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  • 1.
    Adam, Jonsson
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    On permutations and equity among generationsIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature on intergenerational justice, there is a widely held view that in order to live up to the utilitarian ideal of equal regard for all individuals, including those who have not yet been born, we must impose infinite permutation invariance conditions known as axioms of extended anonymity. I argue that such conditions do not bear relevance to the utilitarian ideal. I do so by showing that all examples that have been used to motivate extended anonymity axioms can be accounted for with an alternative principle that is supported independently.

  • 2.
    Backman, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Filosofi med barn och olika kunskapsformer2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Backman, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Group Argumentation Development through Philosophical Dialogues for Persons with Acquired Brain InjuriesIn: International journal of disability, development and education, ISSN 1034-912X, E-ISSN 1465-346XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high prevalence of brain injury incidents in adolescence and adulthood demands effective models for re-learning lost cognitive abilities. Impairment in brain injury survivors’ higher-level cognitive functions is common and a negative predictor for long-term outcome. We conducted two small-scale interventions(N = 12; 33.33% female) with persons with acquired brain injuries in two municipalities in Sweden. Age ranged from 17–65 years (M = 51.17,SD = 14.53). The interventions were dialogic, inquiry-based, and inspired by the Philosophy for Children Program, a participatory thinking skills approach with documented higher-order cognitive outcomes, such as developed argumentation skills, in other target groups. Philosophical dialogues were conducted once a week in the two groups, totalling 12 dialogues per group. Group argumentation development was measured through compared scores from structured observations of filmed dialogues early and late in the intervention. Large positive changes in mean scores from early to late in the intervention, together with constantly high facilitator quality, suggest argumentation development in the sample due to the intervention.

  • 4.
    Backman, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Mental well-being and philosophy for persons with acquired brain injuries2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to previous reports, mental well-being is conducive to increased pro-social behavior and achievement in several domains. Previous studies have also indicated that P4C has a positive impact on mental well-being. In this paper, we discuss how philosophical dialogues affect the mental well-being of persons with acquired brain injuries (ABI), a group for which increases in mental and social well-being as well as performance are especially important. The paper is based on a small-scale study carried out by the researchers in the ongoing research project Education for Participation – Philosophizing back a ”new” life after acquired brain injury (funded by the Swedish Research Council). The research group has attempted to assess effects of two single group small-scale interventions (a weak experimental pre-test post-test design with the two experimental groups as control groups before the intervention started) that were made in the northern part of Sweden. The two groups participated in twelve philosophical dialogues each during a period of fifteen weeks from January 2015 to May 2015. In addition to the persons with ABI, staff participated in the philosophical dialogues in both groups. Besides cognition and communication measurements, the research group measured subjective well-being, which is targeted in this paper. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with all of the participants with ABI based on the following two subjective well-being measurements: (i) the Cantril Ladder, and (ii) The Satisfaction With Life Scale. To utilize the Cantril Ladder, we partly adapted it for the study population and translated it to Swedish. We used the recommended non-verbal ladder device ranging from 0–10, where the top was described as the best life, and the bottom the worst life, as the interviewee defined it. Each interviewee was asked questions about how he/she defined the best and the worst possible future life in terms of happiness and unhappiness, where he/she thinks he/she stands on the ladder today, where he/she stood five years ago, where he/she stood before the ABI, and where he/she will stand in the future. The Satisfaction With Life Scale ranges form 1–7 and contains the following five items: 1) ”In most ways my life is close to my ideal.”, 2) ”The conditions of my life are excellent.”, 3) ”I am satisfied with my life.”, 4) ”So far I have gotten the important things I want in life.”, and 5) ”If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing.”. (We used a Swedish translation of the questions.) The data collection was finished in June 2015. In this paper, we present some preliminary results. In short, the processed data (to date) indicate that the philosophical dialogues were accompanied by an increase in subjective well-being among the participants with ABI, which makes the case stronger for P4C/PWC as an educational method applicable also in special needs education.

