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  • 1.
    Abdulbaqi, Dana M.
    et al.
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Al-Shaikh, Mohammed
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a Stepping Stone to Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)2018Inngår i: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, nr 1-2, s. 239-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns about carbon emissions coupled with the oil industry’s need to secure additional CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects have sparked interest in the potential that CO2-EOR may have in jumpstarting carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). However, existing studies on the viability of coupling CO2-EOR with CCS have generally placed more focus on either the engineering or economic aspects of the problem. Most engineering studies focus on the technical aspects of the CO2-EOR project to produce the maximum amount of oil, while simultaneously storing the most CO2 during the production process with the economics as an afterthought, while most economic studies found have focused on a singular aspect of the issue such as impacts of exogenously varying injection rates. Furthermore, modelling efforts have stopped at the end of the productive life of the field. We build a unique two-stage dynamic optimization model, which simultaneously addresses engineering and economic policy aspects, to study the viability of coupling CO2-EOR transitioning into CCS. Our model includes a carbon tax for emissions, which becomes a subsidy for full scale sequestration after oil production has ceased; this allows us to explore the transition from CO2-EOR, our first stage, to sole CO2 sequestration in our second stage for a single field. We maximize the operator’s profits across both stages, while tracking the responsiveness of oil production and total carbon movements to both price and policy changes. We pair our optimization model with a reservoir simulation model, allowing us to mimic actual field behavior, giving our work a more realistic representation of both production and sequestration profiles. Our results suggest that small increases in the level of carbon tax can have large and discontinuous impacts on net sequestration. This stems from the observed transition from limited natural sources of CO2 to more expensive captured CO2 resulting from the implemented policy. With appropriate taxes, total volumes of captured CO2 sequestered across both stages are equivalent to 30 to 40% of the emissions from the use of the oil produced. With the credits oil producers receive from sequestering CO2, which equate to the tax, relatively high carbon taxes incentivize additional sequestration without significantly impacting the supply of oil. This, alongside maintaining a steady stream of profits, is a win-win situation for energy security and the climate.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Vikström, Klara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Större möjlighet till jämförbarhet inom företag än företag emellan: En kvalitativ studie med 59 unika observationer av svenska företags hållbarhetsrapporter, ur en miljöaspekt2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to create understanding for how comparable sustainability reports are. The study has focused on the environmental aspect within the Swedish industry of clothing, footwear and wholesale. A content analysis has been executed, with a selection of 73 companies. After a shortfall there remained 21 companies and the study has performed 59 unique observations. The authors have developed a model to systemize the information collected in the content analysis. The study’s model focuses on four factors that affects the comparability of the sustainability reports. The four factors are guidelines, environmental indicators, measurements and absolute and relative numbers. The study emanated from the stakeholder and legitimacy theory. The theories say that companies should treat their stakeholders equally and that they should sustain a social contract with the community that creates legitimacy.

     

    The study showed that sustainability reports have a relatively high comparability within the companies. The Companies tend to report the same environmental indicators from year to year, which contributes to the comparability within the company. The comparability between companies is slightly lower, which is due to companies reporting information that is considered relevant for their own operations. This results in differences between companies in which environmental indicators are being reported as well as which measurements are used, this affects the comparability negatively.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Lunds tekniska högskola, LTH.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Rehn, Alf
    Åbo Akademi.
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Industriell ekonomi och organisering: IE2016Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018Inngår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 512-525Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

  • 5.
    Ackelid, Emma
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Stenmark, Gabriella
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Konsumenters uppfattning av hållbarhetsmärkningar i dagligvaruhandeln: Hur köpbeslutet påverkas2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet är en stark faktor som påverkar både konsumenter och företag i växande utsträckning. Att medvetet konsumera i enlighet med hållbara riktlinjer ligger i många konsumenters intresse, och företag utvecklar kontinuerligt strategier för att bemöta konsumentbehov och höja sin försäljning. I takt med detta ökar utbudet av hållbart märkta produkter och hållbarhetsmärkningar. För konsumenter innebär detta större valmöjligheter men också eventuella svårigheter då hållbarhetsmärkningar ofta upplevs snarlika och svåra att förstå betydelsen bakom, vilket i sin tur kan ha en motverkande effekt på konsumenters köpbeslut. Syftet med denna studie var därför att undersöka hur konsumenter i dagligvaruhandeln ställer sig till svenskt etablerade hållbarhetsmärkningar på likvärdiga produkter, för att utforska hur hållbarhetsmärkningar påverkar konsumenters köpbeslut vid köptillfället. Studien eftersträvade att identifiera de starkaste faktorerna som ligger bakom konsumenters beslut att köpa eller inte köpa hållbart märkta produkter. Avsikten var att ge företag/varumärken en bild av vad konsumenterna behöver för att effektivt vägledas i sitt köpbeslut. Insamling av data genomfördes genom enkäter med kvalitativ karaktär då studien avsåg att belysa konsumentåsikter kopplade till konsumentbeteende. Urvalet som inkluderades i studien utgjordes av individer som köper produkter i dagligvaruhandeln. Analys av data skedde med utgångspunkt i grundad teori där nyckelord och mönster mellan respondenter och svar identifierades och tolkades. Resultatet av studien visade att konsumenter främst påverkas i köpriktning vid köp av hållbart märkta produkter till följd av miljömässiga omvärldseffekter och personliga effekter på den egna hälsan, men även till viss del till följd av omvärldseffekter kopplade till socialt ansvarstagande samt tillgänglighet av information. Bristande tilltro som skapar associationer till opålitlighet samt bristande förståelse till följd av dålig kunskap är de enda faktorerna som har påverkan på köpbeslut i icke-köpriktningen enligt resultatet av studien. Genom att belysa de faktorer som påverkar konsumenter i köpriktning och motverka de faktorer som påverkar konsumenter i icke-köpriktning, kan företag/varumärken uppnå företagsnytta.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Adams, Kweku
    et al.
    Bradford School of Management, University of Bradford, BD7 1SR, United Kingdom.
    Attah-Boakye, Rexford
    University of Nottingham, Wollaton Road, Lenton, Nottingham, NG8 1BB, United Kingdom.
    Yu, Honglan
    University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, HD1 3DH, United Kingdom.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Industriell ekonomi. Halmstad University.
    Njoya, Eric Tchouamou
    University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, HD1 3DH, United Kingdom.
    Female board representation and coupled open innovation: Evidence from emerging market multinational enterprises2023Inngår i: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 124, artikkel-id 102749Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Little research has been done on female board representation in emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs). Our paper considers the role of female board representation and its impact on open innovation (OI) in the unique context of emerging markets. We draw on upper echelons and institutional theories to understand how female board representation and cross-country institutional contexts influence coupled OI. Combining a 10-year (2009–2019) dataset with a rich in-depth content analysis of 183 (EMNEs) engaged in OI, our results reveal a significant positive association between female board representation and a firm's commitment to coupled OI initiatives. We also find that country-level institutional factors affect and positively moderate the relationship between female board representation and coupled OI. In emerging market environments where managerial perception and cultural beliefs sometimes hinder the promotion of females into top positions, our work has implications for EMNEs regarding how they harness diversity. We contribute to the OI literature by showing that female board representation enhances corporate OI investment within EMNEs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Ademali, Emre
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Adaptation of Pricing Strategies by Hotel Managers in Turkey Response to the Covid-19 Outbreak2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Covid-19 crisis has had a profound impact on the global tourism industry, including theTurkish hotel sector. As hotels face unprecedented challenges, the adaptation of pricingstrategies becomes crucial for their survival and competitiveness. This thesis investigates theimpact of the Covid-19 outbreak on pricing strategies in the Turkish hotel industry and examinesthe strategies implemented by hotel managers to navigate this challenging period.

