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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Assembly station development by flow analysis and systematic layout planning: Mapping of the current state of production, evaluation of alternatives and development of concepts for improved flow and flexibility2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modul system HH deliver modular storage systems and electrical solutions that can be combined according to the customer's wishes. This thesis combines argues for the importance for companies to keep improving their organization and production to remain competitive. By relating to a holistic view of the development of production environments, the project focuses on improvements for efficiency and social sustainability in the development of production. The project became relevant as the company has discovered difficulties in balancing production in the event of capacity changes and wants to develop rational flows and increase its flexibility. The project is limited to exploring three assembly stations and the operations and flows that belong to the assembly. The project spiral's iterative 3-step development process was chosen for strategic planning. This methodology allowed the work to continue forward despite the lack of data. The first step deals with planning and processes where technology and users were examined. In this planning phase, a Gantt schedule was used in the ClickUp program to plan the project and to-do lists and deadlines could be set. A literature study was conducted to strengthen arguments and raise new ideas. The theoretical overview focuses on areas around production development with a focus on the development of layouts/assembly stations, psychosocial work environment and organizational management. In the second phase of the project, requirements and wishes were mapped. This was done together with the company, the results from this step were then used to evaluate concepts before detailed development. The project also has several parts of the framework that Muther & Wheeler developed called Systematic layout planning. It provided the tools to understand important connections through relationships and proximity analysis. These methods were also used to evaluate the results. Interviews, observations, and 3D modelling were also performed in this phase to gather information and to understand different production structures. Semi-structured interviews were performed with product managers, production designers, production planners. From these methods, I was together with some employees able to conclude that customer order-driven product development is the focus. That production places demand on rapid implementations in production and that modularity means great flexibility needs and fast lead times. We also found opportunities to minimize repetitive and time-consuming steps through development based on the operator's point of view. Concepts were developed through a development process based on proximity analysis, time studies and results from more subjective interviews. The concepts were then evaluated through an evaluation matrix based on formulated future requirements and wishes. The winning concept was developed in more detail and developed iteratively together with staff from the company. The final concept combines a new, more compact layout that considers proximity requirements between stations as well as flows of materials and operators. The final layout also introduces new types of material buffers and action proposals for improved collaboration and communication for increased flexibility.

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  • 2.
    Ahlström Sundgren, Oliver
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Demotivate the theft of bicycles: The development of a bicycle stand to promote cycling2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling is a highly beneficial activity that can positively impact individuals, the planet, countries, and cities. It is, therefore, imperative to encourage more people to cycle while reducing obstacles that lead to the use of alternative modes of transportation, such as cars. One of the major challenges that cyclists face is the theft of their bicycles, which can cause significant discouragement and inconvenience. To address this issue, a Master's Thesis was undertaken to investigate ways of reducing bike theft in urban environments. The research question posed in the study was how to minimise bike theft in urban settings. The paper outlines the project's planning and context, identifying the bike stand as the most promising product category to address the issue. Behavioural and persuasive design strategies were implemented to enhance the stand's effectiveness. The research involved comprehensive interviews, ideation, modelling, and prototyping to find a solution that meets the requirements of the scenario. Potential users tested the designs to optimise the product to meet their needs and collective concern. The final concept incorporates most requirements and is discussed for its potential impact on society, sustainable development, and cyclists. By reducing bike theft, the solution can encourage more people to cycle, thus promoting sustainable transportation and reducing carbon emissions and diseases associated with inactivity. The study provides valuable insights into designing effective solutions to address social challenges and promote sustainable development in urban environments. 

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Victor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Bröms, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Reform, refine, reforest: Designing ergonomic equipment for manual reforestation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reforestation is typically performed by manually planting seedlings of desired trees by a small team of workers. The workers, referred to as planters, has a very physically demanding job that requires navigating through tough terrain and carrying varying loads in different positions throughout a full work day. This master thesis project is performed for SCA, Sweden’s largest private owner of forest land, and the reforestation equipment manufacturer BCC. A part of SCA’s work is a new project cal- led ZERO, which aims to improve the working environment and safety for all af liated workers of the company. Many planters use old equipment that is not satisfying the ZERO-project demands thus leading to the importance of improving the planters’ equipment.

    The objective of this master thesis project is to improve the way manual reforestation with the usage of seedling trays is performed, with focus on improving the user’s work environment through im- proved ergonomics and ef ciency. The equipment is designed under the brand Pottiputki, owned by BCC, which is dominating the Swedish market for manual reforestation equipment. The nal result was expected to be a conceptual 3D model, focusing on communicating its functions rather than be- ing nalised for manufacturing.