  • 5.
    Backman, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Research methods for the Swedish research project Education for Participation : Philosophizing back a ‘new’ life after acquired brain injury2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Backman, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Persson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Vetenskapliga tankeverktyg: till grund för akademiska studier2012 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I princip alla vetenskapliga studier vid universitet och högskola kräver kunskaper och färdigheter inom kritiskt tänkande, etik, kunskapsteori, vetenskapsteori, metodteori och vetenskapligt skrivande. Denna bok ger en introduktion till dessa områden.Författarna vägleder läsaren till att upptäcka det intressanta, begripliga och samtidigt problemfyllda med frågor som: Vad är kunskap? Vad skiljer vetenskap från annat? Hur samlar man in data? Hur ska man förhålla sig till källor? Vilka metoder leder till tillförlitliga slutsatser? Var går gränsen för vad man får göra inom forskning? Hur argumenterar och skriver man vetenskapligt?Genom hela boken finns övningar, exempel och förslag till vidare läsning. På bokens webbplats finns ytterligare material för att underlätta och fördjupa lärandet av bokens innehåll. Vetenskapliga tankeverktyg – till grund för akademiska studier vänder sig till studenter inom alla akademiska områden. Den kan användas vid introducerande moment i utbildningar eller som resurs vid skrivande av rapporter, uppsatser och examensarbeten.

  • 7.
    Backman, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Research Methods in the Swedish project Education for Participation: Philosophizing back a ‘New’ Life After Acquired Brain Injury2018In: Parecidos de familia: Propuestas actuales en Filosofía para Niños / [ed] García, F; Duthie, E. & Robles, R., Madrid: Anaya , 2018, p. 482-490Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually, more than ten million people in all age groups in the world experience an acquired brain injury (‘ABI’), which is a brain injury caused after birth by external forces (e.g. motor vehicle accidents) or certain internal factors (e.g. stroke). Brain injury survivors are often left with long-term impairments in cognitive, social, or emotional functioning. Despite a promising outset, research on the effectiveness of philosophical dialogues as an educational method for persons with ABI to increase their cognitive, social, and emotional functioning has, to our knowledge, been virtually non-existent. The present research project targets this and uses a pretest-posttest and mixed-method triangulation design and attempts to measure effects of two small-scale interventions carried out in the northern part of Sweden. In this text, the project’s research design, data production, and data processing are described. 

  • 8.
    Backman, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    PhilosoFilm: On the combination of film and philosophical dialogue2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Backman, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Haglund, Liza
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Persson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Philosophy with children: moral argumentation and the role of pictures2012In: Education for complex thinking through philosophical inquiry. Models, advances, and proposals for the new millennium.: Proceedings of the 14th ICPIC Conference / [ed] Marina Santi; Stefano Oliverio, Padova: Liguori , 2012, p. 131-140Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Backman, Ylva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Haglund, Liza
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Persson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Ethics in school: from moral development to children's conceptions of justice2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A main issue in Swedish school debate is the question of how to teach the student a common value system based on democracy and western humanism. The debate is rather intense, to say the least. Not only is the premise that there exists one value system that we share a target for critique, but there is also the question of what value education is or could be. There is, as well, quite a body of research on children's moral development, where many take as their departure the work of Kohlberg. However, there has been little or no attention on how the individual learner conceptualizes and makes meaning out of ethical issues. That is, descriptions of processes. In this paper we will present what we take to be urgent questions that need to be investigated against the background of prior research and practical work at Södra teatern in Stockholm, Sweden. For eight years in a row, Södra teatern has had as a main project to lead a practice on the subject of philosophy with children. Several groups of youths in the age of nine to eighteen have regularly met to discuss philosophical thoughts and problems, which in a democratic manner are settled for discussion by the participants. Today this philosophical practice has spread to the north of Sweden. In Backman's final exam within the teacher education she has explored the development of children's (7‐8 years old) ability to argue for different ethical positions, both verbally and in writing and painting. This practice has been inspired by the tradition at Södra teatern, but customized to fit a regular school class in Luleå, with very little experience of philosophical discussion. In the very short period of five weeks Backman has been able to see quite significant changes in the children's ability to argue for their ethical positions. The study was initiated by examining some argumentative abilities of the pupils, for instance the ability of expressing an argument for an ethical position in writing. In the final part of the study, the same ability was examined in very similar circumstances, and the augment of expressed arguments in writing was significant. Another consideration that was raised as a consequence of the study regards the pupil's conceptualizing of ethical issues. In some conversations about the notion of justice it became clear that children interpreted the term very differently. This is not very surprising but important to pay further attention to. As mentioned earlier, there has been very little attention on how individual children conceptualize ethical issues. In this paper we argue that more interest should be put on investigating these issues in more depth, and we will do this by an outlining of a research application.