    Through a comprehensive research methodology, including interviews with hotel managers anddata analysis, this study aims to provide valuable insights into the pricing strategies adopted byhotels during the crisis. It explores the factors influencing the selection and effectiveness of thesestrategies and examines their relationship with the financial performance of hotels.

    The research objectives include assessing the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on pricing strategiesin the Turkish hotel industry, identifying the factors influencing the selection and effectivenessof hotel managers' strategies, exploring the relationship between these strategies and the financialperformance of hotels, and providing recommendations and guidelines for effective hotelmanagement.

    The results of this study make a valuable contribution to the current understanding of pricingstrategies in the hotel industry during times of crisis. By exploring the adaptation of pricingstrategies, this research provides new insights and practical implications for hotel managers.These findings aim to assist managers in formulating effective pricing strategies, ultimatelyenhancing the resilience and adaptability of the hotel industry.

    This research has important implications for both academia and industry, as it provides insightsinto the dynamics of pricing strategies in the context of a global crisis. By understanding thechallenges and opportunities faced by hotel managers during the crisis, this study contributes tothe broader understanding of hotel management pricing strategies in the hospitality sector. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Adey, E.A.
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Shail, R.K.
    University of Exeter.
    Wall, F.
    University of Exeter.
    Varul, M.
    University of Exeter.
    Whitbread-Abrutat, P.
    Eden Project.
    Baciu, C.
    University of Babes-Bolyai.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lovric, I.
    University of Mostar.
    Udachin, V.
    Institute of Mineralogy.
    Corporate social responsibility within the mining industry: case studies from across Europe and Russia2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the Aachen International Mining Symposia (AIMS): 5th International Conference – Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry (SDIMI 2011), Aachen, 14-17 June 2011, Aachen: Aachen University , 2011, s. 153-170Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible mining requires a company to engage with local communities throughout all stages of their operations, from exploration phases through to post mining planning. Assessment of current and potential future social impacts allows a company to maximize the positive impacts they can have on a community, whilst minimizing negative social impacts from mining. Initiating and upholding effective stakeholder relations are key to a company`s ability to obtain and maintain their "social license" to operate. The level of interaction between mining companies and stakeholders, including local communities, varies substantially between and within countries. As part of the EU funded Framework 7 "ImpactMin" Project (Impact Monitoring of Mineral Resources Exploitation), we have examined the level of community engagement in mining and related processing industries at sites across Europe, including Romania (Rosia Montana), Sweden (Kristineberg), the UK (Cornwall), Bosnia Herzegovina (Vihovici) and Russia (Karabash, Gay and Mednogorsk). These sites reflect different stages in mining and therefore reveal a diverse range of issues and differing levels of community engagement. Our aim has been to focus not only on how practice varies, but also to try to explain the complex reasons behind the relationships that exist between mining companies and different stakeholders. Findings of questionnaires undertaken across the sites (between June - October 2010), and results of interviews and focus groups of different people linked to the mining industry, will also be discussed. The expectations that "mining" communities have of their local mining company vary substantially, directly relating to what the community believes the mine company owes them. These examples highlight that the notion of corporate social responsibility in the mining sector in Europe and Russia is fluid and changes according to the differing expectations and goals of stakeholders. We will present highlights of initial results. For example, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation, in Romania, is trying to reopen closed state gold mines. They have seen international media attention relating to campaigns by NGOs to oppose the mines reopening. Our results will help reveal what samples of different stakeholder groups really think of the mines reopening. This example contrasts distinctly with a mine in Kristineberg, Sweden, where Kristineberg village was built alongside the mine. There are now distinct issues felt within the community due to the decline in the number of people employed at the mine.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Admir, Dzamastagic
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Armin, Dzamastagic
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Bankers utlåning till mikroföretag: En kvalitativ studie om hur handläggare bearbetar och bedömer mjuk information2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Banker hävdar att användandet av mjuk information är av stor betydelse vid kreditbedömning av företag som präglas av opacitet. Emellertid, till skillnad från hård information, ålägger banker ej konkreta riktlinjer för vilken mjuk information som handläggare förväntas samla in och rapportera samt hur bearbetningen av den bör ske. Syftet med studien är därför att undersöka vilken mjuk information handläggare lägger vikt på vid kreditbedömning samt jämföra hur det skiljer sig mellan individuella handläggare. Vidare ämnar vi att analysera hur individuella handläggare kognitivt bearbetar den tvetydiga mjuka informationen för att göra den begriplig och användbar. Vi provar följande faktorer som må påverka handläggarens tillvägagångssätt: erfarenhet och kunskap, lånesituationers osäkerhetsgrad, samt tidsfaktor. Studien präglas av en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi där datainsamling skett via semistrukturerade intervjuer med sju handläggare som besitter olika nivåer av expertis inom kommersiell utlåning. Med hjälp av den kritiska incident-tekniken analyserar vi hur handläggare bär sig åt för att bearbeta och bedöma mjuk information i verkliga lånesituationer där hård information är bristfällig eller obefintlig. I kontrast till detta undersöker vi även hur handläggare uppfattar att de bär sig åt i generella lånesituationer där osäkerheten är väsentligt lägre. Resultatet visar att det råder tydliga skillnader i hur stor vikt olika handläggare lägger på olika mjuka informationssignaler vid kreditbedömning av mikroföretag. Vidare kan även sägas att särskild mjuk information kopplat till företagsledarens professionella bakgrund, affärsplanen/idé samt branschen betraktas vara av störst betydelse. Signaler som marknadsföring och attityd gentemot tillväxt anses enligt deltagarna främst ha en mindre till ingen betydelse. Övriga signaler som identifierats präglas istället av skilda åsikter bland handläggarna. Härnäst finner vi att tillvägagångssättet för att bearbeta olika typer av mjuk information varierar bland handläggare. Resultatet indikerar att erfarna handläggare anstränger sig mer för att samla in och överväga den mjuka informationen om företagsledaren men är dock samtidigt mer benägna att gå på intuition vid bedömning av branschen som företaget verkar inom, vilket står i kontrast till de oerfarna handläggarna. Mindre ansträngning hos oerfarna handläggarna att bearbeta mjuk information om företagsledaren tycks vara kopplat till begränsningarna med att urskilja samt tolka relevanta informationssignaler. Vidare indikerar studiens resultat att handläggare påverkas av den upplevda osäkerheten kopplat till lånesituationer och att ansträngningen till att uppmärksamma sig på och reflektera kring mjuk information förändras i takt med osäkerhetsgraden. Slutligen framstår det som att individuella handläggare utgår från olika kognitiva stilar där det tillämpas en kombination av analytiska och intuitiva metoder för att bearbeta mjuk information, snarare än att strikt förlita sig på ett av tillvägagångssätten.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Adolfsson, Isabella
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Hägge, Magdalena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Organisatorisk lojalitet i en turbulent tid av hög tillväxt: En empirisk studie av 223 anställda i svenska gasellföretag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisatorisk lojalitet är en viktig bestämmande faktor för ett företags prestation och effektivitet. Under de senaste åren har intresset ökat för nystartade, snabbväxande företag och deras betydelse för den ekonomiska utvecklingen. Studier inom gasellföretag har tidigare baserats på företagens grundare och chefer. Syftet i detta examensarbete är därför att undersöka de anställdas grad av organisatorisk lojalitet och vilka faktorer som påverkar lojaliteten. Examensarbetet var av kvantitativ karaktär och genomfördes med hjälp av en enkätundersökning i vilken 223 respondenter deltog. Alla respondenter arbetar i svenska gasellföretag. Examensarbetets insamlade data analyserades med hjälp av multivariat regressionsanalys och hypotestest. Cronbach’s alfa användes för att säkerställa måttens reliabilitet. Resultatet visar att positiva samband finns mellan anställdas närhet till grundaren, erkännande och arbetstillfredsställelse samt organisatorisk lojalitet. Resultatet visar även ett negativt samband mellan monetära incitament och organisatorisk lojalitet. Studiens resultat ger implikationer för gasellföretags ledare genom att beskriva hur de kan öka den organisatoriska lojaliteten för att styra organisationen mot fortsatt tillväxt.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    What drives the energy saving role of FDI and industrialization in East Africa?2016Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, s. 925-942Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of the unconditional impacts of foreign direct inflows (FDIs) and industrialization on energy intensity does not show the hidden roles of some economic conditions such as income and trade openness. In this study, we focused on the conditional impacts of FDIs and industrialization on energy productivity using a panel data consisting of thirteen (13) East African countries covering 1980–2011. The baseline result shows that higher income and a well-integrated economy are pro-energy productive, but FDIs and intense industrialization are anti-energy productive in the sub-region. This result remains robust even when we exclude the high income group and control for income group effects. Income significantly promotes energy productivity more in low income group than middle income group. Intense industrialization and FDIs significantly decreases energy productivity only in low income countries. Trade openness significantly promotes energy productivity only in middle income group. We have shown that FDIs and income, intense industrialization and FDIs, and intense industrialization and globalization are complementary forces that promote energy productivity in East Africa but this is more evident for the middle income group than the low income group in the sub-region. Based on the result, we recommend a quadruplet programme called the “Growth, Industrial, Foreign investment and Trade programme” (GIFTP). Last, our result suggests that unconditional analysis of energy productivity should not be seen as an end in itself but a basis for further analysis.