    The design process that was used in this project is an iterative design cycle of ve steps and was heavily focused on implementing user-centred design thinking. The cycle was repeated for every in- cluded component in the equipment to achieve a reliable result. Using information gathering such as interviews, surveys and testing of equipment the user needs have been mapped on which the ideation process is based. With access to a workshop and several useful materials the project is centred around the creation of prototypes and letting users test these said prototypes.

    A deeper study of the current state showed that the current equipment is very unergonomic and for the planter to keep a high productivity the equipment is used in ways that reduce the ergonomic pro- perties even further. From the performed context analysis, an overwhelming majority of users are displeased with the current equipment and many users are speci cally complaining on insuf cient ergonomic properties. To solve these problems a reforestation harness and planting tube has been developed with higher comfort that reduce demanding and clumsy actions and improving usability. When used together with each other the harness and tube combines a main idea which is to distribute the strenuous workload more evenly across the body to avoid strain-related problems for the user.

    The improvement in ergonomics and ef ciency have been proved in various user tests. No new way of increasing productivity apart from the improved working environment was found to be a valid addition for the equipment. In order to increase productivity, SCA is recommended to make sure that the planting task is performed systematically. Furthermore the growing system using seedling trays is a limiting factor for productivity improvement out on the clear-cuts and is recommended to be reviewed. 

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  • 4.
    Andrén, Tintine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    ZERO: För en hållbarare livsstil!2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines sustainable consumption and how -through graphic design- a interactive solution to help the consumer to actively choose sustainable products, was created. Navigating what products are sustainable and what are not can be confusing for the consumer. For this project, the solution to this was an application called Zero, where its purpose is to guide the consumer in a more sustainable lifestyle through making the user more conscious about sustainable products as well as learning to use alternative products in their home that are more sustainable. Here you will read about the theory which supports Zero as one solution for unsustainable consumption, as well as the methods applied to reach the result that became of this process.

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  • 5.
    Arnberg, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Det gröna hemmet: Biofil design för hållbar odling i hemmet2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are moving towards a future where an increasingly larger portion of the world’s population lives in urban areas, which entails a number of challenges that will need to be addressed. By the year 2050, it is expected that nearly 70% of the population will reside in urban areas, compared to 30% in 1950. This increase means that green spaces will be replaced by housing, leading to smaller-sized homes and rising prices. At the same time, the negative effects of not being surrounded by plants and nature are becoming more significant and evident.This project in Technical Design at Luleå University of Technology aims to explore the possibilities of mitigating these negative effects by creating sustainable opportunities for individuals to cultivate plants at home. By examining the needs of the target audience and employing a user-centered design process, a variety of creative design methods have been utilized to explore solutions and possibilities. Through an iterative process, a range of different solutions have been developed and evaluated by users.This has resulted in a concept that allows for home cultivation using vertical hydroponic farming,

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  • 6.
    Arve, Mårten
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Etablera er online eller dö: En grafisk utforskning av ett hantverksföretag med ändamål att etablera sig online2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of a small craftwork establishment, and the balance between creating a graphicidentity and maintaining the essence and voice that has been developed through the company’s30 year history. Through close collaboration with the clients we have pinpointed thebrand personality and how they want their visual identity to be represented towards potentialfuture clients. To establish this I have used the methods of participatory design through interviews,workshop and business model canvas. For the end result I have developed a graphicidentity that contains a website, logotype, social media presence on Facebook and Instagram,and designed a sendout that will be targeted towards their more desirable clients. I have alsoproduced a short film to present both of them as creators and th eir products and will be thelarger piece of the storytelling aspect of my work. The company has also undergone a namechange to better reflect the business.

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  • 7.
    Backéus, Lina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    THE BEST WAY TO WORK: Increasing the efficiency through layout changes and standardization2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a master thesis done in the program of industrial design engineering at Luleå University ofTechnology, conducted during the spring of 2021. The project is a collaboration with Epiroc RockDrills AB which is a leading global company in the mining industries, and the workshop in which thisthesis is made manufactures and assembles rock drills sold worldwide. The aim of this thesis is toincrease the utilization of three lathes in the workshop that are often left unused when theiroperators have to leave the machines to perform other tasks. This is due to short operation timesthat require the operator to be present.The project follows a cyclic method in order to force the work forward without worrying aboutmissing information. There were three cycles with different aim. In the first cycle, the focus was onplanning the project and mapping the current state. In the second, a requirement specification wasmade and concepts were created. These concepts were further developed in the third cycle. Finally arecommendation was made.The current state was mapped using different methods like interviews and spaghetti diagram. Thesemethods showed that the lathes were unused mainly during setups, and that setups were timeconsuming due to equipment being placed far away from the lathes. The result showed that manyproblems could be related to bad layout design and lack of standardized work. In order to create abetter layout for the operators, a relationship chart was made and several suggestions constructedbased on it. The purpose of the layout changes was to get necessary equipment closer to the lathesin order for the setups to be performed faster. All suggestions were compared to the requirementspecification and only three were further developed during the third cycle.The lean tool SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) was used to create a standard for setups. Thisstandard was further developed into a work instruction to be better visualized for the operators.The final recommendation is to make layout changes according to one of the layouts presented inthis report, and to implement the work instruction. These changes will increase the utilization bypreparing as much as possible before the lathe is tuned off.

