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  • 1.
    Abdulbaqi, Dana M.
    et al.
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Al-Shaikh, Mohammed
    Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a Stepping Stone to Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)2018In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 239-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concerns about carbon emissions coupled with the oil industry’s need to secure additional CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects have sparked interest in the potential that CO2-EOR may have in jumpstarting carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). However, existing studies on the viability of coupling CO2-EOR with CCS have generally placed more focus on either the engineering or economic aspects of the problem. Most engineering studies focus on the technical aspects of the CO2-EOR project to produce the maximum amount of oil, while simultaneously storing the most CO2 during the production process with the economics as an afterthought, while most economic studies found have focused on a singular aspect of the issue such as impacts of exogenously varying injection rates. Furthermore, modelling efforts have stopped at the end of the productive life of the field. We build a unique two-stage dynamic optimization model, which simultaneously addresses engineering and economic policy aspects, to study the viability of coupling CO2-EOR transitioning into CCS. Our model includes a carbon tax for emissions, which becomes a subsidy for full scale sequestration after oil production has ceased; this allows us to explore the transition from CO2-EOR, our first stage, to sole CO2 sequestration in our second stage for a single field. We maximize the operator’s profits across both stages, while tracking the responsiveness of oil production and total carbon movements to both price and policy changes. We pair our optimization model with a reservoir simulation model, allowing us to mimic actual field behavior, giving our work a more realistic representation of both production and sequestration profiles. Our results suggest that small increases in the level of carbon tax can have large and discontinuous impacts on net sequestration. This stems from the observed transition from limited natural sources of CO2 to more expensive captured CO2 resulting from the implemented policy. With appropriate taxes, total volumes of captured CO2 sequestered across both stages are equivalent to 30 to 40% of the emissions from the use of the oil produced. With the credits oil producers receive from sequestering CO2, which equate to the tax, relatively high carbon taxes incentivize additional sequestration without significantly impacting the supply of oil. This, alongside maintaining a steady stream of profits, is a win-win situation for energy security and the climate.

  • 2.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

  • 3.
    Adey, E.A.
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Shail, R.K.
    University of Exeter.
    Wall, F.
    University of Exeter.
    Varul, M.
    University of Exeter.
    Whitbread-Abrutat, P.
    Eden Project.
    Baciu, C.
    University of Babes-Bolyai.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lovric, I.
    University of Mostar.
    Udachin, V.
    Institute of Mineralogy.
    Corporate social responsibility within the mining industry: case studies from across Europe and Russia2011In: Proceedings of the Aachen International Mining Symposia (AIMS): 5th International Conference – Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry (SDIMI 2011), Aachen, 14-17 June 2011, Aachen: Aachen University , 2011, p. 153-170Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible mining requires a company to engage with local communities throughout all stages of their operations, from exploration phases through to post mining planning. Assessment of current and potential future social impacts allows a company to maximize the positive impacts they can have on a community, whilst minimizing negative social impacts from mining. Initiating and upholding effective stakeholder relations are key to a company`s ability to obtain and maintain their "social license" to operate. The level of interaction between mining companies and stakeholders, including local communities, varies substantially between and within countries. As part of the EU funded Framework 7 "ImpactMin" Project (Impact Monitoring of Mineral Resources Exploitation), we have examined the level of community engagement in mining and related processing industries at sites across Europe, including Romania (Rosia Montana), Sweden (Kristineberg), the UK (Cornwall), Bosnia Herzegovina (Vihovici) and Russia (Karabash, Gay and Mednogorsk). These sites reflect different stages in mining and therefore reveal a diverse range of issues and differing levels of community engagement. Our aim has been to focus not only on how practice varies, but also to try to explain the complex reasons behind the relationships that exist between mining companies and different stakeholders. Findings of questionnaires undertaken across the sites (between June - October 2010), and results of interviews and focus groups of different people linked to the mining industry, will also be discussed. The expectations that "mining" communities have of their local mining company vary substantially, directly relating to what the community believes the mine company owes them. These examples highlight that the notion of corporate social responsibility in the mining sector in Europe and Russia is fluid and changes according to the differing expectations and goals of stakeholders. We will present highlights of initial results. For example, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation, in Romania, is trying to reopen closed state gold mines. They have seen international media attention relating to campaigns by NGOs to oppose the mines reopening. Our results will help reveal what samples of different stakeholder groups really think of the mines reopening. This example contrasts distinctly with a mine in Kristineberg, Sweden, where Kristineberg village was built alongside the mine. There are now distinct issues felt within the community due to the decline in the number of people employed at the mine.

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  • 4.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    What drives the energy saving role of FDI and industrialization in East Africa?2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 925-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of the unconditional impacts of foreign direct inflows (FDIs) and industrialization on energy intensity does not show the hidden roles of some economic conditions such as income and trade openness. In this study, we focused on the conditional impacts of FDIs and industrialization on energy productivity using a panel data consisting of thirteen (13) East African countries covering 1980–2011. The baseline result shows that higher income and a well-integrated economy are pro-energy productive, but FDIs and intense industrialization are anti-energy productive in the sub-region. This result remains robust even when we exclude the high income group and control for income group effects. Income significantly promotes energy productivity more in low income group than middle income group. Intense industrialization and FDIs significantly decreases energy productivity only in low income countries. Trade openness significantly promotes energy productivity only in middle income group. We have shown that FDIs and income, intense industrialization and FDIs, and intense industrialization and globalization are complementary forces that promote energy productivity in East Africa but this is more evident for the middle income group than the low income group in the sub-region. Based on the result, we recommend a quadruplet programme called the “Growth, Industrial, Foreign investment and Trade programme” (GIFTP). Last, our result suggests that unconditional analysis of energy productivity should not be seen as an end in itself but a basis for further analysis.