  • 12.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    Department of Development Policy, School of Public Service and Governance, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Agradi, Mawunyo Prosper
    Department of Economics, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    Rwanda Polytechnic, Rwanda; Department of Economics, University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Energy poverty, development outcomes, and transition to green energy2021Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 178, s. 1337-1352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    School of Public Service and Governance, Department of Development Policy, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Accra, Ghana; School of Economics and Finance (SEF), University of the WitWatersrand, Johanneshurg, South Africa; GIMPA - PURC Centre of Excellence in Public Utility Regulation (CEPUR), Accra - Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik. Environment for Development (EfD), University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Akorli, Charity Dzifa
    School of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Economics & Hospitality, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Energy efficiency as a sustainability concern in Africa and financial development: How much bias is involved?2023Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 120, artikkel-id 106577Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the literature on whether financial development stimulates technical energy efficiency (TEE) or not, by addressing core biases that creep into the relationship and thereby reducing the ability to draw causal inferences from financial development to TEE. Our approach is based on the instrumental stochastic frontier technique, where biases in the frontier and inefficiency equations are dealt with using external instrumental variables. The legal system origin of the country and life expectancy at birth were used as instruments for financial development and income, respectively. The current study demonstrates substantial bias in income elasticity, the estimate of energy efficiency, and the effect of financial development on energy efficiency. Both income elasticity and energy efficiency estimate risk upward bias. Equally, the effect of financial system development and financial institution development on TEE risk downward bias. Other results show that all aspects of financial institution development stimulate TEE, but access to financial institutions is more important. These results raise caution about future studies' estimates of the effect of financial development on TEE. Though this study has demonstrated the potency of external instruments in dealing with the bias in the coefficient estimates, we consider this might prove to be a luxury solution in some cases due to data limitation, context differences, and theory. In those circumstances, reliance on internal instruments might prove to be the second-best option.

  • 14.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    Department of Development Policy, School of Public Service and Governance, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Salome
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Degree of financialization and energy efficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa: do institutions matter?2020Inngår i: Financial Innovation, E-ISSN 2199-4730, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 7 emphasizes the need for economies around the world to double their efforts in energy efficiency improvements. This is because improvements in energy efficiency can trigger economic growth and considered as one of the ‘green’ growth strategies due to its carbon free content. To this end, some empirical studies have investigated the nexus between economic growth and energy efficiency, but the effects of the latter on financial indicators have not been sufficiently studied in the literature, at least in developing economies like Africa. This study examines the effect of energy efficiency improvements on commercial bank profitability under different political regimes (i.e., autocratic and democratic political regimes); something previous literature had neglected. The study uses panel data, consisting of 43 African countries and the simultaneous System Generalized Method of Moments. We found that energy efficiency improvement is more likely to induce higher bank profitability in political institutions with the characteristics of centralization of power compared with those with decentralization of power. Furthermore, for the banking sector, the findings suggest that energy utilization behavior of clients should be included in the loan or credit valuation process. For the government, the agenda of energy efficiency should be aggressively pursued while taking cognizance of creating a political environment that weans itself from a ‘grandfathering’ behavior.

  • 15.
    Aguilar Montaño, Joel Dorian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Influence of COVID-19 on E-commerce sales: The omnichannel strategies case of the retail businesses in Sweden2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This thesis aims to describe the strategies employed by omnichannel experts in Swedish retail shops during the Covid19 pandemic. Furthermore, the integration of the physical and online channels is studied to describe the methods used to increase sales, especially in the online channels.

    Methodology – The study applies a qualitative method where semi-structured interviews were conducted with omnichannel experts from retail businesses.

    Findings – The aim of the retail shops during the Covid19 pandemic has been to perform in- store and online shopping despite the partial restrictions. Retail shops had to adapt to the changes in the Swedish market and the consumer behavior. The challenge of maintaining sales and remaining competitive has shown that Swedish retail shops have remained resilient and that adaptation has been key to their business strategies.

    Practical Implications – Retail businesses worldwide were forced to close their business except for their online services. However, Sweden is a particular case where retailers had to find solutions to their physical and online retail operations. Partial restrictions allowed them to carry out business activities in the Swedish market. Therefore, the current pandemic has influenced Swedish retailers to help them identify business strategies to boost their sales, especially online sales. As well as the data collection and literature findings, both cases suggest that adapting to new technologies is the key to increasing sales in all channels. Therefore, retailers should introduce new ways of working with the help of technological tools to become more competitive and provide excellent service to an increasingly demanding and technologically savvy customer.