  • 11. Benyamine, Isak
    et al.
    Haglund, LizaPersson, AndersLuleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Att slippa tänka själv: Filosofiska samtal som undersökande gemenskaper i skolan2014Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Bäckström, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gedda, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Persson, Anders J
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Prellwitz, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Weber, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Det uppkopplade samhället och högre utbildning2014In: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, p. 123-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Enflo, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    Measures of Freedom of Choice2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the problem of measuring freedom of choice. It analyzes the concept of freedom of choice, discusses conditions that a measure should satisfy, and introduces a new class of measures that uniquely satisfy ten proposed conditions. The study uses a decision-theoretical model to represent situations of choice and a metric space model to represent differences between options.

    The first part of the thesis analyzes the concept of freedom of choice. Different conceptions of freedom of choice are categorized into evaluative and non-evaluative, as well as preference-dependent and preference-independent kinds. The main focus is on the three conceptions of freedom of choice as cardinality of choice sets, representativeness of the universal set, and diversity of options, as well as the three conceptions of freedom of rational choice, freedom of eligible choice, and freedom of evaluated choice.

    The second part discusses the conceptions, together with conditions for a measure and a variety of measures proposed in the literature. The discussion mostly focuses on preference-independent conceptions of freedom of choice, in particular the diversity conception. Different conceptions of diversity are discussed, as well as properties that could affect diversity, such as the cardinality of options, the differences between the options, and the distribution of differences between the options. As a result, the diversity conception is accepted as the proper explication of the concept of freedom of choice. In addition, eight conditions for a measure are accepted. The conditions concern domain-insensitivity, strict monotonicity, no-choice situations, dominance of differences, evenness, symmetry, spread of options, and limited function growth. None of the previously proposed measures satisfy all of these conditions.

    The third part concerns the construction of a ratio-scale measure that satisfies the accepted conditions. Two conditions are added regarding scale-independence and function growth proportional to cardinality. Lastly, it is shown that only one class of measures satisfy all ten conditions, given an additional assumption that the measures should be analytic functions with non-zero partial derivatives with respect to some function of the differences. These measures are introduced as the Ratio root measures.

  • 14.
    Enflo, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen för praktisk filosofi.
    Vi vill inte alltid ha valfrihet2013In: Upsala Nya Tidning, ISSN 1104-0173, Vol. 123, no 248, p. 5-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Erikshammar, Jarkko
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Björnfot, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    The ambiguity of value2010In: Proceedings IGLC-18: 18th Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction / [ed] Ken Walsh; Thais Alves, Haifa: Technion-Israel Institute of Technology , 2010, p. 42-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Value' is a central concept in all of the principles and methods applied in Lean Construction, but it is rather difficult to provide a precise definition of the term. The problem lies in the word value itself: its ambiguity and vagueness make theorization difficult. This paper investigates the philosophical concept of value from a Lean Construction perspective. Several elements that contribute to value are considered, including objective elements such as waste reduction, quality, price and functionality, and more subjective elements such as design. The hypothesis of this paper is that the reduction or removal of elements that detract from value, such as waste and costs, is not the only means by which value may be increased. The Sorites paradox is used to form a cohesive perspective on some different meanings of the word ‗value‘. One of the known ‗solutions‘ of the paradox, utilization theory, is then explored through a case study in off-site construction that illustrates how different actors in the construction process view value, and how utility theory can be used to provide a consensus on value that is acceptable. In practice, ‗value‘ is ambiguous because actors generally value different things and these views seldom converge during projects. Our results indicate that the actors involved strive for value individually. Analysis using utility theory allows the actors to establish a shared conceptualization of value, expressed in monetary terms. The work described in this paper aims to improve our understanding of value and of how to design products in construction to improve value for clients of industrialized housing.

  • 16.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Comparing values: essays on comparability, transitivity, and vagueness2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this thesis is to examine some of the arguments that have been leveled against the idea that all value bearing entities are comparable. A secondary aim is to investigate some putative properties of the relation ‘better than', especially transitivity and (to some degree) vagueness. Also, some of the consequences of accepting incomparability are investigated, both with regards to other value theoretical issues, such as the implications for monadic value predicates, and with regards to more applied issues, such as the comparison of risks. PAPER I is a critical examination of the so-called small-improvement argument for incomparability. It is demonstrated that the value structure this argument is able to distinguish is compatible not only with incomparability but also with a kind of evaluative indeterminacy that is distinct from incomparability. PAPER II argues that if the possibility of non-conventional value relations is granted it follows that some things that have value are neither good, bad, nor neutral. This counterintuitive conclusion is reached by combining two individually plausible analyses of value. PAPER III addresses the phenomenon of incomplete preferences. It is shown how it is possible to model incomplete preference orderings by means of probabilistic preferences, and how to reveal an agent's incomplete preference ordering within a behaviorist framework. PAPER IV examines another version of the small-improvement argument designed to establish the rationality of incomplete preferences. It is argued that while there might be reasons to believe each of the premises in this version, there is a conflict between these reasons. The conflict is such that we are not provided with a reason to believe the conjunction of the premises. And without support for the conjunction of the premises the small-improvement argument for incomparability fails. PAPER V defends the common sense claim that ‘better than' is transitive against the compelling counterexamples provided by Larry Temkin and Stuart Rachels. It is demonstrated that the contradiction that follows from accepting Temkin and Rachels' premises trades on the vagueness of ‘better than', and so does not warrant the rejection of transitivity, but rather the conclusion that ‘better than' is vague. PAPER VI applies the notions of incommensurability and incomparability to comparative risk analysis. It is argued that if risks are incommensurable, and thereby resistant to accurate comparisons in terms of severity, we cannot perform accurate and cost effective trade-offs between risks and their associated benefits