  • 5.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    Department of Development Policy, School of Public Service and Governance, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Agradi, Mawunyo Prosper
    Department of Economics, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Nsabimana, Aimable
    Rwanda Polytechnic, Rwanda; Department of Economics, University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Energy poverty, development outcomes, and transition to green energy2021In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 178, p. 1337-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    School of Public Service and Governance, Department of Development Policy, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Accra, Ghana; School of Economics and Finance (SEF), University of the WitWatersrand, Johanneshurg, South Africa; GIMPA - PURC Centre of Excellence in Public Utility Regulation (CEPUR), Accra - Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Environment for Development (EfD), University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Akorli, Charity Dzifa
    School of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Economics & Hospitality, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Energy efficiency as a sustainability concern in Africa and financial development: How much bias is involved?2023In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 120, article id 106577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the literature on whether financial development stimulates technical energy efficiency (TEE) or not, by addressing core biases that creep into the relationship and thereby reducing the ability to draw causal inferences from financial development to TEE. Our approach is based on the instrumental stochastic frontier technique, where biases in the frontier and inefficiency equations are dealt with using external instrumental variables. The legal system origin of the country and life expectancy at birth were used as instruments for financial development and income, respectively. The current study demonstrates substantial bias in income elasticity, the estimate of energy efficiency, and the effect of financial development on energy efficiency. Both income elasticity and energy efficiency estimate risk upward bias. Equally, the effect of financial system development and financial institution development on TEE risk downward bias. Other results show that all aspects of financial institution development stimulate TEE, but access to financial institutions is more important. These results raise caution about future studies' estimates of the effect of financial development on TEE. Though this study has demonstrated the potency of external instruments in dealing with the bias in the coefficient estimates, we consider this might prove to be a luxury solution in some cases due to data limitation, context differences, and theory. In those circumstances, reliance on internal instruments might prove to be the second-best option.

  • 7.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    et al.
    Department of Development Policy, School of Public Service and Governance, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA), Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Salome
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Degree of financialization and energy efficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa: do institutions matter?2020In: Financial Innovation, E-ISSN 2199-4730, Vol. 6, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 7 emphasizes the need for economies around the world to double their efforts in energy efficiency improvements. This is because improvements in energy efficiency can trigger economic growth and considered as one of the ‘green’ growth strategies due to its carbon free content. To this end, some empirical studies have investigated the nexus between economic growth and energy efficiency, but the effects of the latter on financial indicators have not been sufficiently studied in the literature, at least in developing economies like Africa. This study examines the effect of energy efficiency improvements on commercial bank profitability under different political regimes (i.e., autocratic and democratic political regimes); something previous literature had neglected. The study uses panel data, consisting of 43 African countries and the simultaneous System Generalized Method of Moments. We found that energy efficiency improvement is more likely to induce higher bank profitability in political institutions with the characteristics of centralization of power compared with those with decentralization of power. Furthermore, for the banking sector, the findings suggest that energy utilization behavior of clients should be included in the loan or credit valuation process. For the government, the agenda of energy efficiency should be aggressively pursued while taking cognizance of creating a political environment that weans itself from a ‘grandfathering’ behavior.

  • 8.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rewolucja £upkowa: Oewiatowe rynki gazu i ropy naftowej w warunkach transformacji2015In: Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, ISSN 0860-0953, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 5-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the United States. It is expected to spread beyond the US, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for themacro-economy and politics ofmany countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries.We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 9.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Shale gas and oil: Fundamentally changing global energy markets2013In: Oil & gas journal, ISSN 0030-1388, E-ISSN 1944-9151, Vol. 111, no 12, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shale production on a significant scale arose quite recently and is so far limited to the US with gas having a few years' lead on oil. Shale has already had a significant impact on US gas and oil output. Further sizable production increases can be expected in the US, and the shale revolution is likely to spread, with a lag, across the globe. This will result in fundamental repercussions for international energy markets. The resources in focus of our attention, comprising shale gas and coalbed methane along with tight gas and tight oil, typically lack strict definitions and they often overlap. However, they are all characterized by low permeability that yields commercially insufficient flows from vertical drilling. The shale revolution is the result of technological breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that have made vast dormant gas and oil resources economically exploitable

  • 10.
    Aguilera, Roberto F
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Skifferrevolutionen: hur den kommer att transformera de globala gas- och oljemarknaderna2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 30-41Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 11.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Price of Oil2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on their extensive knowledge of the oil industry, Roberto F. Aguilera and Marian Radetzki provide an in-depth examination of the price of the world's most important commodity. They argue that although oil has experienced an extraordinary price increase over the past few decades, we have now reached a turning point where scarcity, uncertain supply and high prices will be replaced by abundance, undisturbed availability and suppressed price levels. They look at the potential of new global oil revolutions to bring the upward price push to an end and examine the implications of this turnaround for the world economy, as well as for politics, diplomacy, military interventions and the efforts to stabilize climate. This book will appeal to a wide readership of both academics and professionals working in the energy industry, as well as to general readers interested in the ongoing debate about oil prices

  • 12.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The shale revolution: Global gas and oil markets under transformation2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the USA. It is expected to spread beyond the USA, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for the macroeconomy and politics of many countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries. We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 13.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The synchronized and exceptional price performance of oil and gold: Explanations and prospects2017In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 54, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the global markets for gold and oil so as to explain the surprisingly high correlation of the two materials’ prices since 1970, and the exceedingly impressive rise of both price series compared with that of virtually all other primary commodities. We propose that developments in the oil market, and the resulting effects on the macroeconomy, influenced investment activity in gold, thus providing the most plausible explanation for the two commodities’ price synchronization. Our view on the extraordinary price increases of oil and gold, compared to a broad category of metals and minerals, is that oil prices rose first based on above-ground hurdles that restrained the capacity to produce, and gold prices then reacted as they were pushed up by rising safe-haven investment to store value – an attribute not shared by other metals and minerals. The paper also comments on the likely future price evolution of these important materials, arguing that oil prices will stagnate at levels observed from late 2014, or even weaken in the coming decades, but that gold prices will continue to ride relatively high – thus leading to a collapse of the oil/gold price connection.

