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  • 1.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Bagcilar, Turkey.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2017In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work. POLICY RELEVANCE The empirical basis for an egalitarian rule of equal emissions per capita in the design of global climate agreements is not solid; this supports the need to move beyond single allocation rules, and increase knowledge about the impacts of combined scenarios. However, even in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement with its emphasis on voluntary contributions and ‘national circumstances’, different equity-based principles could serve as useful points of reference for how the remaining carbon budget should be allocated

  • 2.
    Adey, E.A.
    et al.
    University of Exeter.
    Shail, R.K.
    University of Exeter.
    Wall, F.
    University of Exeter.
    Varul, M.
    University of Exeter.
    Whitbread-Abrutat, P.
    Eden Project.
    Baciu, C.
    University of Babes-Bolyai.
    Ejdemo, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lovric, I.
    University of Mostar.
    Udachin, V.
    Institute of Mineralogy.
    Corporate social responsibility within the mining industry: case studies from across Europe and Russia2011In: Proceedings of the Aachen International Mining Symposia (AIMS): 5th International Conference – Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry (SDIMI 2011), Aachen, 14-17 June 2011, Aachen: Aachen University , 2011, 153-170 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible mining requires a company to engage with local communities throughout all stages of their operations, from exploration phases through to post mining planning. Assessment of current and potential future social impacts allows a company to maximize the positive impacts they can have on a community, whilst minimizing negative social impacts from mining. Initiating and upholding effective stakeholder relations are key to a company`s ability to obtain and maintain their "social license" to operate. The level of interaction between mining companies and stakeholders, including local communities, varies substantially between and within countries. As part of the EU funded Framework 7 "ImpactMin" Project (Impact Monitoring of Mineral Resources Exploitation), we have examined the level of community engagement in mining and related processing industries at sites across Europe, including Romania (Rosia Montana), Sweden (Kristineberg), the UK (Cornwall), Bosnia Herzegovina (Vihovici) and Russia (Karabash, Gay and Mednogorsk). These sites reflect different stages in mining and therefore reveal a diverse range of issues and differing levels of community engagement. Our aim has been to focus not only on how practice varies, but also to try to explain the complex reasons behind the relationships that exist between mining companies and different stakeholders. Findings of questionnaires undertaken across the sites (between June - October 2010), and results of interviews and focus groups of different people linked to the mining industry, will also be discussed. The expectations that "mining" communities have of their local mining company vary substantially, directly relating to what the community believes the mine company owes them. These examples highlight that the notion of corporate social responsibility in the mining sector in Europe and Russia is fluid and changes according to the differing expectations and goals of stakeholders. We will present highlights of initial results. For example, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation, in Romania, is trying to reopen closed state gold mines. They have seen international media attention relating to campaigns by NGOs to oppose the mines reopening. Our results will help reveal what samples of different stakeholder groups really think of the mines reopening. This example contrasts distinctly with a mine in Kristineberg, Sweden, where Kristineberg village was built alongside the mine. There are now distinct issues felt within the community due to the decline in the number of people employed at the mine.

  • 3.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Rewolucja £upkowa: Oewiatowe rynki gazu i ropy naftowej w warunkach transformacji2015In: Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, ISSN 0860-0953, Vol. 31, no 1, 5-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the United States. It is expected to spread beyond the US, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for themacro-economy and politics ofmany countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries.We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 4.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Shale gas and oil: Fundamentally changing global energy markets2013In: Oil & gas journal, ISSN 0030-1388, E-ISSN 1944-9151, Vol. 111, no 12, 54-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shale production on a significant scale arose quite recently and is so far limited to the US with gas having a few years' lead on oil. Shale has already had a significant impact on US gas and oil output. Further sizable production increases can be expected in the US, and the shale revolution is likely to spread, with a lag, across the globe. This will result in fundamental repercussions for international energy markets. The resources in focus of our attention, comprising shale gas and coalbed methane along with tight gas and tight oil, typically lack strict definitions and they often overlap. However, they are all characterized by low permeability that yields commercially insufficient flows from vertical drilling. The shale revolution is the result of technological breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing that have made vast dormant gas and oil resources economically exploitable

  • 5.
    Aguilera, Roberto F
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Skifferrevolutionen: hur den kommer att transformera de globala gas- och oljemarknaderna2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 42, no 2, 30-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The Price of Oil2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on their extensive knowledge of the oil industry, Roberto F. Aguilera and Marian Radetzki provide an in-depth examination of the price of the world's most important commodity. They argue that although oil has experienced an extraordinary price increase over the past few decades, we have now reached a turning point where scarcity, uncertain supply and high prices will be replaced by abundance, undisturbed availability and suppressed price levels. They look at the potential of new global oil revolutions to bring the upward price push to an end and examine the implications of this turnaround for the world economy, as well as for politics, diplomacy, military interventions and the efforts to stabilize climate. This book will appeal to a wide readership of both academics and professionals working in the energy industry, as well as to general readers interested in the ongoing debate about oil prices