  • 17.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Incommensurability: the failure to compare risks2008In: The ethics of technological Risk, London: Earthscan / James & James, 2008, p. 128-143Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    'A comprehensive and important collection that includes essays by some of the leading figures in the field. ...Essential reading for anyone interested in risk assessment.' Professor Kristin Shrader-Frechette, University of Notre Dame 'The editors are to be congratulated for bringing together a distinguished international group of theorists to reflect on the issues. This volume will be sure to raise the level of debate while at the same time showing the importance of philosophical reflection in approaches to the problems of the age.' Professor Jonathan Wolff, University College London This volume brings together top authors from the fields of risk, philosophy, social sciences and psychology to address the issue of how we should decide how far technological risks are morally acceptable or not. The underlying principles are examined, along with methodological challenges, public involvement and instruments for democratization. A strong theoretical basis is complemented by a range of case studies from some of the most contentious areas, including medical ethics and GM crops. This book is a vital new resource for researchers, students and anyone concerned that traditional approaches to risk management don't adequately address ethical considerations.

  • 18.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Margins of error in value comparisons2007In: Vol. 80, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Some new monadic value predicates2009In: American Philosophical Quarterly, ISSN 0003-0481, E-ISSN 2152-1123, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 31-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some things have positive value and some things have negative value. The things with positive value are good and the things with negative value are bad. There are also things in-between that are neither good nor bad, which are neutral. All in all, then, there are three monadic value predicates: "good," "bad," and "neutral."

  • 20.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    The small improvement argument2008In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 165, no 1, p. 127-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly assumed that moral deliberation requires that the alternatives available in a choice situation are evaluatively comparable. This comparability assumption is threatened by claims of incomparability, which is often established by means of the small improvement argument (SIA). In this paper I argue that SIA does not establish incomparability in a stricter sense. The reason is that it fails to distinguish incomparability from a kind of evaluative indeterminacy which may arise due to the vagueness of the evaluative comparatives ‘better than,' ‘worse than,' and ‘equally as good as.'

  • 21.
    Espinoza, Nicolas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Peterson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Incomplete preferences in disaster risk management2008In: International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, ISSN 1468-4322, E-ISSN 1741-5292, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 341-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the phenomenon of incomplete preferences in disaster risk management. If an agent finds two options to be incomparable and thus has an incomplete preference ordering, i.e., neither prefers one option over the other nor finds them equally as good, it is not possible for the agent to perform a value tradeoff, necessary for an informed decision, between these two options. In this paper we suggest a way to model incomplete preference orderings by means of probabilistic preferences, and how to reveal an agent's incomplete preference ordering within a behaviorist framework.

  • 22.
    Franklin, Anders
    et al.
    ARcTic Project Group - Unga tankar.
    Johansson, Jonatan
    ARcTic Project Group - Unga tankar.
    Backman, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Thinking in the upper secondary school: On the coherency between Thinking in education and the curriculum for the Swedish upper secondary school 20112013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Juridisk tillämpning av några filosofiska distinktioner2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Kunskapsbegreppet och ett svar till skeptikern2010In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Om Nozicks kunskapsanalys2010In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Backman, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Philosophical dialogues in education for persons with acquired brain injuries2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Etik i skolan: Vad och varför?2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Philosophy with Children, Inquiry Ethics and Value Transmission: Merits, demerits and relations between the approaches2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Persson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Why philosophise with children about ethics in school?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Alerby, Eva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Persson, Anders J
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Why philosophical ethics in school: implications for education in technology and in general2014In: Ethics and Education, ISSN 1744-9642, E-ISSN 1744-9650, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 16-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we distinguish between three approaches to ethics in school, each giving an interpretation of the expression 'ethics in school': the descriptive facts about ethics approach, roughly consisting of teaching empirical facts about moral matters to students; the moral fostering approach, consisting of mediating a set of given values to students; and the philosophical ethics (PE) approach, consisting of critically discussing and evaluating moral issues with students. Thereafter, three influential arguments for why there ought to be ethics in school are discussed, and each argument is interpreted given each approach to ethics in school, respectively. Thereby, we evaluate which interpretation of 'ethics in school' produces the strongest arguments, and thus, which approach is best supported by these arguments. The conclusion is that there ought to be PE in school