  • 14.
    Ahl Bollesparr, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Andrea John, Michelle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Fondförvaltning: Går det fortfarande inte att generera en större riskjusterad avkastning än marknadens?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many Swedish households are investors, in 2018 investments in funds reached an average of 434 000 Swedish Crowns per person. The Nobel laureate Fama showed that yielding a higher risk-adjusted return than the market is not possible. Simultaneously, a great amount of actively conducted funds that pledges a higher return than the market is still launched today. Which arises a disorientation among small savers if passive or active conducted funds generate higher returns. Unlike previous studies, the range of funds were increased in this study. The purpose is to examine the returns of the funds with the performance measures Sharpe-ratio and Jensen’s Alpha. The results indicate that it is not possible to outperform a higher risk-adjusted yield than the market for the chosen time period. Overall, the passive funds had higher risk-adjusted returns compared to the active funds, which indicates that a higher fee for the funds is unjustified.

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  • 15.
    Ahlborg, Helene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Broäng, Frida
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 87, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues.

  • 16.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Estimating the Cross-Price Elasticity of Regular Gasoline with Respect to the Price of Premium Gasoline2018In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 157-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasoline demand has been extensively researched, yet there has been no attempt to estimate cross-price elasticities of different grades of gasoline. Such knowledge will allow accurate determination of the impact of a fuel pricing policy that has different rates of tax or subsidy depending on the gasoline grade. Using monthly data on the Mexican gasoline market from 1999 to 2014, regular gasoline demand is estimated with an ARDL model. Endogeneity of the price and structural break are also investigated. The cross-price elasticity between regular and premium gasoline is found to be 0.875, confirming high substitutability among gasoline with different grades.

  • 17.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Department of Accounting and Finance, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Academic Belt Road, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences. Payne Institute of Public Policy, Colorado School of Mines, Engineering Hall Room 128, 816 15th Street, Golden, CO 80401, United States of America.
    Political power, economic trade-offs, and game theory in Indonesian gasoline subsidy reform2022In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 92, article id 102782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasoline subsidies distort the gasoline market resulting in inefficiencies and a costly burden in government budget. In Indonesia, they have taken up to 15 % of the government expenditures that arguably could be better spent elsewhere. Governments are aware of these costs, yet face difficulties in removing the policy. Governments would like to release the subsidy fund for other programs while still maintaining political power. Simultaneously, a reform will reduce the purchasing of the population and thus, it is commonly met with strong public resistance. The general population can influence the government’s decision to carry out a reform by exerting pressure that may affect the country’s political stability. There is a vast economics literature analysing the economic impact from a subsidy reform. Meanwhile, the government’s hesitancy is analysed in the political science literature. We combined these two fields by developing a quantitative game theory model to show the interaction between the government and the general population. The model is based on Indonesian data but provides a framework that can be applied elsewhere. Different policy removal schemes are simulated including completely or partially phasing-out the subsidy with and without compensation. An important take-away from our analysis is that it provides a framework showing governments what they have to quantify in order to make an informed policy decision. Another important implication is that the success of the policy reform is highly dependent on the selectorates trust to the government. It strongly supports the political science recommendations of building trust through transparency and inclusion.

  • 18.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Simulation of price controls for different grade of gasoline: The case of Indonesia2017In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 68, p. 373-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gasoline subsidy is one of the most prevalent strategies for distributing welfare to the people in oil-producing countries. However well-intentioned, the policy will distort the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies. Furthermore, the gasoline subsidy takes a great amount of government's budget. Arguably, these funds could be spent elsewhere with a greater impact on economic growth. These governments are aware of the cost of such a policy, yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This paper looks at the unique case of Indonesia that only provides a subsidy for regular gasoline and in turn proposes an alternative policy that introduces a subsidy for premium gasoline at a lower rate to reduce the overall gasoline subsidy cost. There has yet to be any research that simulates price controls for gasoline with different grades. The aggregate demand for gasoline in Indonesia is replicated using a translog cost calibration approach. Simulations based on the calibrated demand are then performed and the results confirm the existence of potential savings that are largely determined by the cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline. The benchmark scenario, based on a recent study of substitutability between gasoline by grades, results in an 11.5% reduction in subsidy cost of around 950 million USD with a subsidy rate of Rp 2254/liter. Furthermore, the optimal rate of subsidy for premium gasoline results in a reduction of inefficiency as consumers' welfare increase by 6.8 trillion rupiahs (or 560 million USD).

  • 19.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale, UNU-WIDER, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra.
    Abidoye, Babatunde
    CEEPA, University of Pretoria.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Simbanegavi, Witness
    African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi.
    Public disclosure for carbon abatement: African decision-makers in a PROPER public good experiment2017In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 548-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    linear public good experiment adopted from Holt and Laury [1997. Classroom games: Voluntary provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(4), 209–215.] has been employed to investigate strategic behaviour in pollution abatement among African climate decision-makers. The experiment consisted of three groups, of which groups 2 and 3 received one and two treatments, respectively. The first treatment entailed publicly disclosing the pollution of each member of a group by placing a corresponding colour-coded card in front of each subject, while the second involved the withdrawal of the public disclosure. Group 2 received the first treatment; Group 3 received both the first and second treatments in succession. We found that the untreated group (baseline) polluted more than the two treated groups, and there was no statistically significant difference between the pollution abatement of the two treated groups. These results suggest that public disclosure potentially drives pollution abatement and that its eventual withdrawal does not obliterate abatement behaviour. We did not observe conditional cooperation but average pollution declined over time. Furthermore, individuals who thought it was unfair for Africa to reduce emissions polluted more. We also found that pollution levels differ significantly between males and females.