  • 7.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The shale revolution: Global gas and oil markets under transformation2014In: Mineral Economics, ISSN 2191-2203, E-ISSN 2191-2211, Vol. 26, no 3, 75-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shale gas and oil revolution has unexpectedly and forcefully begun to change the energy landscape in the USA. It is expected to spread beyond the USA, with far reaching implications for the global energy map, but also for the macroeconomy and politics of many countries. The purpose of this paper is to bring a better understanding to what prompted the revolution, to assess the production methods and associated environmental concerns, to speculate what can reasonably be expected in coming decades, and to sketch the full impact of a ripening shale revolution on the emerging economic and political policy choices for energy exporting and importing countries. We find that a large scale expansion can be expected in US shale gas and oil activities in the coming two decades. Globally, the shale leaders are likely to be countries that are already significant gas and oil producers. Setting up a policy framework to allow and promote shale development in a safe manner is a necessity for the launch of shale exploitation. The most important implication of a successful shale revolution would arguably be a downward pressure on gas and coal prices in regional markets and on the global oil price.

  • 8.
    Aguilera, Roberto F.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley, Perth.
    Radetzki, Marian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The synchronized and exceptional price performance of oil and gold: Explanations and prospects2017In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 54, 81-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the global markets for gold and oil so as to explain the surprisingly high correlation of the two materials’ prices since 1970, and the exceedingly impressive rise of both price series compared with that of virtually all other primary commodities. We propose that developments in the oil market, and the resulting effects on the macroeconomy, influenced investment activity in gold, thus providing the most plausible explanation for the two commodities’ price synchronization. Our view on the extraordinary price increases of oil and gold, compared to a broad category of metals and minerals, is that oil prices rose first based on above-ground hurdles that restrained the capacity to produce, and gold prices then reacted as they were pushed up by rising safe-haven investment to store value – an attribute not shared by other metals and minerals. The paper also comments on the likely future price evolution of these important materials, arguing that oil prices will stagnate at levels observed from late 2014, or even weaken in the coming decades, but that gold prices will continue to ride relatively high – thus leading to a collapse of the oil/gold price connection.

  • 9.
    Ahlborg, Helene
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.
    Broäng, Frida
    Department of Political Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Jagers, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Provision of electricity to African households: The importance of democracy and institutional quality2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 87, 125-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can differences in per capita household electricity consumption across African countries be understood? Based on theories that highlight the importance of democracy and institutional quality for provision of public goods, the aim of the paper is to analyse the degree to which the level of per capita household electricity consumption in African countries can be attributed to the countries’ democratic status and their institutional quality. We rely on regression analysis employing a pooled data set for 44 African countries over the time period 1996–2009. The analysis shows that democracy and institutional quality both have significant positive effects on per capita household consumption of electricity. Our results have implications for how energy sector reforms are promoted in developing countries. At a more general level they illustrate that institution-building policy efforts are relevant also in areas where contemporary debates have tended to primarily centre on economic development, financial prerequisites and ownership issues.

  • 10.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Estimating the Cross-Price Elasticity of Regular Gasoline with Respect to the Price of Premium Gasoline2018In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Akimaya, Muhammad
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Dahl, Carol
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Mineral and Energy Economics Program and Payne Institute of Earth Resources, Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO .
    Simulation of price controls for different grade of gasoline: The case of Indonesia2017In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 68, 373-382 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gasoline subsidy is one of the most prevalent strategies for distributing welfare to the people in oil-producing countries. However well-intentioned, the policy will distort the gasoline market with the resulting inefficiencies. Furthermore, the gasoline subsidy takes a great amount of government's budget. Arguably, these funds could be spent elsewhere with a greater impact on economic growth. These governments are aware of the cost of such a policy, yet face difficulties in removing the policy because of strong resistance from the public. This paper looks at the unique case of Indonesia that only provides a subsidy for regular gasoline and in turn proposes an alternative policy that introduces a subsidy for premium gasoline at a lower rate to reduce the overall gasoline subsidy cost. There has yet to be any research that simulates price controls for gasoline with different grades. The aggregate demand for gasoline in Indonesia is replicated using a translog cost calibration approach. Simulations based on the calibrated demand are then performed and the results confirm the existence of potential savings that are largely determined by the cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline. The benchmark scenario, based on a recent study of substitutability between gasoline by grades, results in an 11.5% reduction in subsidy cost of around 950 million USD with a subsidy rate of Rp 2254/liter. Furthermore, the optimal rate of subsidy for premium gasoline results in a reduction of inefficiency as consumers' welfare increase by 6.8 trillion rupiahs (or 560 million USD).