    Contribution – This study contributes to the area of research that looks at how omnichannel retail structures can be improved to increase sales. And how they adapt to change market situations that influence consumer behavior.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Rewolucja £upkowa: Oewiatowe rynki gazu i ropy naftowej w warunkach transformacji2015Inngår i: Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, ISSN 0860-0953, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 5-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the United States. It is expected to spread beyond the US, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for themacro-economy and politics ofmany countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries.We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 17.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Shale gas and oil: Fundamentally changing global energy markets2013Inngår i: Oil & gas journal, ISSN 0030-1388, E-ISSN 1944-9151, Vol. 111, nr 12, s. 54-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shale production on a significant scale arose quite recently and is so far limited to the US with gas having a few years' lead on oil. Shale has already had a significant impact on US gas and oil output. Further sizable production increases can be expected in the US, and the shale revolution is likely to spread, with a lag, across the globe. This will result in fundamental repercussions for international energy markets. The resources in focus of our attention, comprising shale gas and coalbed methane along with tight gas and tight oil, typically lack strict definitions and they often overlap. However, they are all characterized by low permeability that yields commercially insufficient flows from vertical drilling. The shale revolution is the result of technological breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that have made vast dormant gas and oil resources economically exploitable

  • 18.
    Aguilera, Roberto F
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Skifferrevolutionen: hur den kommer att transformera de globala gas- och oljemarknaderna2014Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 30-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The Price of Oil2015Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on their extensive knowledge of the oil industry, Roberto F. Aguilera and Marian Radetzki provide an in-depth examination of the price of the world's most important commodity. They argue that although oil has experienced an extraordinary price increase over the past few decades, we have now reached a turning point where scarcity, uncertain supply and high prices will be replaced by abundance, undisturbed availability and suppressed price levels. They look at the potential of new global oil revolutions to bring the upward price push to an end and examine the implications of this turnaround for the world economy, as well as for politics, diplomacy, military interventions and the efforts to stabilize climate. This book will appeal to a wide readership of both academics and professionals working in the energy industry, as well as to general readers interested in the ongoing debate about oil prices

  • 20.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The shale revolution: Global gas and oil markets under transformation2014Inngår i: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 75-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the USA. It is expected to spread beyond the USA, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for the macroeconomy and politics of many countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries. We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 21.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    The synchronized and exceptional price performance of oil and gold: Explanations and prospects2017Inngår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 54, s. 81-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the global markets for gold and oil so as to explain the surprisingly high correlation of the two materials’ prices since 1970, and the exceedingly impressive rise of both price series compared with that of virtually all other primary commodities. We propose that developments in the oil market, and the resulting effects on the macroeconomy, influenced investment activity in gold, thus providing the most plausible explanation for the two commodities’ price synchronization. Our view on the extraordinary price increases of oil and gold, compared to a broad category of metals and minerals, is that oil prices rose first based on above-ground hurdles that restrained the capacity to produce, and gold prices then reacted as they were pushed up by rising safe-haven investment to store value – an attribute not shared by other metals and minerals. The paper also comments on the likely future price evolution of these important materials, arguing that oil prices will stagnate at levels observed from late 2014, or even weaken in the coming decades, but that gold prices will continue to ride relatively high – thus leading to a collapse of the oil/gold price connection.

  • 22.
    Aguirre, Linda
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    What Influences Young Adults to Become Financially Literate: An Explorative Study On Swedish Young Adults’ Attitudes Towards Money2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The low financial literacy among young adults affects individuals’ financial decisions, which impact their well-being and societal welfare. To understand what influences young adults’ financial decisions, it is essential to develop knowledge in elements that give existence to financial literacy. Known factors which influence financial literacy are attitudes about money and socialization sources. The purpose of this thesis is to explore socialization sources’ influence on attitudes towards money and in which way attitudes about money influence young adults’ financial literacy. A theoretical framework regarding these constructs was developed. Based on the Money Attitude Scale (MAS) and socialization source theories, 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted, which were thematically analyzed by developing codes and themes connected to the research questions. The findings from the collected data indicate that young adults are influenced in childhood by how they were raised, their environmental values, and the society and its values that they were brought up in. Findings also indicate that young adults are influenced by trends, media, friends, and their own experiences later in life. The collected data also showed that young adults become more financially literate because of their distrust of banks, the desire to be successful and the best version of themselves, and fear of ending up in challenging financial situations. Some findings pointed to why young adults had low financial literacy, which was connected to fear of being judged, low interest in the subject and still being financially dependent on their parents. This study suggests that policymakers need to develop financial education programs that are directed to socialization sources that influence young adults’ attitudes towards money. Policymakers should also develop trends that actively influence young adults to become more financially literate. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Ahl Bollesparr, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Andrea John, Michelle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Fondförvaltning: Går det fortfarande inte att generera en större riskjusterad avkastning än marknadens?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Många svenska hushåll fondsparar och 2018 uppgick fondsparandet i genomsnitt till 434 000 kronor per person. Nobelpristagaren Fama (1970) påvisade att det inte är möjligt att generera en högre riskjusterad avkastning än marknadens. Samtidigt finns det fortfarande mängder av aktivt förvaltade fonder som utlovar högre avkastning än marknaden. Därmed är det alltjämt otydligt för småsparare om passivt eller aktivt förvaltade fonder genererar störst avkastning. Till skillnad från liknande tidigare studier, har denna studie ett större urval av fonder. Syftet är att undersöka vilket fondalternativ som mest gynnar investerares avkastning på den svenska marknaden. Syftet uppfylls genom att prestationsmåtten Sharpekvot och Jensens Alfa, för utvärdering av fondernas avkastning, undersöks. Resultaten visade att det inte är möjligt att generera en högre riskjusterad avkastning över den valda tidsperioden. Generellt hade indexfonderna bland de högre riskjusterade avkastningarna, jämfört med de aktivt förvaltade fonderna. Vilket även tyder på att en högre fondavgift är omotiverad.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Ahlborg, Helene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Broäng, Frida
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality2015Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 87, s. 125-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues.

  • 25.
    Ahlin, Martin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Miraglia, Andre
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Impactinvesterares tillämpningar av en genuslins i investering2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Interviews with impact investors have been conducted to gain a clearer understanding of how socially sustainable investments are made taking into account the identity and gender views of impact investors. The gender lens applied to the study aimed to investigate how gender has been taken into account during company audits and before investment decisions by the impact investors. Furthermore, social identity theory has formed the basis for the deductive study that has been carried out. It has been used to study the impact investors' self-image and how they acted in their professional role in order to gain a deeper understanding of the origin of the impact investors' actions in relation to their identity. These actions have been thematised and examined in terms of criteria, actions, challenges and measures. The recurring factor that most influenced both the company assessment and investment decisions was the dual goals of impact investors, financial return and impact.

    The clearest contribution the study made was that there is a clearer link between impact investors' self-image and their profession compared to other professionals. How this affects impact investors' actions could not be discerned. Furthermore, the study also found that gender is not taken into account during company audits and investment decisions to the extent that previous research has shown. Risk understanding, potentially increased returns and social sustainability are possible outcomes that gender lens investments contribute to. The study's findings suggest that impact investors were aware of this, yet few of the study's respondents were willing to consider gender when making investment decisions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Ahlkvist, Alvina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Hur lyckas organisationer implementera ISO 9001?: Ett medarbetarperspektiv2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att arbeta med kvalitetsledning kan en organisation ständigt förbättras och bibehålla konkurrenskraft. Ett sätt att arbeta med kvalitetsledning är genom implementering av kvalitetsledningsstandarden ISO 9001. Standarden nämner sju principer, varav en är medarbetarnas engagemang, vilket är essentiellt för organisationer för att lyckas med implementeringen av ISO 9001. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur organisationer kan lyckas med att implementera ISO 9001 genom att undersöka vilka faktorer som bidrar till medarbetarnas engagemang och hur medarbetares engagemang kan stärkas.