  • 31.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Persson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Haglund, Liza
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Backman, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Coherentism as a foundation for ethical dialog and evaluation in school: value communication, assessment and mediation2012In: Educating for complex thinking through philosophical inquiry. Models, advances, and proposals for the new millennium.: Proceedings of the 14th ICPIC Conference. / [ed] Marina Santi; Stefano Oliverio, Padova: Liguori , 2012, p. 197-208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are mainly concerned with coherentism as an approach to ethical dialog in school. We have two different but connected aims with the paper. The first aim is to say something about general philosophical questions relating to coherentism as a theory in metaethics, and especially in relation to value education; the second aim is to explore some possible implications of coherentism as a method in studying the enterprise of discussing ethical issues and questions with children as well as the study of the actual ethical discussion in school. Furthermore, we evaluate the connection between a coherentistic approach to justification and the methodological parts of a Philosophy with Children, or Community of Inquiry, approach to ethics in school. Related to this, we scrutinize what implications this has for evaluating ethical learning within Philosophy with Children, or Community of Inquiry, as well as implications for evaluation of the Philosophy with Children, or Community of Inquiry, approaches as methods for dealing with ethical matters in school.

  • 32.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Persson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Haglund, Liza
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Backman, Ylva
    Ethics in school: a study of the foundation and methods for value communication2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is about a coming project concerning a coherentist approach to ethics in school. The project has two main parts; one theoretical and one empirical. The former focuses on philosophical problems and issues concerning coherentism as a metaethical position in general, and particularly when applied to the field of value education, and the latter aims to study some consequences of a coherentist approach to the study of discussing ethical matters with children.Metaethical coherentism is a position in the discussion about justification of moral judgements. According to coherentism, we build some kind of web in which different moral judgements are connected by some justification‐relation or the like. Some judgements might be more central than others, but these can be justified by the more particular and peripheral ones, and vice versa. Coherentism differs from foundationalism, according to which there are some foundational judgements that are not justified by any other judgements. The rest of our judgements are justified if they are justified by this foundation. We wish to study what benefits a coherentist approach might have in the study of ethical discussions in school. In Sweden, the educational system has as one of its main purposes to mediate a "value foundation" based on "Christian ethical tradition and western humanism" to the pupils. Suppose now that you have a foundationalist approach to ethical discussion in schools, as many seem to have had historically, and that some pupil expresses the judgement that some of his classmates have a lower value than him, due to the colour of their skin. This judgement conflicts with the judgement that the colour of ones skin does not have any bearing of ones value, included in the value foundation of the school. According to a foundationalist, we here have a conflict between foundational values, or so we can suppose. In this case, there is nothing obvious to do to resolve this conflict, because the foundational values cannot be justified; it is supposed that we simply realise the correctness of them by our moral intuition, or the like. A coherentist, on the other side, could point to how these two different judgements gain different amount of justification from other judgements, and thereby hopefully find consensus, and hence dissolve the conflict.Coherentism is not theoretically unproblematic, though. One problem is how to understand the justification‐relation. What does it mean that two propositions justify each other? Philosophers have discussed several different proposals. We give a new proposal, based on some of Arne Naess' theories. With regard to methods for ethical discussion in relation to a coherentistic approach, it seems as a "philosophy with children" approach will seem as a natural choice.

  • 33.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Backman, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Strömberg, Caroline
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Utbildning för delaktighet – att filosofera tillbaka ett "nytt" liv efter förvärvad hjärnskada2018In: Resultatdialog 2018, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2018, p. 49-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34. Haglund, Liza
    et al.
    Persson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Självklart! Inte?: En filosofibok2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35. Haglund, Liza
    et al.
    Persson, Anders
    Öppet sinne, stor respekt: handledning : att föra filosofiska samtal med barn om Barnkonventionens grunder2004Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Jonsson, Adam
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Peterson, Martin
    Department of Philosophy, Texas A&M University, USA.
    Consequentialism in infinite worlds2019In: Analysis, ISSN 0003-2638, E-ISSN 1467-8284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that in infinite worlds, the following three conditions are incompatible: 1) The spatiotemporal ordering of individuals is morally irrelevant. 2) All else being equal, the act of bringing about a good outcome with a high probability is better than the act of bringing about the same outcome with a low probability. 3) One act is better than another only if there is a nonzero probability that it brings about a better outcome. The impossibility of combining these conditions shows that it is more costly than has been previously acknowledged to endorse 1).