  • 12.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale, UNU-WIDER, University of Ghana, Legon-Accra.
    Abidoye, Babatunde
    CEEPA, University of Pretoria.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Simbanegavi, Witness
    African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi.
    Public disclosure for carbon abatement: African decision-makers in a PROPER public good experiment2017In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 9, no 6, 548-558 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    linear public good experiment adopted from Holt and Laury [1997. Classroom games: Voluntary provision of a public good. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 11(4), 209–215.] has been employed to investigate strategic behaviour in pollution abatement among African climate decision-makers. The experiment consisted of three groups, of which groups 2 and 3 received one and two treatments, respectively. The first treatment entailed publicly disclosing the pollution of each member of a group by placing a corresponding colour-coded card in front of each subject, while the second involved the withdrawal of the public disclosure. Group 2 received the first treatment; Group 3 received both the first and second treatments in succession. We found that the untreated group (baseline) polluted more than the two treated groups, and there was no statistically significant difference between the pollution abatement of the two treated groups. These results suggest that public disclosure potentially drives pollution abatement and that its eventual withdrawal does not obliterate abatement behaviour. We did not observe conditional cooperation but average pollution declined over time. Furthermore, individuals who thought it was unfair for Africa to reduce emissions polluted more. We also found that pollution levels differ significantly between males and females.

  • 13.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    Department of History, Economics and Politics, State University of New York, Farmingdale.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Zikhali, Precious
    Centre for World Food Studies (SOW-VU), Vrije Universiteit.
    Can the restrictive harvest period policy conserve mopane worms in southern Africa?: A bioeconomic modelling approach2009In: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 14, no 5, 587-600 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mopane worm, which is the caterpillar form of the Saturnid moth Imbrasia belina Westwood, is like other edible insects and caterpillars a vital source of protein in southern African countries. The worms live and graze on mopane trees, which have alternative uses. With increasing commercialization of the worm, its management, which was hitherto organized as a common property resource, has been degraded to almost open access. This paper uses a bioeconomic modelling approach to show that for some optimal allocation of the mopane forest stock, the restrictive harvest period policy advocated by community leaders may not lead to sustainable harvesting of the worm

  • 14.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Bark, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ericsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Martinsson, Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Weihed, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Norrbottens malm- och mineralresurs och dess potentiella betydelse för innovation, samhälle och miljö2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruvindustrins betydelse för samhällsutveckling och infrastruktur i Sverige och inte minst i Norrbottens län är mycket stor. De geologiska förutsättningarna att hitta nya brytvärda förekomster i Norrbotten är goda. Länet är tillsammans med Västerbotten en av Europas viktigaste regioner för utvinning av metaller. Det syns också i den nyligen framtagna regionala mineralstrategin för Norrbotten och Västerbotten. Visionen för den regionala mineralstrategin: ”Genom långsiktigt hållbart nyttjande av Norrbottens och Västerbottens läns mineralresurser har ytterligare tillväxt skapats i regionen och hela Sverige. Vi har utvecklat och stärkt vår ställning som ledande gruv- och mineralnation.”Eftersom framtidspotentialen för gruvnäringen är mycket god men okunnigheten hos både allmänhet och beslutsfattare om näringens betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling är stor, kopplat med en utbredd oro för miljöpåverkan, måste dessa viktiga framtidsfrågor belysas. Med finansiering från Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten bedrevs därför under första hälften av 2014 en förstudie som syftade till att sammanfatta kunskapsläget om framtidens gruvindustri i Norrbotten. Resultaten av förstudien redovisas i den här rapporten. En viktig slutsats är att det under nästa strukturfondsperiod (med start 2015) behövs ett framtidsinriktat forskningsprogram för att belysa de möjligheter som finns. Denna förstudie utgör grund för en kommande ansökan till strukturfonderna. Kompetensen som finns vid Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveriges centrum för gruvrelaterad forskning och utbildning, bör användas för att studera troliga framtidsmöjligheter och hur de ska kunna användas för att få en så positiv utveckling som möjligt för länet. Projektet bör innehålla följande tre huvudinriktningar, som naturligtvis hör ihop:Vilka malm- och mineralresurser finns det potential för i Norrbotten, och vilka kommer sannolikt att exploateras i framtiden?Vad kommer den exploateringen att ha för betydelse för innovation och samhällsutveckling?Vad kommer den exploateringen att få för miljöeffekter och hur ska man göra för att minska miljöbelastningen?En annan slutsats är att nedlagda gruvområden inte måste ses som förstörd natur. Betydande mervärden som gruvturism skulle kunna skapas om vilja, kreativitet och beslutsamhet finns. Detta är ett givet utvecklingsområde där småföretag och entreprenörer kan göra stor insats om de politiska och myndighetsmässiga förutsättningarna finns. Dessa aspekter skulle också kunna belysas i det föreslagna forskningsprogrammet eller i ett eget projekt.