    Litteraturstudier indikerar på flera faktorer som kan ha inverkan på medarbetares engagemang, vilka i sin tur beskrevs kunna påverkas med hjälp av förändringsledning. Med utgångspunkt i den teoretiska referensramen analyserades intervjuer, observationer och enkätundersökning med hjälp av tematisk och multivariat analys. På så sätt kartlades nuläget på fallföretaget. Tillsammans med resultatet från litteraturstudien framkom faktorer som kunde avgöra huruvida medarbetare engagerar sig i implementering av ISO 9001 eller inte.

     

    Av identifierade faktorer var det tre som kunde anses vara särskilt viktiga att hantera, då de antingen kan utgöra en barriär eller en framgångsfaktor för lyckad implementering. Faktorerna utgörs av Medvetenhet, Attityd, Användbarhet, Användarvänlighet och Ansvarskänsla, vilka har betydelse för att organisationer ska ta sig från sitt nuläge till sitt börläge. Nuläget utgör utgångspunkten för organisationen, och börläget representeras av en lyckad implementering: faktisk samt långsiktig användning av kvalitetsledningssystemet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Ahmed, Mahmud
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    An analysis of the Impact of Brand Image on Consumer Purchase Behavior: The case of Lidl, Sweden2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This research project had a purpose to discuss the impact of Brand Image on Consumer Purchase Behavior. For retailers brand image are the key factors that help them to engage with customers and influence their buying behaviors. The concept of the brand image draws vital attention from the practitioners as it plays a significant role in marketing activities. In this study concept of brand image and customers purchasing behaviors had been discussed and based on the theory and model of brand image this study has reviewed extant studies about brand image impacts on the customers from the perspective of customer’s equity. This research had also pointed out the relationship between brand image and brand equity and the relationship between brand image and consumer purchase behavior. Additionally, the research problem had been stated while implementing the research finding. This research design had been utilizing by the inductive approach in order to quantify the findings and discussion. Additionally, the research methodology had been discussed. For collecting secondary & primary data and survey method had been used in this study. Qualitative data analysis and quantitative data collection both techniques had been used. 

    Finding and discussion were about Impact of Brand Image on Consumer Purchase Behavior in Lidl, Sweden has mentioned were, brand image factors and how it helps the company to influence customers purchasing behavior has been discussing. Besides, the impact of Lidl brand image on their customer’s had been analyzed and the different campaigns, promotional and marketing strategy used by Lidl to strengthen their brand image had been discussed in the current research. The trend, which had been found that company, is focusing on innovation their products with Eco-friendly products to maintain sustainability. 

    From this research it had been concluded that, brand image plays an important role in the Lidl to influence the customers purchasing behavior. It had been found that, the company has focus on strengthen the brand image for which they have adopted social media campaigns, environment friendly products in order to satisfy the customers by providing high quality product to influence their buying behavior. Additionally, the past experience of customers from previous purchase and LIDL products high quality in nature has significantly impact on customers purchasing behavior. Additionally, LIDL responsibility towards environment, their investment in advertisement, strong brand name in Sweden influences the purchasing behavior of customers. According to the future scope, in the survey, more sampling size would be selected to get a more accurate outcome from the research. Furthermore, an Interview would be taken to get the more effective outcome of the research

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Ahmed, Mumtahina
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Port City International University, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Raihan Ul
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Explainable Text Classification Model for COVID-19 Fake News Detection2022Inngår i: Journal of Internet Services and Information Security (JISIS), ISSN 2182-2069, E-ISSN 2182-2077, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 51-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence has achieved notable advances across many applications, and the field is recently concerned with developing novel methods to explain machine learning models. Deep neural networks deliver the best performance accuracy in different domains, such as text categorization, image classification, and speech recognition. Since the neural network models are black-box types, they lack transparency and explainability in predicting results. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Fake News Detection is a challenging research problem as it endangers the lives of many online users by providing misinformation. Therefore, the transparency and explainability of COVID-19 fake news classification are necessary for building the trustworthiness of model prediction. We proposed an integrated LIME-BiLSTM model where BiLSTM assures classification accuracy, and LIME ensures transparency and explainability. In this integrated model, since LIME behaves similarly to the original model and explains the prediction, the proposed model becomes comprehensible. The performance of this model in terms of explainability is measured by using Kendall’s tau correlation coefficient. We also employ several machine learning models and provide a comparison of their performances. Therefore, we analyzed and compared the computation overhead of our proposed model with the other methods because the model takes the integrated strategy.

  • 29.
    Ahmetova, Ajdana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Juto, Hanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Mellanchefers distansledarskap under Coronapandemin: En kvalitativ studie utifrån ett medarbetarperspektiv2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I syfte att kontrollera smittspridningen av det nya Coronaviruset hänvisades medarbetare på många arbetsplatser till distansarbete. Det råder delade meningar om distansarbete på grund av individuella skillnader och preferenser. Samtidigt har det visat sig att mellanchefer inte får tillräckligt med stöd och vägledning från ledningen samt att de inte har lärt sig arbeta effektivt med virtuella team. Detta innebär att distansledarskapet behöver anpassas efter den rådande situationen. Tidigare forskning på ämnet är begränsad och det råder oenigheter kring mellanchefers roll vid distansarbete men även gällande huruvida transformativt ledarskap fungerar på distans och vid ledarskap i mellanled. Studiens syfte är att skapa förståelse för distansledarskap på mellanchefsnivå och hur medarbetare upplever sina mellanchefers distansledarskap under Coronapandemin. Baserat på detta resulterar studien i förslag på hur mellanchefer kan agera för att utöva framgångsrikt distansledarskap i Coronapandemin utifrån ett medarbetarperspektiv. Studien inriktar sig på finansbranschen med anledning av den höga digitaliseringstakten samt en offentlig myndighet för att skapa en övergripande bild av distansledarskap. Respektive sektor har dessutom en samhällsviktig funktion som upprätthåller ett socialt och ekonomiskt skyddsnät för det svenska folket under rådande pandemi. För att kunna besvara studiens frågeställning bygger studien på en kvalitativ metod där data samlas in genom Zoom-intervjuer med 18 medarbetare från Folksam, Nordea och Skatteverket. 

    Studien resulterar i en reviderad analysmodell som tar upp de centrala delarna av mellanchefers framgångsrika distansledarskap utifrån ett medarbetarperspektiv. Det transformativa ledarskapet visar sig passa i situationer där det sker organisatoriska förändringar som övergången till distansarbete då det kräver ett individuellt förhållningssätt till medarbetarna. Vidare anses att transformativt ledarskap till stor del motsvarar vad medarbetarna efterfrågar av distansledarskapet under Coronapandemin då det handlar om att ha kontinuerlig dialog och vara lyhörd för medarbetarnas åsikter. Det gäller att identifiera samt förstå individuella preferenser och behov och utifrån det anpassa sitt tillvägagångssätt som distansledare. Anledningen till detta är dels att enskilda medarbetare har olika förutsättningar att klara den rådande pandemin och därav har påverkats de i olika omfattning, dels att medarbetarna har olika preferenser kring arbetssättet och distansledarskap. Exempelvis vill vissa personer att en mellanchef på distans ska vara stöttande, uppmuntrande och engagerad medan andra trivs med att arbeta på egen hand utan att involvera sina mellanchefer eller ha tät kontakt med sina kollegor. Således resulterar studien i att det transformativa ledarskapet som är av relationskapande karaktär bör kombineras med en ledarskapsstil som är av en mer uppgiftsorienterad karaktär när arbete sker på distans. Det förekommer dock vissa begränsningar i mellanchefers maktbefogenheter vilket leder till att transformativt ledarskap riskerar att inte kunna nyttjas till fullo. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Ahnér, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Jakobsson, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Vilken påverkan har den avskaffade revisionsplikten på den ekonomiska brottsligheten?: En kvalitativ studie från myndigheternas perspektiv2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Allmän revisionsplikt avskaffades 1 november 2010 för att förenkla administrationen och kostnaderna för småbolag. Förhoppningen med regelförenklingen var att stärka bolagens konkurrenskraft och skapa tillväxt i ekonomin. Revisionsplikt har debatterats sedan den avskaffades. Förespråkarna inom näringslivet vill höja gränsvärden för revisionsplikt, det vill säga att fler företag skulle få valfrihet om de vill ha revision. Medan myndigheterna upplever nackdelar som ökad ekonomisk brottslighet och vill därför återinföra allmän revisionsplikt. Studiens syfte var att undersöka myndigheternas nuvarande inställning gällande hur revisionsplikten har påverkat den ekonomiska brottsligheten i Sverige.