  • 37.
    Kymlicka, Will
    Canada Research Chair in Political Philosophy Department of Philosophy, Queen’s University, Kingston.
    Solidaritet i heterogena samhällen: Bortom nyliberal mångkulturalism och välfärdschauvinism2018In: Fronesis, ISSN 1404-2614, no 58-59Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Lundberg, Christoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    CoFramer: Ett diskussionsformat för djupa diskussioner på publika forum med låg Information Overload inspirerat av Philosophy for Children2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this essay is to develop a design concept for online public discussions with deep discussions and low information overload. The method used is Concept Driven Interaction Design (CDID) which involves constructing a design concept by applying a variety of theories in tangible interaction design. A design concept has three basic parts: a name, high-level goals and outlines generic principles. CDID includes seven steps which is used in this work:

    1.      Concept Generation – Formatted into a table that compare forum discussion (with several hypothesis) compared to discussions with the method Philosophy for Children (P4C) and other theories.

    2.      Concept Exploration – Eight distinct design aspects are identified from the comparison table.

    3.      Internal Concept Critique – The design aspects are compared to three similar discussion formats.

    4.      Design of Artifacts – Design concept version 1 is created.

    5.      External Design Critique – Interviews are conducted to explore their general experience of online discussions, investigate the hypothesis from the comparison table and to seek direct feedback on the first draft of the design concept.

    6.      Concept Revisited – Changes are made to the design concept based on the interview material and the direct feedback.

    7.      Concept Contextualization – The design concept is related to the original literature.

    The result of the study is a design concept named CoFramer. CoFramer’s generic principles are summarized and contrasted against factors identified from the interview material in this table:

    Tabell 2: CoFramer’s generic principles and interviews about online discussions.

    CoFramer’s generic principles | From interview material on forum discussion

    Organized start and ending | Discussions without clear ending

    Limited number of participants | Large number of participants

    Minimum number of participants | Large number of inactive spectators

    Explicit participants | Low information about participants

    Common conditions | Vagueness in participants conditions

    Limited information density per post | Long posts and/or fast posts

    The red thread and parallel threads | Often parallel threads

    Active facilitator | Unresolved misunderstandings

    The study indicates that CoFramer would create more structured discussions with a lower amount of information overload and less grounding cost compared what normally arise in public online discussions.

  • 39.
    Nilsson, Daniella
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gardelli, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Backman, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Teodor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    To Colorize a Worldview Painted in Black and White: Philosophical dialogues to reduce the influence of extremism on youths online2015In: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, ISSN 2220-8488, E-ISSN 2221-0989, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent report by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention in cooperation with the Swedish Security Service shows that the Internet has been extensively used to spread propaganda by proponents of violent political extremism, characterized by a worldview painted in black and white, an anti-democratic viewpoint, and intolerance towards persons with opposing ideas. We provide five arguments suggesting that philosophical dialogue with young persons would be beneficial to their acquisition of insights, attitudes and thinking tools for encountering such propaganda. The arguments are based on stated requirements for problem solutions given by experts in violent political extremism, recent research about the effects of philosophical dialogue in young persons’ thinking skills, and parts of the basic theoretical framework of Philosophy for Children. Philosophical dialogues seem a promising way for young people to achieve a stronger democratic awareness and a more tenacious resistance against extremist views online.

  • 40.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Art, History, and the Decline of Tradition2017In: Gadamer on Tradition: Historical Context and the Limits of Reflection, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, , p. 240p. 33-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Gadamer argues, in a prescriptive way, that the rise of the historical sciences coincided with a regrettable decline in the authority of the Western philosophical, religious, and aesthetic traditions. But Gadamer also argues, in a more descriptive way, that the history of Western culture since Greek antiquity fundamentally involves a number of uninterrupted traditions, or even a single uninterrupted tradition. Gadamer’s account of modern aesthetics and art shows a similar ambiguity. Gadamer argues, in a prescriptive way, that modern aesthetics and art are regrettably plagued by an “aesthetic consciousness” (ästhetisches Bewußtsein) that reduces the creation and reception of art to mere aesthetic play and that breaks with tradition. But Gadamer also argues, in a more descriptive way, that, ultimately, even the most esoteric modern artists retain a dependence on tradition.