  • 15.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, 51-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Counterproductive Counternarcotic Strategies?2013In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0002-9092, E-ISSN 1467-8276, Vol. 95, no 4, 917-931 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bezabih, Mintewab
    Environment and Climate Research center at the Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Addis Ababa.
    Mannberg, Andrea
    School of Business and Economics, UiT the Arctic University of Norway.
    The Ethiopian Commodity Exchange and spatial price dispersion2017In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 66, 1-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we study the impact of an institutional intervention on market efficiency in Ethiopia. More specifically, we analyze to what extent the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) in combination with regional warehouses have contributed to a reduction in price spreads between regional markets. Our hypothesis is that warehouses connected to the ECX reduce the dispersion between export prices and local retail prices in different coffee growing areas, as well as the dispersion between export prices and local retail prices in different coffee growing areas. By doing so, the ECX has the potential to improve the market efficiency. To identify the causal effect, we combine retail price data with information on the gradual rollout of warehouses connected to the ECX from 2007 to 2012. Our results suggest that, when two markets both have access to an operating warehouse, the average price spread is 0.86–1.78 ETB lower than it is for markets where at least one part lacks warehouse access. This is a substantial reduction considering that the average price spread over the full period is 3.33 ETB. The main results are robust to various econometric specifications, and our analysis thus suggests that local warehouses connected to the ECX have indeed improved market efficiency

  • 18.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Chege, Christine C.K.
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Qaim, Matin
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Rao, Elizaphan
    International Livestock Research Institute.
    Following up on smallholder farmers and supermarkets in Kenya2015In: American Journal of Agricultural Economics, ISSN 0002-9092, E-ISSN 1467-8276, Vol. 97, no 4, 1247-1266 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many developing countries, supermarkets are expanding rapidly. This affects farmers' marketing options. Previous studies have analyzed welfare effects of smallholder participation in supermarket channels from a static perspective, using cross-section data. We develop a conceptual framework and use panel data to better understand participation and impact dynamics. The analysis focuses on vegetable producers in Kenya. Participation in supermarket channels is associated with income gains. However, many farmers have dropped out of the supermarket channel due to various constraints. The initial income gains cannot be sustained when returning to the traditional market. Organizational support may be needed to avoid widening income disparities.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ek, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wårell, Linda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Why flex-fuel failed?: A household perspective2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Integrating empirical evidence on forest landowner behavior in forest sector models: a literature review and synthesis2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Arvidsson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Technology-neutral green procurement in practice: an example from Swedish waste management2012In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 30, no 5, 519-523 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green public procurement has been criticized for its excessive reliance on detailed technology specifications, which can distort incentives in the short term and discourage innovation in the longer term. Economists therefore tend to prefer technology-neutral procurement, which rewards outcomes rather than technologies. However, technology-neutral procurement can also be problematic in practice. The present study investigated green public procurement of waste management, a rapidly growing field. In one of the most sophisticated models for technology-neutral procurement applied in Sweden in recent years, different environmental impacts were assigned weights, but no weight was given to the particular technology employed. Even here, however, potential inefficiencies were found where the scoring rule could have led to arbitrary, and presumably unwanted, outcomes. Explicitly assigning monetary surcharges to desirable and undesirable environmental effects may be a better way to reach environmental targets.

  • 23.
    Arvidsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sjöstrand, James
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The economics of the Swedish online gambling market2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 16, 1135-1137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study how the Swedish online gambling market has developed and how the availability of foreign-based online gambling has affected the domestic state-owned gambling monopoly, AB Svenska Spel. We find that online gambling and the traditional state-managed gambling are relatively weak substitutes. Thus, concerns about the availability of online gambling being able to undercut domestic gambling policies may be overstated.

  • 24.
    Babajee, D.K.R.
    et al.
    Scientific & Academic Research Council, African Network for Policy Research & Advocacy for Sustainability, Midlands.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Applications of higher-order optimal Newton secant iterative methods in ocean acidification and investigation of long-run implications of emissions on alkalinity of seawater2013In: ISRN Applied Mathematics, ISSN 2090-5564, E-ISSN 2090-5572, Vol. 2013, 785287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Newton secant method is a third-order iterative nonlinear solver. It requires two function and one first derivative evaluations. However, it is not optimal as it does not satisfy the Kung-Traub conjecture. In this work, we derive an optimal fourth-order Newton secant method with the same number of function evaluations using weight functions and we show that it is a member of the King family of fourth-order methods. We also obtain an eighth-order optimal Newton-secant method. We prove the local convergence of the methods. We apply the methods to solve a fourth-order polynomial arising in ocean acidifications and study their dynamics. We use the data of CO2 available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration from 1959 to 2012 and calculate the pH of the oceans for these years. Finally we further investigate the long-run implications of CO2 emissions on alkalinity of seawater using fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and dynamic OLS (DOLS). Our findings reveal that a one-percent increase in CO2 emissions will lead to a reduction in seawater alkalinity of 0.85 percent in the long run.