    En kvalitativ studie genomfördes som bygger på sekundär- och primärdata. Studiens huvudsakliga fokus är sekundärdata som erhölls genom myndighetsrapporter, medan primärdata erhölls genom intervjuer med Ekobrottsmyndigheten och Skatteverket. För att besvara forskningsfrågan har ett abduktivt angreppssätt använts för att undersöka hur lämplig teorin är för att belysa samband i det empiriska datamaterialet. Studien tar stöd av Fraud Triangle Theory som förklarar orsakerna till ekonomiska brott och Fraud Diamond Theory som lägger till en fjärde dimension och beskriver individens förmåga att utföra brottet.

    I studien framkom att myndighetens farhågor om ökad ekobrottslighet hade slagit in, men att det inte går att fastställa hur mycket ekobrotten hade ökat sedan revisionsplikten avskaffandes. Vilket beror på att ekonomiska brott är komplexa och beror på ett flertal faktorer. Studien visar även på att det krävs mer än en möjlighet, såsom slopande av allmän revisionsplikt, till brott för att ett brott ska realiseras, vilket ställer överens med Diamond Fraud Theory. Många myndigheter har fortfarande en åsikt om att revisionsplikt bör återinföras, då näringslivet behöver någon form av stöd och kontroll. Allmän revisionsplikt kan troligen inte återinföras med tanke på den internationella konkurrensen. Myndigheterna föreslår därför alternativa åtgärder för att begränsa den ekonomiska brottsligheten.

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  • 31.
    Aidanpää, Benjamin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Exploring Consumers' Perception of the Use of Virtual Reality (VR) for Fashion Shopping2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As technology continues to rapidly develop, the realization of Virtual Reality (VR) stores is coming into view for various businesses and industries. As customers today are becoming more aware of their purchasing behaviour and the impact their products have on the environment, it puts pressure on the fashion industry to meet these requirements and needs by developing or adopting new technologies to their practices. In order to try to reduce the sustainability impact of the fashion industry the creation of VR fashion stores may play a role in reducing the need for physical stores, pre-production of clothes, and reducing transportation to reduce the environmental impact. The purpose of this study is to fill the knowledge gap regarding consumers' perceptions of using VR for personal fashion shopping, as well as to explore how consumers perceive the sustainability aspect of VR when considering it as a means to shop for fashion. A theoretical framework regarding this was developed based primarily on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted and then thematically analysed to develop codes and themes related to the research questions. The findings suggest that there is great acceptance of and interest in VR fashion shopping among participants. Participants expected it to become a reality in the future and to become an alternative way of shopping in society. Regarding the perception of the sustainability aspect that VR fashion shopping brings, the study participants noted that they embrace and approve it. However, cost and technological advancements and experiences are of primary importance to them. Future research should focus on conducting wider research regarding VR fashion shopping, as there was an apparent indication that it was accepted by all and something people would choose to use if the technology and opportunity were available.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Allard, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lin, Janet
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Sandström, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    LTU Teaching guide to e-learning: how to clear the mist of teaching through the cloud2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 33.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Estimating the Cross-Price Elasticity of Regular Gasoline with Respect to the Price of Premium Gasoline2018Inngår i: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 157-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasoline demand has been extensively researched, yet there has been no attempt to estimate cross-price elasticities of different grades of gasoline. Such knowledge will allow accurate determination of the impact of a fuel pricing policy that has different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the gasoline grade. Using monthly data on the Mexican gasoline market from 1999 to 2014, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an ARDL model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticity between regular and premium gasoline is found to be 0.875, confirming high substitutability among gasoline with different grades.

  • 34.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Department of Accounting and Finance, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Academic Belt Road, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Payne Institute of Public Policy, Colorado School of Mines, Engineering Hall Room 128, 816 15th Street, Golden, CO 80401, United States of America.
    Political power, economic trade-offs, and game theory in Indonesian gasoline subsidy reform2022Inngår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 92, artikkel-id 102782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasoline subsidies distort the gasoline market resulting in inefficiencies and a costly burden in government budget. In Indonesia, they have taken up to 15 % of the government expenditures that arguably could be better spent elsewhere. Governments are aware of these costs, yet face difficulties in removing the policy. Governments would like to release the subsidy fund for other programs while still maintaining political power. Simultaneously, a reform will reduce the purchasing of the population and thus, it is commonly met with strong public resistance. The general population can influence the government’s decision to carry out a reform by exerting pressure that may affect the country’s political stability. There is a vast economics literature analysing the economic impact from a subsidy reform. Meanwhile, the government’s hesitancy is analysed in the political science literature. We combined these two fields by developing a quantitative game theory model to show the interaction between the government and the general population. The model is based on Indonesian data but provides a framework that can be applied elsewhere. Different policy removal schemes are simulated including completely or partially phasing-out the subsidy with and without compensation. An important take-away from our analysis is that it provides a framework showing governments what they have to quantify in order to make an informed policy decision. Another important implication is that the success of the policy reform is highly dependent on the selectorates trust to the government. It strongly supports the political science recommendations of building trust through transparency and inclusion.

  • 35.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Simulation of price controls for different grade of gasoline: The case of Indonesia2017Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 68, s. 373-382Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A gasoline subsidy is one of the most prevalent strategies for distributing welfare to the people in oil-producing countries. However well-intentioned, the policy will distort the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies. Furthermore, the gasoline subsidy takes a great amount of government's budget. Arguably, these funds could be spent elsewhere with a greater impact on economic growth. These governments are aware of the cost of such a policy, yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This paper looks at the unique case of Indonesia that only provides a subsidy for regular gasoline and in turn proposes an alternative policy that introduces a subsidy for premium gasoline at a lower rate to reduce the overall gasoline subsidy cost. There has yet to be any research that simulates price controls for gasoline with different grades. The aggregate demand for gasoline in Indonesia is replicated using a translog cost calibration approach. Simulations based on the calibrated demand are then performed and the results confirm the existence of potential savings that are largely determined by the cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline. The benchmark scenario, based on a recent study of substitutability between gasoline by grades, results in an 11.5% reduction in subsidy cost of around 950 million USD with a subsidy rate of Rp 2254/liter. Furthermore, the optimal rate of subsidy for premium gasoline results in a reduction of inefficiency as consumers' welfare increase by 6.8 trillion rupiahs (or 560 million USD).