  • 41.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Being a Child of One’s Time: Gadamer and Hegel on Thought and Historical Context2017In: Gadamer on Tradition: Historical Context and the Limits of Reflection, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, , p. 240p. 191-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This chapter compares Hegel’s and Gadamer’s accounts of context-dependence. Hegel asserts that the individual is a “child of his time.” However, Hegel describes the relationship between thought and the historical context in different ways, and this chapter singles out four versions of the claim that the individual is a “child of his time” and of the historical context. Parallels to these claims can be found in Gadamer, and where such parallels are absent this can be explained by the difference between Hegel’s and Gadamer’s views of Bildung as third nature. Hegel is part of the reaction by the emerging science of history against the Enlightenment tendency to blame past historical epochs for contingently failing to live up to contemporary standards of rationality. Gadamer shares this reaction, although at the same time arguing that Hegel regrettably continues certain Enlightenment modes of thought.

  • 42.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Being a Child of One’s Time: Hegel on Thought and Cultural Context2012In: International philosophical quarterly, ISSN 0019-0365, E-ISSN 2153-8077, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 267-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hegel often argues that the individual is fated to be a "child of his time" in the sense that the mind of the individual (“subjective Spirit”) is profoundly and inescapably influenced by its time, i.e. the cultural context which forms its temporal setting (“objective Spirit”). However, Hegel also suggests that the individual need not in every case be thus influenced after all. This paper discusses the following four main versions of Hegel's account of the relation between mind and its cultural context: (i) that everyday, "uneducated" (ungebildetes) thought harbors the presuppositions of its cultural context unreflectively; (ii) that philosophy overcomes the form of this unreflectiveness, but that the content of philosophy remains its time since it tries to reflectively justify current presuppositions; (iii) that this reflection occurs when a culture declines, and that philosophy, too, therefore is a child of its time, albeit in a different sense than everyday thought; and(iv) that an individual may be a minority thinker, despite what claim (i) says, but that even such an individual is a child of his time in the (even weaker) sense that he is unable to influence it, and that this is so precisely because he "transcends" it.

  • 43.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Conclusion2017In: Gadamer on Tradition: Historical Context and the Limits of Reflection, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, , p. 240p. 217-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Gadamer asserts, in a passage that I have already quoted, that contextually induced presuppositions “occupy the interpreter’s consciousness” and that they are not at “free disposal.” This claim might be understood as saying that these presuppositions cannot be discarded. If this interpretation is correct, the claim perhaps says that one must use them without being able to shed them altogether but that one need not uncritically affirm them in so doing. However, this interpretation is not obvious insofar as one may rather understand the claim that presuppositions “occupy the interpreter’s consciousness” as saying that they are uncritically affirmed. The claim may even be understood as saying that they are to some extent unconscious. A further complexity here is that there are different ways of understanding the scope of awareness and critique of presuppositions. Even if all presuppositions cannot be simultaneously either criticized or brought to awareness, this would not seem to exclude the possibility that each one of them may be treated in both of these ways. Gadamer’s claims offer, this wide range of possible interpretations quite frequently.

  • 44.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Context-Dependence: Its Nature and Depth2017In: Gadamer on Tradition: Historical Context and the Limits of Reflection, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, , p. 240p. 129-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gadamer tends to argue that a historical context is cognitively homogeneous in an unreflected way, and that the context-dependence of presuppositions has been underestimated. By contrast, philosophers in the Enlightenment tradition argued (a) that the influence of the historical context on the individual is relatively weak and may in principle always be overcome, and (b) that historical contexts are basically similar because universal forms of thought and conduct occur in them. Gadamer denies (a) and (b), arguing that the unreflectiveness of context-dependence results from general kinds of presuppositions, which are implicit in more specific claims without being spelled out as such, and that the persistence of such presuppositions in a historical context is easily overlooked precisely because of their general character.