  • 25.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Sjögren, Tomas
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Optimal Tax and Expenditure Policy in the Presence of Emigration: Are Credit Restrictions Important?2014In: Indian Growth and Development Review, ISSN 1753-8254, E-ISSN 1753-8262, Vol. 7, no 2, 98-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Empirical studies have found an inverted-U curve relationship between emigration and per capita income. In this paper, a theoretical underpinning for this phenomenon is presented based on credit restrictions. The implications for tax policy are also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach - Using an intertemporal general equilibrium model, the authors characterize how the presence of an 'inverted U-curve'relationship between emigration and per capita income will in?uence the optimal tax and expenditure policy in a country where agents have the option to move abroad.Findings - Among the results it is shown that if age dependent taxes are available, the presence of an inverted-U curve provides an incentive to tax young labor harder, but old labor less hard, than otherwise.Originality/value - Our migration model fits the empirical facts of migration better than most of the migration models previously used in the optimal taxation literature.

  • 26.
    Bashagi, A.
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    What actions could boost international tourism demand for tanzania?2009In: Journal for Studies in Economics and Econometrics, ISSN 0379-6205, Vol. 33, no 2, 59-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania recognises the potential of international tourism in accelerating socio-economic development, particularly as a supplier of foreign exchange, investment and employment. This paper investigates the factors affecting international tourism demand for Tanzania. The autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration is applied. Local tourism prices, tourist addiction, tourist income and the 2001 terror attack in the United States have significant impacts on international tourism demand for Tanzania between 1996 and 2006. The government needs to maintain macroeconomic stability, especially low inflation, if the country is to reap full economic benefits from tourism. To reduce sensitivity to local tourism prices, the tourism providers should put more efforts in diversifying tourism products away from the universally available ones. There is also a need to improve customer satisfaction to enhance tourist addiction for the Tanzanian experience. In this regard, there is a need to further train staff in the tourism industry, improve tourism infrastructure such as roads and hotels and aggressively market Tanzanian tourism products to the world

  • 27.
    Berg, Charlotte
    et al.
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Krook-Riekkola, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ahlgren, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mjuklänkning mellan EMEC och TIMES-Sweden: en metod för att förbättra energipolitiska underlag2012Report (Other academic)
  • 28. Berglund, Christer
    Burning in moral, drowning in rationality?: Ethical considerations in forming environmental policy2005In: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 20, no 1, 16-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have experienced an increasing use of both economic and political instruments in attempts to induce households to contribute to sustainable development. However, there is a lack of understanding of how these tools interplay with the motives held by households and the daily constraints they face. The purpose of this paper is to give some anecdotal evidence on how moral motives may affect different policies in force, and to give some insights on how to proceed in designing policy instruments compatible with sustainable household behaviour. I conclude that some households have learned to appreciate the reward of economic incentives, but that we also need to acknowledge that environmental morale may affect the support of such economic instruments.

  • 29. Berglund, Christer
    Do economic incentives demoralize recycling behavior?2006In: Trends in conservation and recycling of resources, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2006, 229-240 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30. Berglund, Christer
    Economic efficiency in waste management and recycling2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained papers that all deal with economic efficiency issues with respect to recycling behavior and waste management policies. Paper [1] provides an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of inter-country differences in waste paper recovery and utilization rates. The paper concludes that relative waste paper recovery and use depend largely on long-standing economic factors such as population intensity and competitiveness in the world market for paper and board products. We also find evidence that supports the conjecture that rich countries tend to recover relatively more waste paper than low-income countries, which reflects the higher demand for waste management and environmental policies in more developed economies. As recovery and utilization rates are determined by economic and demographic characteristics the degree of policy flexibility in affecting these rates may be limited. In particular, an ambitious utilization rate target may be very costly to enforce as it can conflict with existing trade patterns of paper and board products as well as with other environmental goals. Paper [2] builds and extends upon paper [1] and provides a critical analysis of Van Beukering and Bouman’s article in World Development on global paper recycling and trade. We first question their notion that developing countries specialize in waste paper utilization and developed countries in recovery activities primarily because of different patterns of waste paper trade. An increased focus on relative waste paper availability, we argue, provides us with a better understanding of global paper recycling. We also criticize some of the implicit assumptions made in their regression analysis of waste paper utilization rates. In contrast to the approach used by Van Beukering and Bouman our analysis: (a) is consistent with basic microeconomic theory; (b) distinguishes clearly between short- and long-run impacts; and (c) produces results that support our initial conjecture that waste paper availability is the most important determinant of waste paper use. Paper [3] analyzes the spatial cost efficiency of the Swedish legislation regarding waste disposal handling. We focus on the case of corrugated board and recognize that the different counties in Sweden possess different economic prerequisites in terms of waste paper recovery and utilization potential. We employ data for six corrugated board mills and 20 counties and a non-linear programming model to identify the least cost strategy for reaching the politically specified recycling target of a 65 percent recovery rate for corrugated board. That is, the total costs of recovering a minimum of 65 percent in each county are calculated and compared with the case when the country as a whole recovers 65 percent cost effectively. The conclusion is that from an efficiency point of view the recovery efforts should be concentrated to the highly populated and urbanized counties, and not be uniformly divided throughout the country. In the base case the results suggest that the cost efficient county-specific recovery rates should range from 51 percent to 72 percent. Paper [4] analyzes households' perceptions of recycling activities in a municipality in northern Sweden, Piteå. The purposes of the paper are to analyze whether moral motives matter for: (a) the assessment of households' waste sorting costs; and (b) for the efficiency of introducing economic incentives for stimulating households' recycling efforts. We employ an economic model of moral motivation with possible motivation crowding-out and econometric techniques. The empirical results support the notion that moral motives significantly lower the costs associated with household recycling efforts. Specifically, the average hourly willingness to pay to let others sort household waste at source was found to be significantly lower than the corresponding income after tax (i.e., the opportunity cost of time). Furthermore, moral motives can in some cases be the cause of inefficient policy outcomes when introducing economic incentives to promote recycling efforts.