  • 36.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale, UNU-WIDER, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra.
    Abidoye, Babatunde
    CEEPA, University of Pretoria.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Simbanegavi, Witness
    African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi.
    Public disclosure for carbon abatement: African decision-makers in a PROPER public good experiment2017Inngår i: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. 548-558Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    linear public good experiment adopted from Holt and Laury [1997. Classroom games: Voluntary provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(4), 209–215.] has been employed to investigate strategic behaviour in pollution abatement among African climate decision-makers. The experiment consisted of three groups, of which groups 2 and 3 received one and two treatments, respectively. The first treatment entailed publicly disclosing the pollution of each member of a group by placing a corresponding colour-coded card in front of each subject, while the second involved the withdrawal of the public disclosure. Group 2 received the first treatment; Group 3 received both the first and second treatments in succession. We found that the untreated group (baseline) polluted more than the two treated groups, and there was no statistically significant difference between the pollution abatement of the two treated groups. These results suggest that public disclosure potentially drives pollution abatement and that its eventual withdrawal does not obliterate abatement behaviour. We did not observe conditional cooperation but average pollution declined over time. Furthermore, individuals who thought it was unfair for Africa to reduce emissions polluted more. We also found that pollution levels differ significantly between males and females.

  • 37.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Zikhali, Precious
    Centre for World Food Studies (SOW-VU), Vrije Universiteit.
    Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in southern Africa?: A bioeconomic modelling approach2009Inngår i: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 587-600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The mopane worm, which is the caterpillar form of the Saturnid moth Imbrasia belina Westwood, is like other edible insects and caterpillars a vital source of protein in southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which have alternative uses. With increasing commercialization of the worm, its management, which was hitherto organized as a common property resource, has been degraded to almost open access. This paper uses a bioeconomic modelling approach to show that for some optimal allocation of the mopane forest stock, the restrictive harvest period policy advocated by community leaders may not lead to sustainable harvesting of the worm

  • 38.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    School of Research and Graduate Studies, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Achimota‐Accra, Ghana World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Connectivity at a cost: Economic dynamics of restoring habitat connectivity2021Inngår i: Natural Resource Modeling, ISSN 0890-8575, E-ISSN 1939-7445, Vol. 34, nr 1, artikkel-id e12294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Both in the United States and in Europe there is ongoing work on reversing habitat fragmentation and the attendant loss in biodiversity in river systems caused by hydropower and other developments. Fish ladders and other measures are being introduced to restore the connectivity in river systems. In this paper, we set up a theoretical model to investigate what the conditions are for such an investment to be socially profitable. We find that, even in cases where it would have been socially preferable not to build hydropower installations in the first place, connectivity-restoring measures affecting the installations are not necessarily socially beneficial. This is the case for a wide range of plausible assumptions about discount rates, investment costs and productivity losses.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 39.
    Al, Isak
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Lind, Emmy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Why do local governments say no to wind power?: A public choice approach to the use of the right to veto among Swedish municipalities2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to investigate the factors that affect the use of the municipalveto regarding wind power deployment in Sweden. The study employs a public choiceapproach to investigate the relationship between self-interested voters and the decisionmaking politicians. It employs a probit model specification, which is estimated employing303 municipal decisions in 129 Swedish municipalities over the period 2011-2021. Thefindings suggests that political attributes do generally not play a significant role inmunicipal veto decisions. Instead, in municipalities with high property prices there is alower probability of approval whereas it is higher in municipalities with a high share ofeducated individuals and already installed wind power. Further research is recommendedto be conducted in the future when more data is available. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 41.
    Alatalo, Frida
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Nilsson, Maja
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Paradoxen mellan styrning och inflytande: En fallstudie inom en svensk myndighet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Regeringen har aviserat att nya styrmodeller ska utvecklas inom offentlig sektor som ger medarbetarna större frihet och ökat inflytande. Dessa modeller förväntas prägla nya styrmodeller inom offentliga organisationer. Ur ett teoretiskt perspektiv kan styrning och inflytande betraktas som varandras motsatser och mellan dessa kan det uppstå spänningar som skapar ett paradoxalt förhållande. Syftet med examensarbetet är att öka kunskapen om hur styrning och inflytande kan ge upphov till spänningar. Syftet uppnås genom att konceptualisera styrning, inflytande och otydlighet. Examensarbetet baseras på ett fall inom offentlig sektor. En kvalitativ forskningsansats har tillämpats och semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med både chefer och medarbetare. Resultatet visar att ökat inflytandet har lett tillen otydligare styrning som i sin tur gett upphov till förvirring och missnöje bland anställda. Spänningarna som ger upphov till paradoxen består av skilda uppfattningar kring organisatoriska mål samt motstridiga intressen. För att mildra spänningarna som uppstår av paradoxen behöver graden av rolltydlighet och förståelsen för de politiska målen ökas innan ledningen ger medarbetare ökat inflytande. Ledningen kan använda metoder för att reducera kulturella spänningar i syfte att uppnå en samsyn genom hela organisationen. Den optimala graden av inflytande beror även av olika situationsfaktorer. Styrningen kan därför anpassas efter både verksamhet och miljö. Detta paradoxala förhållande mellan styrning och inflytande har funnits inom Polisen och det finns skäl att tro att samma typ av spänningar även finns inom andra offentliga organisationer. Ur skattebetalarnas perspektiv är det av största vikt att offentliga organisationer styrs på ett så effektivt sätt som möjligt för att medborgarna ska erhålla största möjliga värde av de offentliga tjänsterna.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Alawsi, Mustafa A.
    et al.
    Department of Building and Construction Techniques-Kut Technical Institute, Middle Technical University, Wasit 52001, Iraq; Department of Civil Engineering, Wasit University, Wasit 52001, Iraq.
    Zubaidi, Salah L.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Wasit University, Wasit 52001, Iraq.
    Al-Bdairi, Nabeel Saleem Saad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Wasit University, Wasit 52001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Hashim, Khalid
    Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK; Department of Environment Engineering, Babylon University, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Drought Forecasting: A Review and Assessment of the Hybrid Techniques and Data Pre-Processing2022Inngår i: Hydrology, E-ISSN 2306-5338, Vol. 9, nr 7, artikkel-id 115Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drought is a prolonged period of low precipitation that negatively impacts agriculture, animals, and people. Over the last decades, gradual changes in drought indices have been observed. Therefore, understanding and forecasting drought is essential to avoid its economic impacts and appropriate water resource planning and management. This paper presents a recent literature review, including a brief description of data pre-processing, data-driven modelling strategies (i.e., univariate or multivariate), machine learning algorithms (i.e., advantages and disadvantages), hybrid models, and performance metrics. Combining various prediction methods to create efficient hybrid models has become the most popular use in recent years. Accordingly, hybrid models have been increasingly used for predicting drought. As such, these models will be extensively reviewed, including preprocessing-based hybrid models, parameter optimisation-based hybrid models, and hybridisation of components combination-based with preprocessing-based hybrid models. In addition, using statistical criteria, such as RMSE, MAE, NSE, MPE, SI, BIC, AIC, and AAD, is essential to evaluate the performance of the models.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Albadvi, Amir
    et al.
    Tarbiat Modares University.
    Gharaee, Roudabeh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi. Tarbiat Modares University.
    Drivers and barriers of E-banking adoption: case of Karafarin bank2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Digital Society: ICDS 2009 : 1 - 7 February 2009, Cuncun, Mexico / [ed] Yutaka Takahashi, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2009, s. 235-240Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates drivers, determinants and barriers of electronic banking adoption in Iran. Results of the analysis of information gathered through comprehensive interviews with the key managers of the pioneer private bank for e-banking adoption in Iran (KB) indicate that the adoption status is the transition of pre-development to development phase and the main drivers for adopting e-banking are downsizing, gaining competitive advantage, increasing market share and improving bank's image. The analysis further reveals that inefficient ICT infrastructure, political challenges and traditional organizational culture are barriers for adoption of e-banking in Iran. We conclude that banks in Iran need to web-enable themselves sooner or later and in order for the banks to overcome some of their barriers identification of the drivers for e-banking adoption would be a helpful tool.

