning föreslogs en kvantitativ studie för att kunna dra bredare slutsatser, alternativt observera eliten i syfte att studera fenomenet status.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Kent
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Drangel, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Prestationsbaserad resursfördelning inom högre utbildning: En kvalitativ fallstudie om hur undervisningskvaliteten påverkas2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här fallstudien undersöks hur undervisningskvaliteten inom högre utbildning påverkas av ett prestationsbaserat resursfördelningssystem vid Luleå tekniska universitet. Författarna har även undersökt under vilka förutsättningar undervisningen kan få högre (lägre) kvalitet vid en tilldelning av större (mindre) ekonomiska resurser. Som grund till denna studie ligger den kritik som det befintliga systemet har fått och Regeringens vision att ta fram ett nytt resursfördelningssystem för högre utbildning. Enligt dagens system fördelas delar av ersättningen till universitet baserat på hur många studenter som examineras och godkänns på kurser och utbildningsprogram. Teorierna i studien baseras på Simons modell över styrningens hävstänger, strategisk styrning, professionsteori samt prestationsbaserad styrning för att få en djupare förståelse kring ämnet. Det insamlade materialet bestod av kvalitativa intervjuer med lärare på universitetet och med lärarnas uppfattning i fokus. Resultatet av studien indikerar att undervisningskvaliteten inom högre utbildning inte påverkas i någon nämnvärd utsträckning av ett prestationsbaserat resursfördelningssystem. Det ligger inte i lärares natur att manipulera resultat i ett ekonomiskt syfte vilket kan förklaras av yrkesstoltheten inom deras profession. Vidare kan en förutsättning för att en större tilldelning ekonomiska resurser kan leda till högre kvalitet i undervisningen, vara att lärare inte ska behöva arbeta på fritiden i lika stor utsträckning. Lärares återhämtning är viktig och kan på lång sikt påverka kvaliteten i undervisningen. För vidare forskning föreslår författarna en större undersökning omfattande flera universitet. Det för att möjliggöra jämförelse och för att få en mer generell uppfattning om hur undervisningskvaliteten påverkas av ett prestationsbaserat resursfördelningssystem.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Consumer choices in private transportation: The case of biofuels2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    The Swedish flex-fuel failure2016In: BEHAVE 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Why flex-fuel failed?: A household perspective2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Andersson, Otto
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Karlsson, Josefin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Geografisk expansion i företag som erbjuder digitala produktservicesystem: En fallstudie från Sverige till Norge2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization is one of the more significant developments in our society today. New technologies in communication and scientific progress in areas such as the internet and cellular phones have made it possible to lessen geographical distance and blur the borders between different nations. By extent, this has created opportunities for companies to widen their customer base and expand their market by internationalise their business. Even if the impact of globalizations on businesses today are well documented within the scientific literature, the large majority of it focuses on how traditional, producing companies with physical products should deal with challenges related to market expansion. Businesses who offers digital PSS solutions have an inherently different value chain and are severely underrepresented when it comes to knowledge about how they should deal with an internationalisation.  Therefore, this study aims to identify key aspects companies who offers digital PSS solutions must keep in mind when endeavouring on market expansions. In order to fulfil the purpose, the study answers two research questions (1) Which mechanisms on the market affects geographical expansions for companies who offers digital PSS solutions and how they affect? And (2) How can a company who offers digital PSS solutions adjust their organization in order to maintain and create strategically sustainable competitive advantages in geographical expansions?  

    To achieve this the study has developed a framework based on the recent academic literature, which will help companies to realize which aspects, both internally and externally, they need to adapt towards to be successful on a new market. Furthermore, the paper will test this framework by conducting a case study over a Swedish company active within the industry of business operations. The company has intentions to expand their business internationally by initially attempt to enter the Norwegian market and focus on Norwegian municipalities.  