  • 31. Berglund, Christer
    Economic efficiency issues with respect to recycling behavior and waste management policy2005In: International Journal of Sustainable Development, ISSN 0960-1406, E-ISSN 1741-5268, Vol. 8, no 3, 222-238 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like motherhood and apple pie, recycling is often thought of as an unquestionable 'good'. However, the economic, management and environmental issues involved are complex; there are numerous factors that need to be considered if recycling is to be efficient. The purpose of this paper is to analyse a number of economic efficiency issues with respect to recycling behaviour and waste management policy in a non-technical fashion aimed at an interdisciplinary audience. Among the main findings is that the degree of policy flexibility in affecting recovery and utilisation rates is limited, so additional policy targets are desirable.

  • 32. Berglund, Christer
    Ska vi sortera lika mycket över allt?2004In: Sopor hit och dit: på vinst och förlust, Stockholm: Statens råd för byggnadsforskning , 2004, 61-72 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33. Berglund, Christer
    Spatial cost efficiency in waste paper handling: the case of corrugated board in Sweden2004In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 42, no 4, 367-387 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the spatial cost efficiency of the Swedish legislation regarding waste disposal handling. We focus on the case of corrugated board and recognize that the different counties in Sweden possess different economic prerequisites in terms of waste paper recovery and utilization potential. We employ data for six corrugated board mills and 20 counties and a non-linear programming model to identify the least cost strategy for reaching the politically specified recycling target of a 65% recovery rate for corrugated board. That is, the total costs of recovering a minimum of 65% in each county are calculated and compared with the case when the country as a whole recovers 65% of all old corrugated board is collected but there exist no uniform target for each county. The conclusion is that from an efficiency point of view the recovery efforts should be concentrated to the highly populated and urbanized counties, and not be uniformly divided throughout the country. In the base case, the results suggest that the cost efficient county-specific recovery rates should range from 51 to 72%.

  • 34. Berglund, Christer
    Spatial issues in economics and econometrics2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained papers, divided into two parts where the first part considers issues in economics and the second discusses spatial issues in econometrics. In paper [1] the different waste disposal options, with emphasis on recycling and incineration, is examined and evaluated, using earlier research. This paper concludes that the literature reveals a range of results regarding the economics of waste paper recycling and incineration, respectively, and that the conceptual and empirical basis on which to determine efficient waste paper policy is still seriously incomplete. The effort in paper [2] is to identify and analyze determinants of inter-country differences in recovery and utilization rates, respectively. The paper concludes that the degree to which policy can affect these rates are limited since relative waste paper recovery and use are largely market-determined, and consequently depend on long-standing factors such as population density and competitiveness in the world market for paper and board products. Paper [3] explores the differences in inferences that one would draw from different econometric models in a spatial econometric setting. The study notes that ordinary least squares to a very large extent produce biased estimates due to spatial correlation in the data set. Hence, one would draw very different inferences from ordinary least squares and general spatial model estimates. Finally, paper [4] builds on paper [3] but explores some Bayesian estimation methods, i.e. heteroscedastic models, which take into account non-constant variance or spatial outliers. The data set used in these studies were limited because of censoring. The objective of this paper was to obtain Bayesian estimates that account for outliers and sample censoring. We found that ignoring the spatial autoregressive nature of the data, outliers and sample censoring would produce different inferences than the Bayesian models.

  • 35. Berglund, Christer
    The assessment of households' recycling costs: the role of personal motives2006In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 56, no 4, 560-569 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes households' perceptions of recycling activities in a municipality in northern Sweden, Piteå. The purpose of the paper is to analyze whether moral motives matter for the assessment of households' waste sorting costs. Data were gathered using a mail-out survey to 850 randomly chosen individuals in the municipality of Piteå, Sweden. We employ an economic model of moral motivation and econometric techniques. The main result that follows from the analysis is that the results support the notion that moral motives significantly lower the costs associated with household recycling efforts.