  • 20.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Zikhali, Precious
    Centre for World Food Studies (SOW-VU), Vrije Universiteit.
    Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in southern Africa?: A bioeconomic modelling approach2009In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 587-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mopane worm, which is the caterpillar form of the Saturnid moth Imbrasia belina Westwood, is like other edible insects and caterpillars a vital source of protein in southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which have alternative uses. With increasing commercialization of the worm, its management, which was hitherto organized as a common property resource, has been degraded to almost open access. This paper uses a bioeconomic modelling approach to show that for some optimal allocation of the mopane forest stock, the restrictive harvest period policy advocated by community leaders may not lead to sustainable harvesting of the worm

  • 21.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    School of Research and Graduate Studies, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Achimota‐Accra, Ghana World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Connectivity at a cost: Economic dynamics of restoring habitat connectivity2021In: Natural Resource Modeling, ISSN 0890-8575, E-ISSN 1939-7445, Vol. 34, no 1, article id e12294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both in the United States and in Europe there is ongoing work on reversing habitat fragmentation and the attendant loss in biodiversity in river systems caused by hydropower and other developments. Fish ladders and other measures are being introduced to restore the connectivity in river systems. In this paper, we set up a theoretical model to investigate what the conditions are for such an investment to be socially profitable. We find that, even in cases where it would have been socially preferable not to build hydropower installations in the first place, connectivity-restoring measures affecting the installations are not necessarily socially beneficial. This is the case for a wide range of plausible assumptions about discount rates, investment costs and productivity losses.

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  • 22.
    Al, Isak
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Lind, Emmy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Why do local governments say no to wind power?: A public choice approach to the use of the right to veto among Swedish municipalities2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to investigate the factors that affect the use of the municipalveto regarding wind power deployment in Sweden. The study employs a public choiceapproach to investigate the relationship between self-interested voters and the decisionmaking politicians. It employs a probit model specification, which is estimated employing303 municipal decisions in 129 Swedish municipalities over the period 2011-2021. Thefindings suggests that political attributes do generally not play a significant role inmunicipal veto decisions. Instead, in municipalities with high property prices there is alower probability of approval whereas it is higher in municipalities with a high share ofeducated individuals and already installed wind power. Further research is recommendedto be conducted in the future when more data is available. 

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  • 23.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.

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  • 24.
    Alawsi, Mustafa A.
    et al.
    Department of Building and Construction Techniques-Kut Technical Institute, Middle Technical University, Wasit 52001, Iraq; Department of Civil Engineering, Wasit University, Wasit 52001, Iraq.
    Zubaidi, Salah L.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Wasit University, Wasit 52001, Iraq.
    Al-Bdairi, Nabeel Saleem Saad
    Department of Civil Engineering, Wasit University, Wasit 52001, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hashim, Khalid
    Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK; Department of Environment Engineering, Babylon University, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Drought Forecasting: A Review and Assessment of the Hybrid Techniques and Data Pre-Processing2022In: Hydrology, E-ISSN 2306-5338, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 115Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drought is a prolonged period of low precipitation that negatively impacts agriculture, animals, and people. Over the last decades, gradual changes in drought indices have been observed. Therefore, understanding and forecasting drought is essential to avoid its economic impacts and appropriate water resource planning and management. This paper presents a recent literature review, including a brief description of data pre-processing, data-driven modelling strategies (i.e., univariate or multivariate), machine learning algorithms (i.e., advantages and disadvantages), hybrid models, and performance metrics. Combining various prediction methods to create efficient hybrid models has become the most popular use in recent years. Accordingly, hybrid models have been increasingly used for predicting drought. As such, these models will be extensively reviewed, including preprocessing-based hybrid models, parameter optimisation-based hybrid models, and hybridisation of components combination-based with preprocessing-based hybrid models. In addition, using statistical criteria, such as RMSE, MAE, NSE, MPE, SI, BIC, AIC, and AAD, is essential to evaluate the performance of the models.

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  • 25.
    Aldieri, Luigi
    et al.
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. The Ratio Institute, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paolo Vinci, Concetto
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy.
    The Effect of Marshallian and Jacobian Knowledge Spilloverson Jobs in the Solar, Wind and Energy Efficiency Sector2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 14, article id 4269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to establish if Marshallian and Jacobian knowledge spillovers affect job creation in the green energy sector. Whether these two effects exist is important for the number of jobs created in related fields and jobs pushed away in other sectors. In the analysis, the production efficiency, in terms of jobs and job spillovers, from inventions in solar, wind and energy efficiency, is explored through data envelopment analysis (DEA), based on the Malmquist productivity index, and tobit regression. A panel dataset of American and European firms over the period of 2002–2017 is used. The contribution to the literature is to show the role of the spillovers from the same technology sector (Marshallian externalities), and of the spillovers from more diversified activity (Jacobian externalities). Since previous empirical evidence concerning the innovation effects on the production efficiency is yet weak, the paper attempts to bridge this gap. The empirical findings suggest negative Marshallian externalities, while Jacobian externalities have no statistical impact on the job creation process. The findings are of strategic importance for governments who are developing industrial strategies for renewable energy.