  • 43. Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Arnvaller, Kevin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Social Media: How to Interact with Millennials and Make Use of Self-Segmentation: A Case Study of Swedish Millennials’ Behavior on Facebook2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media are online accommodations where users can interact with other users, which has become a phenomenon that has grown and completely exploded over the past decade. Companies are well aware of this and has invested a large amount of resources in order to establish a better contact with their customers. Companies have several different fields of applications with social media such as gathering information, promotion, communicating with customers and reach out to desired audience effectively. Millennials are the generation who most frequently use social media and also grown up during the phenomenon's development. Previous research has shown that companies have had difficulties in reaching out to the millennial generation. This thesis purpose is to gain a deeper understanding of how companies can use social media to facilitate the segmentation process and effectively reach out to the millennial generation. Therefor two research questions have been established. The two research questions have been answered with assistance from relevant theory and research in the subject area.

    A case study was applied for the study, where the data was gathered from two focus groups discussing the social media platform Facebook. Each focus group consisted of eight participants within the millennial generation containing basic knowledge in marketing. The study’s result indicates millennials to follow (and thereby self-segment themselves) influential profiles they have a personal interest towards. However, Facebook is not the platform where the millennials follow these profiles. The study also indicates the best way to capture millennials interest on Facebook is through short, humorous videos with an interest capturing beginning. The study’s results also show millennia’s have a low interest in interacting with companies on Facebook.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Öström, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Tillit, styrning och service: En kvalitativ studie av Skatteverkets implementering av tillitsbaserad styrning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980’s, the New Public Management (NPM) has been the dominating management control philosophy in the Swedish public sector organizations. NPM has predominantly been associated with management by objective and has been expected to increase efficiency within public sector organizations. Today the control system in Swedish public sector organizations is undergoing reform with a new system called trust-based control. The foremost purpose of this new control system is to increase trust within the professions and to the citizens. This study is a qualitative case study of the Swedish Tax Agency’s implementation of the trust-based control system and the challenges that this implementation entails. The study was conducted at the Swedish Tax Agency’s office in Luleå, where managers and employees were interviewed in two stages. A thematic analysis was applied to process the data, in which four main themes appeared; team-based mode of operation, employee responsibility, customer perspective and performance evaluation. The main conclusions of the study are that the Swedish Tax Agency’s interpretation of trust-based control is a team-based mode of operation. The implementation process has been primarily decentralized, with some aid from Susan A. Wheelan’s four-stage model. Furthermore, it is concluded that the foremost challenge with implementing trust-based control is to adjust the performance evaluation to fit the new mode of operation.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Integrating empirical evidence on forest landowner behavior in forest sector models: a literature review and synthesis2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46. Andersson, Sven
    Framing radical innovation: Mapping individuals frames of references in radical innovation2005In: NFF 2005: The 18th Scandinavian Academy of Management Meeting, Aarhus: Aarhus School of Business , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47. Andersson, Sven
    Product innovation processes: conceptual and methodological considerations2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the social dimension of individuals engaging in the product innovation process in order to develop and choose techniques for knowledge creation about the social evolvement of a product innovation. The social dimensions of product innovation processes are particular interesting, since many firms today organize their processes by combining individuals from different functions and knowledge areas. The main argument is that decreasing the product's time to market saves costs through divergent perspectives of the product innovation early in the product innovation process; thus, understanding the social dimension may contribute to improving a firm's product innovation process. This is addressed by (1) developing a conceptual model of the product innovation process in respect to the dynamic interplay between individuals in terms of social and cognitive dimensions; (2) formulating a research plan for a significant test of the model; (3) empirically testing a significant part of the research plan on one individual participating in a product innovation process; and (4) developing a research plan based on this test. In this study, development of the conceptual model is based on a literature review. The significant test and the formulation of a research plan are based on the repertory grid technique, social network analysis, and alter-ego network analysis in order to understand if these techniques could be applied to the central concepts, which are, frame of reference, thought, action, interaction, and structures. The significant test indicated a complex relationship between the central concepts, which implies a need for researchers to combine techniques and to participate within the process.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The fuzzy front end of product innovation processes: the influence of uncertainty, equivocality, and dissonance in social processes of evolving product concepts2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing new products is essential for the long-term survival of companies. The fuzzy front end (FFE) is the first phase in the product innovation process and is considered an important determinant for successful product innovation. This thesis addresses the social process in which individuals evolve a product concept in the fuzzy front end. In the FFE individuals must evolve a clear view of 'customer', 'competitor', 'resource' and 'technical solution' aspects regarding the product concept before a go/no-go decision is made and the product concept proceeds to implementation in the development phase. The clearness required regarding these four aspects is acquired through the social process, where individuals think, act, and interact in relation to ‘the self' and significant others. The social process in FFEs is addressed through three research questions. The first general research question is; (1) how do product concepts evolve through the social process in success and failure FFEs? From the general research questions, two specific research questions are addressed: (2) how do uncertainty, equivocality and dissonance influence the social process when evolving a product concept in the FFE? And (3) how do individuals cope with uncertainty, equivocality and dissonance when evolving a product concept in the FFE? To answer the research questions, data have been collected using the repertory grid technique, the techniques for analyzing social networks and alter-ego networks, and narratives. The data collected derives from four companies which were selected to maximize differences in terms of technologies between companies and thus, differences in the FFEs. Within the four companies 32 fuzzy front ends of product innovation processes have been studied, and one success and one failure FFEs are described for each company. In total, 22 respondents were interviewed regarding 23 successful and 9 failure projects. The data have been analyzed on both the individual and group level. The analyses involved repertory grid analysis in order to identify how individuals construct uncertainty, equivocality and dissonance in their frames of reference. The repertory grid analyses also provide information about relations in the social process regarding thoughts and interactions in success and failure FFEs and distinctive thought patterns, i.e. homogeneity on the group level. The analyses of narratives provide pictures and information about the FFEs and how individuals addressed uncertainty, equivocality and dissonance. The main findings are that (1) dissonance is a central concept to address in the fuzzy front end in order to understand how clearness of a product concept evolves, and (2) the identification of relations between thought, action, and interaction on the one hand and uncertainty, equivocality, and dissonance on the other, which helps us understand the differences between uncertainty, equivocality and dissonance. Lastly, the findings (3) show that differences exist in the social process based on the type of technology characterizing daily production in the companies.