  • 44.
    Albadvi, Amir
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-111, Iran.
    Saddad, Ghazaleh
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Web Site Evaluation of Iranian Tourism and Hospitality Organizations: An E-Commerce Web Site Features Model2012Inngår i: Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, ISSN 1936-8623, E-ISSN 1936-8631, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 155-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iran possesses a rich range of natural, cultural, and manmade tourism resources, much of which is unique in the world. Tourism is the fastest growing industry around the world and holds the highest share of countries' GDPs compared to other industries; this presents a unique opportunity for Iran. This research focuses on evaluating the current status of Iranian tourist organization Web sites in order to study their adoption of e-commerce applications. A Web site evaluation model is used to study 207 sites to reveal the status of the tourist organizations and to find out their reasons for having a Web presence. Iran tourism's competitive advantages and weaknesses are also studied. Based on this, the weak points and missed potential of the Web sites are extracted to help managers enhance their e-commerce activities in Iran's tourism industry.

  • 45.
    Aldieri, Luigi
    et al.
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap. The Ratio Institute, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paolo Vinci, Concetto
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy.
    The Effect of Marshallian and Jacobian Knowledge Spilloverson Jobs in the Solar, Wind and Energy Efficiency Sector2021Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 14, artikkel-id 4269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to establish if Marshallian and Jacobian knowledge spillovers affect job creation in the green energy sector. Whether these two effects exist is important for the number of jobs created in related fields and jobs pushed away in other sectors. In the analysis, the production efficiency, in terms of jobs and job spillovers, from inventions in solar, wind and energy efficiency, is explored through data envelopment analysis (DEA), based on the Malmquist productivity index, and tobit regression. A panel dataset of American and European firms over the period of 2002–2017 is used. The contribution to the literature is to show the role of the spillovers from the same technology sector (Marshallian externalities), and of the spillovers from more diversified activity (Jacobian externalities). Since previous empirical evidence concerning the innovation effects on the production efficiency is yet weak, the paper attempts to bridge this gap. The empirical findings suggest negative Marshallian externalities, while Jacobian externalities have no statistical impact on the job creation process. The findings are of strategic importance for governments who are developing industrial strategies for renewable energy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Aldieri, Luigi
    et al.
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.
    Sundström, Kristoffer
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinci, Concetto Paolo
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Wind Power and Job Creation2020Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikkel-id 45Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a global overview of job effects per MW of wind power installations, which will enable improved decision-making and modeling of future wind-power projects. We found indications that job creation connected to wind-power installations is rather limited. In total, 17 peer-reviewed articles and 10 reports/non-peer-reviewed papers between 2001 and 2019 were assessed. Our three major policy conclusions are as follows: (a) job creation seems to be limited; (b) each new project should consider a unique assessment, since all projects have been undertaken within different institutional frameworks, labor markets, and during separate years, meaning that the technology is not comparable; and (c) the number of jobs depends on the labor intensity of the country.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Al-Doori, Noor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Nedskrivningsprövning av goodwill enligt IAS 36: En jämförande studie av dess efterlevnad i börsnoterade bolag på large cap-listan under åren 2005–20152017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    För mer än tio år sedan infördes IFRS 3/IAS 36 och det blev obligatoriskt för alla

    börsnoterade företag i Sverige att redovisa goodwill. Problemet är att IAS 36 är en

    komplicerad regel och studier visar en låg grad av efterlevnad. Företagen försöker nämligen

    att undvika att tillämpa regeln eftersom de tycker att nedskrivningen ger en negativ syn på

    företagen. Denna studie syftar till att beskriva hur väl börsnoterade företag inom

    telekommunikationsbranschen efterlever IAS 36 och jämföra hur den förändras över tid. Detta

    utförs genom att undersöka årsredovisningar från alla fyra börsnoterade på large-cap listan

    inom telekommunikationsbranschen och använda en kvantitativ metod samt välja standarden

    IAS 36 p. 134. Resultaten presenteras i tabeller och diagram. Studien kommer fram till att

    graden av efterlevnad är väldigt olika bland företagen samt att graden av efterlevnad

    förbättras med tiden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014Inngår i: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 51-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 49.
    Ali, Maxamed Duran
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Tekes, Serhat
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Credibility Communication of CSR Initiatives: A study on credible CSR communication within the gambling industry among millennials.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an increasingly important aspect for companies to consider in a highly competitive business environment. Consequently, stakeholders have shown increased interest in how companies and suppliers relate to sustainable development and place ever higher demands on companies to actively engage in CSR initiatives. However, companies are facing challenges with their CSR communication credibility, especially in the gambling industry. CSR communication credibility is investigated in previous studies where several underlying factors have been presented. However, there is a theoretical gap of how these theories and factors correlate in the gambling industry with regards to CSR communication credibility. 

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the different factors affecting CSR communication credibility within the gambling industry among millennials. Furthermore, the purpose is also to enhance the understanding of what to consider in gambling companies' quest for increasing the credibility of their CSR communication. This is done through testing three hypotheses regarding different constructs, namely CSR credibility, corporate image and institutional credibility and how they influence CSR communication credibility. The research is quantitative in nature and employs a descriptive-explanatory approach, using an online survey to collect primary data. The online survey was distributed to previous and current customer of a Swedish gambling enterprise, which yielded a total sample size of 495 which was used for the statistical analysis. 

    The findings suggest that the underlying factors CSR commitment, company as a source, information attractiveness and reputation influence CSR communication credibility and all factors are needed to be considered when gambling companies investigate their CSR communication credibility. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Alipour, Mehrdad
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran.
    Damavandi, Mohammadreza
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Industriell Ekonomi.
    The impact of E-procurement implementation on performance of ship management companies: case study of IRISL2011Inngår i: 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN),, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 618-622Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of competition in the market and the consequent changes in economic conditions impose organizations and firms to implement new technologies to stay competitive. Those firms which have not implemented technology at the proper time are at the risk of losing customers or suppliers [6]. Transportation industry in general and maritime transportation industry in particular are not exception in this regard. Operation in a very competitive market is the character of maritime transportation industry and the main driving factor toward implementing of technology in maritime transportation industry is continuous pressure for reducing overheads, costs and increasing efficiency and security [5]. Customers, partners, agents, collaborators, shippers, port operators, suppliers and service agencies are involved in the ship transport industry supply chain, and one of the major requirements in such a supply chain in which all concerned parties are scattered all over the world, is the high speed transferring of data between them. In order to achieve competitive advantage over the rivals, the e-commerce and e-business with their attributes are focal points for ship owners and other stakeholders [14]. In maritime transportation procurement process plays an essential role. Ships usually purchase a large quantity of supplies for maintaining daily operations. The procurement process in maritime industry should be organized in a way that enables efficient transfer of goods and services into vessels. Today, a major goal of a maritime's supply chain management is to apply information technology to their procurement systems efficiently and cost effectively. Moving away from traditional and paper based offline purchase processing to online procurement enables shipping lines to gain better procurement practices in terms of cost efficiency

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