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  • 26.
    Aldieri, Luigi
    et al.
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sundström, Kristoffer
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinci, Concetto Paolo
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Wind Power and Job Creation2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 45Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a global overview of job effects per MW of wind power installations, which will enable improved decision-making and modeling of future wind-power projects. We found indications that job creation connected to wind-power installations is rather limited. In total, 17 peer-reviewed articles and 10 reports/non-peer-reviewed papers between 2001 and 2019 were assessed. Our three major policy conclusions are as follows: (a) job creation seems to be limited; (b) each new project should consider a unique assessment, since all projects have been undertaken within different institutional frameworks, labor markets, and during separate years, meaning that the technology is not comparable; and (c) the number of jobs depends on the labor intensity of the country.

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  • 27.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 28.
    Amaechina, Ebele
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
    Amoah, Anthony
    Department of Economics, Central University, Accra, Ghana.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amuakwa Mensah, Salome
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bbaale, Edward
    School of Economics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Bonilla, Jorge A.
    Department of Economics, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia.
    Brühl, Johanna
    Environmental Policy Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Cook, Joseph
    School of Economics Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman WA, USA.
    Chukwuone, Nnaemeka
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
    Fuente, David
    School of Earth, Ocean and Environment, University of South Carolina, Colombia, USA.
    Madrigal-Ballestero, Rogér
    EfD-Central America/CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
    Marín, Rolando
    University of Costa Rica (UCR), San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Nam, Pham Khan
    EfD-Vietnam, University of Economics, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Otieno, Jackson
    Athi Water Works Development Agency, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Ponce, Roberto
    School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepción, Chile.
    Saldarriaga, Carlos A.
    Department of Economics, Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Medellín, Colombia.
    Lavin, Felipe V.
    School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepción, Chile.
    Viguera, Bárbara
    EfD-Central America/CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.
    Visser, Martine
    Environmental Policy Research Unit, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Policy Note: Policy Responses to Ensure Access to Water and Sanitation Services during COVID-19: Snapshots from the Environment for Development (EfD) Network2020In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, E-ISSN 2382-6258, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 2071002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy note provides a snapshot of water and sanitation measures implemented by governments in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in 14 countries in the Global South: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Chile, Colombia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Panama, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam. We find that many countries have taken action to stop utility disconnections due to non-payment. With the exception of Ghana and Vietnam, few countries are instituting new water subsidy programs, and are instead choosing to defer customers’ bills for future payment, presumably when the pandemic recedes and households will be able to pay their bills. It is easier for the utilities’ COVID-relief policies to target customers with piped connections who regularly receive bills. However, the situation for unconnected households appears more dire. Some countries (e.g., Ghana, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda) are attempting to provide unconnected households temporary access to water, but these households remain the most vulnerable. This health crisis has accentuated the importance of strong governance structures and resilient water service providers for dealing with external health, environmental and economic shocks.

  • 29.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Climate element of migration decision in Ghana: Micro Evidence2015Other (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Effect of gold mining on income distribution in Ghana2016Other (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Essays on the economics of multifunctional forests, migration and climate change2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis compiles five papers that independently cover issues on multifunctional forest, migration and climate change. Paper I addresses these questions: What is the effect of site quality on forest growth rate and variability in forest growth? How does site quality impact on ecosystem services, that is, timber production and carbon sequestration? Site quality indicator was found to positively affect forest growth and growth rate, and decreases uncertainty in the productivity. Using dynamic optimization model, Paper II estimates the economic value of site quality taking into account its interaction with timber value and carbon sequestration in Swedish forest. Analytical results showed that net present value when considering ecosystem services provided by the forest and its interaction with site quality is higher than in the case without site quality interaction. Paper III links educational attainment to internal migration decisions with much on rural-urban perspective using Ghana as a case study. The effect of educational attainment on migration decisions in 2005/2006 for urban in-migrant was found to be higher than the effect for rural in-migrant, with its significance varying for the different stages of educational attainment. In absolute terms, whereas the effect of secondary educational attainment on migration decisions for urban in-migrant is higher than for rural in-migrant, the reverse holds for higher educational attainment during the period 2012/2013. Paper IV examines the effect of climate element on internal migration decisions using similar methods and data as for Paper III. Whereas temperature positively affects the probability to migrate, aridity index negatively affects migration decisions. Individuals tend to move to the rural areas relative to urban areas with an increase in precipitation and or a decrease in aridity. Paper V explores the effect of climate variability and socio-economic factors on the number of infectious disease patients in Sweden. Temperature showed a linear negative effect on the number of patients, but a non-linear relationship when winter temperature is used. Conversely, a positive effect of precipitation on the number of patients is found, with modest heterogeneity in the effect of climate variables on the number of patients across disease classifications observed. Socio-economic factors were found to correlate with number of patients. We found significant persistence in the number of infectious disease patients but found only temperature and income as dominant drivers in a dynamic model.

  • 32.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7013, S–750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adjei, Angela Boakye
    Barclays Investment Bank, 10 South Colonnade, London, E14 4PU, UK.
    Determinants of non-performing loans in Ghana banking industry2015In: International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics, ISSN 1757-1170, E-ISSN 1757-1189, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 35-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    Quality of institution and the FEG (forest, energy intensity, and globalization) -environment relationships in sub-Saharan Africa2017In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 21, p. 17455-17473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current share of sub-Saharan Africa in global carbon dioxide emissions is negligible compared to major contributors like Asia, Americas, and Europe. This trend is, however, likely to change given that both economic growth and rate of urbanization in the region are projected to be robust in the future. The current study contributes to the literature by examining both the direct and the indirect impacts of quality of institution on the environment. Specifically, we investigate whether the institutional setting in the region provides some sort of a complementary role in the environment-FEG relationships. We use the panel two-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to deal with the simultaneity problem. Data consists of 43 sub-Saharan African countries. The result shows that energy inefficiency compromises environmental standards. However, the quality of the institutional setting helps moderate this negative consequences; countries with good institutions show greater prospects than countries with poor institutions. On the other hand, globalization of the region and increased forest size generate positive environmental outcomes in the region. Their impacts are, however, independent of the quality of institution. Afforestation programs, promotion of other clean energy types, and investment in energy efficiency, basic city infrastructure, and regulatory and institutional structures, are desirable policies to pursue to safeguard the environment.