  • 36. Berglund, Christer
    What the numbers said: recovery and utilization of waste paper2004In: Waste Management World, ISSN 1476-1394, no Nov/Dec, 41-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Berglund, Christer
    Återvinning och samhällsekonomi2006In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 34, no 8, 49-61 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Elfdahl, Magnus
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Linhardt, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Why do so few companies list on the Dar es Salaam stock exchange?: an investigaton of the institutional underspinnings2002In: Journal of Development Alternatives and Area Studies, ISSN 1651-9728, Vol. 21, no 3/4, 84-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Vattenfall.
    Hage, Olle
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Household recycling and the influence of norms and convenience2010In: Environmental Policy and Household Behaviour: Sustainability and Everyday Life, London: Earthscan / James & James, 2010, 193-209 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Höglund-Isaksson, Lena
    Wagner, Fabian
    Klaassen, Ger
    Tohka, Antti
    Winiwarter, Wilfried
    Amann, Markus
    Least cost abatement of greenhouse gases in the Greenhouse & Air pollution Information and Simulation (GAINS) model2005In: Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-4), science, control, policy and implementation: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases, NCGG4, Millpress , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Johansson, Tommy
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Jamaican deforestation and bauxite mining: the role of negotiations for sustainable resource use2004In: Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report, ISSN 1404-1049, E-ISSN 1651-2286, Vol. 19, no 3, 2-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bauxite mining is considered to be one of the most significant reasons behind deforestation in Jamaica. During the last decades, large areas of forest have been cleared on the island due to open pit mining for bauxite. Because private landowners own the bauxite land, the operating mining companies are in many cases forced to bargain with the private landowners to obtain access to the desired land. Several economic theories present solutions to the problem of sustainable resource use. The purpose of this paper is to examine if the Coase theorem can be applied to analyze if the deforestation caused by bauxite mining in Jamaica can be amended towards optimal resource management. The paper concludes that there exist no practical obstacles for bargaining to take place. However, since the market for bauxite mining is not characterized by perfect competition, an efficient allocation of the Jamaican forests according to the Coase theorem is not achieved. Yet we find that the antiquated Coase theorem can help us gain knowledge into some fundamental aspects of the prevailing market conditions surrounding Jamaican bauxite mining.

  • 42. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Klaassen, Ger
    Wagner, Fabian
    The GAINS model for greenhouse gases: Version 1.0: Carbon dioxide (CO2)2005Report (Other academic)
  • 43. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Citizen and consumer: the dual role of individuals in environmental policy2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the dual role - exemplified by the ideal-types of the consumer and the citizen - individuals' face in contemporary environmental policy. As crowding-out theory highlights the implications of using ‘wrong' incentives or controlling means, examining the match between policy and those value-systems guiding individuals' decision-making process in practice should indeed be a relevant undertaking. Sweden provides the empirical example for the article, in which a text analysis of policy documents is compared with the results of a mail-out survey to 4000 individuals in four different counties. The article finds that external motivations are perceived as being highly relevant for the promotion of ecological sustainability in Sweden and, thus, that the notion of the consumer-role as guiding individuals' behaviour in the environmental field is rather strong. However, at the same time people tend to ascribe the motivational values included in the Self-transcendence cluster (altruism) a far greater importance as guiding principles in life than the opposing values of Self-enhancement (egoism), indicating that the citizen-role indeed is important to account for in policy-making. Hence, clearly there is a mismatch between Sweden's contemporary policy documents and the general value orientation held by Swedish people in general.

  • 44. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Matti, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Citizen and consumer: the dual role of individuals in environmental policy2006In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 15, no 4, 550-571 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the dual role – exemplified by the ideal types of the consumer and the citizen – individuals face in the contemporary environmental policy context. As crowding-out theory highlights the implications of using the ‘wrong’ incentives, examining the match between policy and the value systems guiding individuals' decision-making process in practice is a relevant undertaking. Sweden provides the empirical context for the article, in which official environmental policy-discourse in Sweden is compared with the results of a mail-out survey to 4,000 individuals in four different counties. It is suggested that external motivations are perceived as highly relevant for the promotion of ecological sustainability, so the consumer element as a motivating feature of individuals' behaviour in the environmental field is indeed of considerable importance. However, at the same time people tend to ascribe far greater importance to the motivational values included in the self-transcendence cluster (altruism) as guiding principles in life than to the opposing values of self-enhancement (egoism), indicating that the citizen-role is also important to take into account in policy design. It is concluded that there is a mismatch between the content of Sweden's policy documents and the general value orientation held by the Swedish citizenry.

  • 45. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Evaluating new institutional settings: a pilot study of new common property forest in Tanzania1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, ISSN 0280-2791, Vol. 18, no 1, 43-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the creation of institutions concerned with common forests in an economy in transition, Tanzania. The paper uses a framework developed by Ostrom [1990]. Focusing on successful community-oriented, organized irrigation networks Ostrom defines eight design principles. These eight principles are tools that can be used in evaluating common pool resource systems. The initial experiences of the two villages Duru and Ayasanda help to illustrate how the common forests of the villages will work in the future. In evaluating these forests, using Ostrom's framework, the paper finds that most of the fundamental requirements are fulfilled.