  • 45.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Forms of Reflection2017In: Gadamer on Tradition: Historical Context and the Limits of Reflection, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, , p. 240p. 101-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This chapter considers the rather frequent objection to Gadamer, made by Jürgen Habermas, among others, that a theory of the unreflective nature of context-dependence of the kind proposed by Gadamer reduces the very lack of reflection that it asserts. Gadamer argues that context-dependence and the presuppositions that it involves are to some extent, or perhaps even largely, unreflected. But this very argument seems to rely on a reflective stance. However, a distinction should be made between a general idea of context-dependence and reflective awareness of the specific forms of this dependence. This very idea does not require that all presuppositions are reflected. Gadamer is therefore less vulnerable to the criticism that his theory of unreflectiveness contains incompatible elements than Habermas supposes. But Gadamer sometimes argues that most contextual influences are unreflected. This argument does not rely on a general idea of context-dependence only, but requires a form of reflection that is both specific and comprehensive to succeed. When Gadamer argues in this way, Habermas’ objection to him seems valid after all.

  • 46.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gadamer and Hegel on Bildung2017In: Gadamer on Tradition: Historical Context and the Limits of Reflection, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, , p. 240p. 153-189Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This chapter examines Gadamer’s and Hegel’s theory of Bildung (education or cultivation). According to Hegel, Bildung occurs in two main forms. Initially, the child is subject to (i) elementary education, which aims to integrate it into the cultural milieu. However, later in life this Bildung may become subject to (ii) questioning and critique as a result of higher education, and this, Hegel holds, is one goal of historical study. Through this study, and the awareness of the historical variability of belief and conduct that it creates, the individual may come to relate to her own historical context in a more reflective way than previously. Gadamer invokes Hegel’s account of Bildung in sense (ii) in his theory of the purpose of the historical sciences when arguing that the claims of the past may and should challenge the presuppositions of the present. But Gadamer also argues that the scope of Bildung in sense (ii) is restricted by the individual’s unreflective reliance on presuppositions of her own historical context, and thus (ultimately) by Bildung in sense (i).

  • 47.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gadamer on Tradition: Historical Context and the Limits of Reflection2017Book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    History as Conversation Versus History as Science: Gadamer and Dilthey2017In: Gadamer on Tradition: Historical Context and the Limits of Reflection, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, , p. 240p. 63-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This chapter examines Gadamer’s view that Dilthey’s approach to historical study and, more generally, the approach of historicism, does not permit a “genuine conversation” (echten Gespräch) with the claims of the past. A genuine conversation is, Gadamer holds, such that its “subject matter” (Sache) is stressed. Although trust normally prevails in conversation, one may of course come to doubt the claims of the conversation partner and ultimately deny them. What historicism does, Gadamer argues, is something different. Historicism neither affirms nor denies the claims of the past in treating them as mere historical sources. However, Dilthey sometimes argues that metaphysical claims are “expressions of life” (Lebensäußerungen) that are independent of the historical contexts in which they occur, and that they are not historical sources alone. But Gadamer holds that treating claims as expressions, as Dilthey does, means treating them in a way that differs from the circumstances of a “genuine conversation.” According to Gadamer, Dilthey fails to respect the “moral bond” (sittliche Verbindlichkeit) of hermeneutical encounters. Respecting this bond means treating claims as true or false and not as mere expressions.

  • 49.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    History as Conversation Versus History as Science. Gadamer and Dilthey2011In: Hermeneutics and the Art of Conversation, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2011, p. 481-504Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gadamer holds that Dilthey’s approach to history does not permit a "genuine conversation" (echten Gespräch) with the claims of the past. A genuine conversation, Gadamer holds, is such that its subject matter (Sache) is stressed. Although trust normally prevails in cases of this kind, one may of course come to doubt the claims of the other. But doubt is then expressed in critique, i.e., in claims to the effect that the other has failed to describe the subject matter properly. What Dilthey does, Gadamer holds, is something different. Dilthey neither affirms nor denies the claims of the past in treating them as a collection of historical sources. According to Gadamer, this approach fails to respect the “moral bond” (sittliche Verbindlichkeit) as it occurs in, e.g., everyday conversation. Respecting this bond means treating claims as true or false and not as mere expressions of the speaker or of his historical context. In this paper, the validity of Gadamer's views on everyday conversation in general and on Dilthey in particular is discussed.

  • 50.
    Odenstedt, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Introduction2017In: Gadamer on Tradition: Historical Context and the Limits of Reflection, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, , p. 240p. 1-31Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gadamer often asserts that his account of the “the human sciences” (die Geisteswissenschaften) in general and the historical sciences in particular is descriptive and not prescriptive. One cannot, Gadamer thus holds, prescribe a method to these sciences which would permit their historically situated and context-dependent character to be overcome. But Gadamer also argues that the claims of the past are regrettably dismissed in historical study if they are seen as merely historical phenomena and as expressions of their respective contexts, instead of being seen as claims made to us. And this argument has prescriptive overtones.

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