  • 34.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boakye-Yiadom, Louis
    Department of Economics, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
    Baah-Boateng, William
    Department of Economics, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana.
    Effect of education on migration decisions in Ghana: a rural-urban perspective2016In: Journal of economic studies, ISSN 0144-3585, E-ISSN 1758-7387, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 336-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of education on migration decisions focusing on rural and urban in-migrants by comparing the 2005/2006 and 2012/2013 rounds of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS5 and GLSS6). After correcting for selectivity bias, the authors observed that anticipated welfare gain and socio-economic variables such as sector of employment, sex, experience, age, educational level and marital status significantly affect an individual’s migration decision.

    Design/methodology/approach: The authors made use of Sjaastad’s (1962) human capital framework as a basis for examining the impact of education on migration. The migration decision equation was based on the Heckman two stage procedure.

    Findings: While educational attainment is observed to have a positive effect on migration decision in the period 2005/2006, the authors find a negative effect of educational attainment on migration decision in the period 2012/2013. The effect of educational attainment on migration decision in 2005/2006 for urban in-migrant is higher than the effect for rural in-migrant, with its significance varying for the different stages of educational attainment. In absolute terms, whereas the effect of secondary educational attainment on migration decisions for urban in-migrant is higher than that of rural in-migrant, the reverse holds for higher educational attainment during the period 2012/2013.

    Social implications: Based on the mixed effect of education on migration decision as evident from the study, policies to enhance the educational system in Ghana should be complemented with job creations in the entire country. Moreover, special attention should be given to the rural sector in such a way that the jobs to be created in the sector do not require skilled workers. With quality education and job creation, the welfare of individuals living in urban and rural areas will be enhanced.

    Originality/value: In spite of the importance of education in migration decisions, there is scanty literature on the rural-urban dimension. To the best of the author’s knowledge there is no literature in the Ghanaian context which examines the rural and urban perspective of the impact of education on migration with a much recent data. Further, the author consider how the determinants of migration decision have changed over time focusing on rural and urban perspectives.

  • 35.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7070, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bärenbold, Rebekka
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7070, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Riemer, Olivia
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7070, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deriving a Benefit Transfer Function for Threatened and Endangered Species in Interaction with Their Level of Charisma2018In: Environments, E-ISSN 2076-3298, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity and species conservation are among the most urgent global issues. Both are under serious threat because of human intrusion and as a result, it is likely that present and future projects will affect threatened and endangered species. Thus, it is important to account for these impacts when evaluating and conducting cost and benefit analyses of projects. Due to their public good character and non-tradability, the total economic value of threatened and endangered species cannot be reflected by a market price and therefore, alternative approaches (stated preference method) are needed to determine their monetary value. This paper reviews and compares the valuation literature on threatened and endangered animals and conducts a meta-analysis regression to identify explanatory variables for the variation in willingness to pay for threatened and endangered species. The main findings of the meta-analysis show that the interaction of the level of threat and charisma have a positive effect on willingness to pay. Furthermore, developed countries have a higher willingness to pay compared to developing countries. Similarly, visitors of conservation sites have higher willingness to pay than residents. The provided example of a benefit transfer of the estimated function shows the practicability of our results.

  • 36.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klege, Rebecca A.
    Environmental Economics Policy Research Unit, School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701 Cape Town, South Africa.
    Adom, Philip K.
    School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, G5702, 5/F, Yeung Kin Man Academic Building (AC1), Hong Kong.
    Amoah, Anthony
    Department of Economics, Central University, Dansoman, Accra, Ghana.
    Hagan, Edmond
    Economics Division, University of Leicester Business School, University Road, Leicester, UK; Methodist University College, Dansoman, Accra, Ghana.
    Unveiling the energy saving role of banking performance in Sub-Sahara Africa2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 74, p. 828-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the effect of commercial bank performance on an indicator of energy efficiency (i.e. energy intensity) while controlling for the mediating effect of political institution. To achieve this goal, the study develops a theoretical model based on the neoclassical theory of the firm that links energy efficiency to bank sector development, and a unique bank-based data by Andrianova et al. (2015) for 43 Sub-Saharan African countries from 1998 to 2012. The principal component analysis is used to derive a composite bank-based development index from different bank balance sheet performance indicators- return on asset, asset quality, bank capitalization, managerial inefficiency and financial stability. The two-stage system generalized method of moment (Sys-GMM) technique was used. The results reveal that, both in the short- and long-run, improved banking performance fosters energy efficiency improvements in sub-Saharan Africa, but this is compromised by democracy (institutional quality). Thus, to achieve energy efficiency improvements, specific initiatives should be implemented to boost the development of the banking sector while also ensuring that democratic governance in the sub-region weans itself off things that impede the progress of the real sector. More ambitiously, creating a Green Bank may be necessary to stimulate energy efficiency investments in the sub-region.