  • 46. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Otterheim, Fredrik
    Sverige och de internationella råvarumarknaderna2007In: Råvarumarknaden, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2007, 265-287 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    An econometric analysis of global waste paper recovery and utilization2003In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 26, no 2, 429-456 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide aneconometric analysis of the most importantdeterminants of inter-country differences inwaste paper recovery and utilization rates. Byemploying pooled time series and cross-sectiondata over 49 countries worldwide and sevenyears, the paper concludes that relative wastepaper recovery and use depend largely onlong-standing economic factors such aspopulation intensity and competitiveness in theworld market for paper and board products. Wealso find evidence that supports the conjecturethat rich countries tend to recover relativelymore waste paper than is the case in low-incomecountries, reflecting the higher demand forwaste management and environmental policies inmore developed economies. As recovery andutilization rates are determined by economicand demographic characteristics the degree ofpolicy flexibility in affecting these rates maybe limited. In particular, an ambitiousutilization rate target may be very costly toenforce as it can conflict with existing tradepatterns of paper and board products as well aswith other environmental goals. Additionalpolicy targets may therefore be desirable,especially since paper recycling is motivatedprimarily by environmental concerns and seldomis a benign activity in itself.

  • 48. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Complementing empirical evidence on global recycling and trade of waste paper2003In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 31, no 4, 743-754 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comment provides a critical analysis of Van Beukering and Bouman’s [World Development 29 (2001) 1717] article on global paper recycling and trade. We first question their notion that developing countries specialize in waste paper utilization and developed countries in recovery activities primarily because of different patterns of waste paper trade. An increased focus on relative waste paper availability, we argue, provides us with a better understanding of global paper recycling. We also criticize some of the implicit assumptions made in their regression analysis of waste paper utilization rates. An alternative regression model is therefore derived and estimated. In contrast to the approach used by Van Beukering and Bouman our analysis (a) is consistent with basic microeconomic theory; (b) distinguishes clearly between short- and long-run impacts; and (c) produces results that support our initial conjecture that waste paper availability is the most important determinant of waste paper use.

  • 49. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Källsortering i Eskilstuna Kommun: hushållens aktiviteter, erfarenheter och attityder inför försöket med insamling efter materialströmmar2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket har utsett Eskilstuna som försökskommun för att testa ett nytt system för avfallshantering. Syftet är att studera hur insamlingen påverkas av att hushållen källsorterar efter materialströmmar till skillnad från idag efter förpackningar. Försöket inbegriper hårdplast och metall och innebär att dessa material utöver alla hårdplast- och metallförpackningar, t ex diskborstar, kastruller, bestick, mm., ska slängas vid återvinningsstationer och/eller i behållare i de fastighetsnära utrymmena. Försöket pågår från september 2007 till september 2008. Ett viktigt mål är att ett eventuellt nytt system baserat på materialströmmar ska vara lättillgängligt och betraktas som legitimt utifrån hushållens synvinkel. Syftet med denna rapport är att göra en så kallad "nollmätning", dvs. en undersökning av hushållens källsorteringsaktiviteter, erfarenheter och attityder inför försöket med materialinsamling. Resultaten bygger på en postenkät som skickades ut i augusti 2007 till 798 hushåll i de bostadsområden i Eskilstuna som omfattas av försöket. Undersökningen inbegriper hushållens erfarenheter av och attityder gentemot källsorteringen i Eskilstuna i stort, men speciellt utrymme ges åt hushållens källsortering av avfall baserat på metall och hårdplast.

  • 50. Berglund, Christer
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Modeling technical change in energy system analysis: analyzing the introduction of learning-by-doing in bottom-up energy models2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 12, 1344-1356 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview and a critical analysis of the recent literature on incorporating induced technical change in energy systems models. Special emphasis is put on surveying recent studies aimed at integrating learning-by-doing into bottom-up energy systems models through so-called learning curves, and on analyzing the relevance of learning curve analysis for understanding the process of innovation and technology diffusion in the energy sector. The survey indicates that this model work represents a major advance in energy research, and embeds important policy implications, not the least concerning the cost and the timing of environmental policies (including carbon emission constraints). However, bottom-up energy models with endogenous learning are also limited in their characterization of technology diffusion and innovation. While they provide a detailed account of technical options—which is absent in many top-down models—they also lack important aspects of diffusion behavior that are captured in top-down representations. For instance, they often fail in capturing strategic technology diffusion behavior in the energy sector as well as the energy sector's endogenous responses to policy, and they neglect important general equilibrium impacts (such as the opportunity cost of redirecting R&D support to the energy sector). Some suggestions on how innovation and diffusion modeling in bottom-up analysis can be improved are put forward.

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