  • 49.
    Andrup, Axel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Sundström, Kristoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Mining booms impact on local labor markets in Norrbotten county, Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis has been to analyze whether booms in the iron ore market has

    any significant effects on local labor markets in certain municipalities in Norrbotten

    County during the time period 2000-2016. Previous research has established that certain

    types of booms and busts influenced local labor markets. The analysis was done by using

    panel data and regression models where the results where compared over non-mining and

    mining municipalities. The results gave a vague response with both conclusive and

    inconclusive results over the variables investigated. The main conclusion is that although

    the mining industry is a big part of local labor markets in Norrbotten County, it is

    important for firms and policymakers to understand that the mining industry is not the

    only important factor and that decisions should not be entirely based on the mining

    industry and its markets.

  • 50.
    Andéhn, Mikael
    et al.
    School of Business, Stockholm University.
    Kazeminia, Azadeh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Lucarelli, Andrea
    Stockholm University.
    Sevin, Efe
    School of International Service, American University.
    User-generated place brand equity on Twitter: The dynamics of brand associations in social media2014In: Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, ISSN 1751-8040, E-ISSN 1751-8059, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 132-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media provides a unique opportunity for brand analysis. The mere fact that users create content and messages through social media platforms makes the detailed monitoring of temporal variation in brand images possible. This research analyzes data collected from a specific social media platform, Twitter, about the city of Stockholm over a 3-month period to analyze how social media could be conceptualized as a new venue for place brand meaning formation, and to see how user-generated content pertains to the issue of place brand equity. Using semantic and content analyses, assemblages of place brand-related themes are explored. Subsequently, these assemblages of themes are deconstructed at a conceptual level and then subjected to frequency analysis, revealing an underlying typology based on characteristics of the temporal variation of the various types of brand elements. These results are explored on the basis of both how they apply to the understanding of content on social media in general and how they apply to the online presence, or digital footprint, of place brands

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