  • 37.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts. Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klege, Rebecca Afua
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town, South Africa; Henry J Austin Health Center, 321 N. Warren Street, Trenton, 08618, New Jersey, USA.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Department of Development Policy School of Public Service, Governance Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration GIMPA, Ghana.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Environment for Development, University of Gothenburg, Box 645, SE 405 30, Göteborg, Sweden; School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, Cape Town, South Africa.
    COVID-19 and handwashing: Implications for water use in Sub-Saharan Africa2021In: Water Resources and Economics, ISSN 2212-4284, Vol. 36, article id 100189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because the main modes of transmission of the COVID-19 virus are respiration and contact, WHO recommends frequent washing of hands with soap under running water for at least 20 s. This article investigates how the level of concern about COVID-19 affects the likelihood of washing hands frequently in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss the implication of the findings for water-scarce environment. The study makes use of a unique survey dataset from 12 sub-Saharan African countries collected in April 2020 (first round) and May 2020 (second round) and employs an extended ordered probit model with endogenous covariate. The results show that the level of concern about the spread of the virus increases the likelihood of washing hands with soap under running water for a minimum of 20 s at least five times a day. The increase in the probability of handwashing due to concern about COVID-19, ranges from 3% for Benin to 6.3% for South Africa. The results also show heterogeneous effects across gender- and age-groups, locality and various water sources. However, in Africa, the sustainability of the handwashing protocol could be threatened by the severe water scarcity that exists in the region. To sustain frequent handwashing, sub-Saharan Africa needs an effective strategy for water management and supply.

  • 38.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marbuah, George
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Determinants of Net Interest Margin in the Ghanaian Banking Industry2015In: Journal of African Business, ISSN 1522-8916, E-ISSN 1522-9076, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 272-288Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden; Africa Centre for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Ghana.
    Marbuah, George
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden; Africa Centre for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Ghana.
    Marbuah, Dinah Ani-Asamoah
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Re-examining the Determinants of Non-Performing Loans in Ghana’s Banking Industry: Role of the 2007–2009 Financial Crisis2017In: Journal of African Business, ISSN 1522-8916, E-ISSN 1522-9076, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 357-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses robust econometric methods to estimate the determinants of non-performing loans (NPLs) with a specific focus on the role of the 2007–2009 financial crisis in explaining NPLs in the banking industry of Ghana. Findings suggest that non-performing loans are significantly affected by bank-specific, industry, and macroeconomic variables. We observed heterogeneity in the determinants of NPLs for sub-samples of the data. The effect of the financial crisis on NPLs is observed to be conditional on the level of credit risk in our sub-sample analysis. The results from the impulse response corroborate that of the regression estimation.

  • 40.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marbuah, George
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mubanga, Mwenya
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Climate variability and infectious diseases nexus: Evidence from Sweden2017In: Infectious Disease Modelling, ISSN 2468-0427, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 203-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies on the link between climate variability and infectious diseases are based on biophysical experiments, do not account for socio-economic factors and with little focus on developed countries. This study examines the effect of climate variability and socio-economic variables on infectious diseases using data from all 21 Swedish counties. Employing static and dynamic modelling frameworks, we observe that temperature has a linear negative effect on the number of patients. The relationship between winter temperature and the number of patients is non-linear and “U” shaped in the static model. Conversely, a positive effect of precipitation on the number of patients is found, with modest heterogeneity in the effect of climate variables on the number of patients across disease classifications observed. The effect of education and number of health personnel explain the number of patients in a similar direction (negative), while population density and immigration drive up reported cases. Income explains this phenomenon non-linearly. In the dynamic setting, we found significant persistence in the number of infectious and parasitic-diseased patients, with temperature and income observed as the only significant drivers.

  • 41.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marbuah, George
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sam, Victoria N.
    Department of Economics, University of Kiel, Leibnizstraße 3 R. 110, Kiel, Germany.
    Barimah, Alfred
    Department of Economics, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 57, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
    Credit risk and universal banking: evidence from the banking industry in Ghana2015In: International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics, ISSN 1757-1170, E-ISSN 1757-1189, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 406-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts. Environment for Development Initiative (EfD), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Näsström, Elin
    Swedish Transport Administration, Solna Strandväg 98,171 54 Solna, Sweden.
    Role of banking sector performance in renewable energy consumption2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 306, no B, article id 118023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To secure future universal access to modern energy, large investments in renewable energy technology are required. This paper estimates the impact of five banking sector performance indicators (return on asset, market capitalisation, asset quality, managerial efficiency and financial stability) on renewable energy consumption for a global panel consisting of 124 countries. The study used two-step system-GMM panel model to handle potential endogeneity and serial correlation. The paper considers three homogenous subpanels which are constructed based on the income group classification (high-, middle-, and low-income countries). Generally, our results show that improved banking sector performance enhances renewable energy consumption, with heterogenous effect across income group classification. For high -income (HI) countries, an increase in bank size together with improved asset quality and managerial efficiency have positive effects on renewable energy consumption. For middle-income (MI) and low-income (LI) countries, a high return on asset, an increase in bank size and financial stability are positive determinants of renewable energy consumption. We also find heterogenous effect of banking performance indicators across various renewable energy consumption types. The results highlight the importance of a well-functioning bank sector to achieve the investment in renewable energy needed to meet future energy demand and simultaneous decrease CO2 emissions.

  • 43.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sam, Victoria Nyarkoah
    Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
    Kihiu, Evelyne Nyathira
    School of Business and Economics, University of Embu, Embu County, Kenya.
    Gender dimension of migration decisions in Ghana: the reinforcing role of anticipated welfare of climatic effect2019In: International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics, ISSN 1757-1170, E-ISSN 1757-1189, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 181-201Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Amuakwa-Mensah, Salome
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Surry, Yves
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Association between rural electrification and agricultural output: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa2022In: World Development Perspectives, ISSN 2452-2929, Vol. 25, article id 100392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the association between rural electrification and agricultural output at the macro level using panel data on 43 Sub-Saharan African countries from 1990 to 2016. We employed Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) with time trend and country fixed effect in our econometrics estimation to address the potential serial correlation. Our study investigates the following; i) the association between rural electrification and agricultural output, measured as agricultural output per GDP and agricultural output per worker, ii) whether the relationship between rural electrification and agricultural output is conditional on institutional quality of a country, and iii) whether electrification enhances the marginal effect of factor inputs. We find a positive significant association between rural electrification and agricultural output. Also, our result shows that the relationship between electrification and agricultural output is conditional on the quality of institution and factor inputs of a country. With the exception of capital, the association between the interaction term of rural electrification and factor inputs (labour and land), and agricultural output is negative. However, we find a higher positive direct relationship between labour and agricultural output per GDP, implying a higher productivity for those labour who remain in the sector. Our results are heterogenous across population size quartiles sub-samples.

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  • 45.
    Andersen, Mikael S.
    et al.
    Deptartment of Environmental Science, Aarhus University , Aarhus, Denmark.
    Christensen, Lotte D.
    Deptartment of Environmental Science, Aarhus University , Aarhus, Denmark.
    Donner‐Amnell, Jakob
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Eikeland, Per O.
    Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway.
    Hedeler, Barbara
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hildingsson, Roger
    Department of Political Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Khan, Jamil
    Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kronsell, Annica
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inderberg, Tor H.J.
    Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway.
    Nielsen, Helle Ø.
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Pizzol, Massimo
    Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Sairinen, Rauno
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Skjærseth, Jon B.
    Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Teräväinen, Tuula
    Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Thomsen, Marianne
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    To facilitate a fair bioeconomy transition, stronger regional‐level linkages are needed2022In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 929-941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The great hopes in Brussels that a circular bioeconomy will help bridge the growing divide between urban and rural areas and allow the hinterlands to prosper from ‘green growth’ are addressed in this article, which reflects on insights from three Nordic case studies of brown, green and blue biomass use at different levels of technology readiness. A closer examination of the forward, backward, fiscal and final demand linkages at regional level from increased biomass utilization, from eastern Finland and northern Sweden to Jutland and North Atlantic islands, suggests that linkages are and will remain relatively weak, predominantly dashing the expectations. As suppliers and exporters of natural resources, disadvantaged regions may all too easily get locked into a ‘staples trap’, where the value creation evaporates, due in part to the steep start-up costs and the associated boom-and-bust cycles, which place them in a weak position vis-à-vis the resource manufacturers and consumers. To make the prospects of development, employment and prosperity in the hinterlands materialize, measures are needed to strengthen the regional level economic linkages. Regional-level revolving funds based on benefit-sharing instruments related to natural resources can be used to bolster economic development as reflected in such schemes present in both China and Canada. We call for further research into whether and how such approaches can be replicated successfully by channeling revenues from biomass cultivation to regional-scale revolving funds, with mandates to strengthen long-term economic linkages and prosperity within the hinterlands.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Counterproductive Counternarcotic Strategies?2013In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0002-9092, E-ISSN 1467-8276, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 917-931Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    Environment and Climate Research center at the Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Addis Ababa.
    Mannberg, Andrea
    School of Business and Economics, UiT the Arctic University of Norway.
    The Ethiopian Commodity Exchange and spatial price dispersion2017In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 66, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study the impact of an institutional intervention on market efficiency in Ethiopia. More specifically, we analyze to what extent the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) in combination with regional warehouses have contributed to a reduction in price spreads between regional markets. Our hypothesis is that warehouses connected to the ECX reduce the dispersion between export prices and local retail prices in different coffee growing areas, as well as the dispersion between export prices and local retail prices in different coffee growing areas. By doing so, the ECX has the potential to improve the market efficiency. To identify the causal effect, we combine retail price data with information on the gradual rollout of warehouses connected to the ECX from 2007 to 2012. Our results suggest that, when two markets both have access to an operating warehouse, the average price spread is 0.86–1.78 ETB lower than it is for markets where at least one part lacks warehouse access. This is a substantial reduction considering that the average price spread over the full period is 3.33 ETB. The main results are robust to various econometric specifications, and our analysis thus suggests that local warehouses connected to the ECX have indeed improved market efficiency

  • 48.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Institute of Economic Research, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    MacGregor, James
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Economics, Gothenburg University, Sweden;Surrey Business School, Surrey University, United Kingdom.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Towards inclusion through lessons from informal money lenders2018In: Financial inclusion for poverty alleviation: Issues and case studies for sustainable development / [ed] Essam Yassin Mohammed and Zenebe Bashaw Uraguchi, Oxon: Routledge , 2018, p. 68-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a theoretical background on the issues surrounding rural microlending, and discusses experiences from earlier schemes. It explains the methodology used in the study. The chapter describes the data set used and provides some descriptive statistics. It also describes how the analysis was carried out in practice. The chapter presents the results, and discusses the policy implications of these results for rural upliftment strategies. Microfinance is not the first attempt to address this problem: many developing countries provided cheap, small-scale credit to smallholder farmers in the 1970s. Lenders face an adverse selection problem. They can discourage borrowers who have projects with low expected returns by charging high interest rates. Formal microcredit schemes are an attempt to use social pressure to encourage borrowers to repay their loans. Foreign donors have shown great interest in microfinance. In order to measure the shadow prices of working capital facing each group of farmers, a number of methods could potentially have been used.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Camilla I.M.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Chege, Christine C.K.
    Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.
    Rao, Elizaphan J.O.
    International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi, Kenya.
    Qaim, Matin
    Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.
    Following up on smallholder farmers and supermarkets in Kenya2015In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0002-9092, E-ISSN 1467-8276, Vol. 97, no 4, p. 1247-1266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many developing countries, supermarkets are expanding rapidly. This affects farmers' marketing options. Previous studies have analyzed welfare effects of smallholder participation in supermarket channels from a static perspective, using cross-section data. We develop a conceptual framework and use panel data to better understand participation and impact dynamics. The analysis focuses on vegetable producers in Kenya. Participation in supermarket channels is associated with income gains. However, many farmers have dropped out of the supermarket channel due to various constraints. The initial income gains cannot be sustained when returning to the traditional market. Organizational support may be needed to avoid widening income disparities.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
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