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  • 8.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Clarity in custom computer assembly: The design of a user-friendly small form factor computer chassis2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building a computer is a difficult task which is why many choose to purchase a laptop or a pre-built stationary computer. However, some users choose to build a computer, allowing them to customize it to fit their needs. As technology advances, our electronic devices becomes more and more compact. Computers are no different, a rising trend in computer building is small form factor computer chassis. While these chassis are smaller and allow users to more effectively use their space at home, they become increasingly difficult to build in. In this master's thesis, I focus on developing a small form factor computer chassis that facilitates a positive building experience for the user. The project bears no ties with any company and is carried out exclusively by me (Niklas Bagge).

    The project was performed according to a three-phase design process which consisted of the following phases: contextual immersion phase, ideation and conceptualization, and implementation. Roughly 50% of the project was spent in the contextual immersion phase researching literature, performing interviews, distributing surveys, benchmarking, and analysing contextual data. In the next phase, ideation and conceptualization, ideas were generated using many different methods, many times in collaboration with users. Ideas were further developed, tested, evaluated, and selected before entering the implementation phase. The selected concepts were then combined and implemented to create a final concept.

    The project resulted in a small form factor chassis with an entirely new approach to computer building.The chassis is delivered in a flat package to the consumer, which is then assembled by the user. The design allows for cheaper production and distribution of the chassis, but most importantly, it facilitates an open assembly environment for the user. The chassis also integrates various new solutions that contribute to anoverall easier, more efficient, and more intuitive building process.

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  • 9.
    Barreflod, Tom-Oskar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Matilda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Designing Sustainable Alpine Skis: Combining user needs with ecological, social, and economical sustainablility 2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As alpine skiing is becoming more and more popular the need for sustainable products are increasing in order to enable great skiing and snowy winters in the future. The ski industry is unfortunately far behind many other industries when it comes to sustainability and the shift towards sustainable skis is going slow. Norse Skis is a unique ski manufacturer as they have a sustainable profile and are always in the lookout for new possibilities to take that forward. The goal in this master thesis project is to develop a pair of sustainable skis that will widen Norse Skis’ product catalog. The project was conducted in collaboration with Norse Skis as a master thesis project within the degree of Industrial Design Engineering at Luleå University of Technology.

    During the development of the skis, the user-centered design process Design Thinking Process was used. The process was divided into three phases; Inspiration, Ideation, and Implementation. During the design process, most of the energy was put on creating a ski that meets the user needs and is as sustainable as possible. Through constant dialog with the users, feedback and evaluation were gained to customize the product to the needs and opinions of the users. To develop skis that are as sustainable as possible, the project has had its base in the three aspects of sustainability; ecological, economic, and social, which are defined in the Brundtland report (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). 

    At the beginning of the project, a deep understanding of alpine skis and alpine skiing was gathered. This was followed by a thorough examination of the users through surveys and user observations. It was identified that the users spent most of their time skiing on the piste, but had a vision of being an off-piste skier. This led to the conclusion of designing a ski that is high performing on-piste but also gives the user the possibility to great off-piste skiing. In a benchmarking, Norse Skis’ current skis were compared to their competitors’ to identify Norse Skis’ strengths and what could be improved. When an understanding of the product and the users was gained, the project proceeded into the ideation phase. In the ideation phase solutions on lengths, shapes, names, colors, graphics, and materials were created. Through user surveys, three concepts were created which eventually resulted in one final design.

    The project result is a pair of 90 mm wide skis with focus on sustainability that are high performing and playful in the piste while providing a nice off-piste ride as well. From the social aspect, they are created with the skier in mind instead of either men, women, or some specific age group. By using materials that are more environmentally friendly than what is used in Norse Skis’ skis today and that either have the same or lower price, the skis are more sustainable from both an ecologic and economic perspective. The design has been approved by the users which led to the recommendation of broadening Norse Skis’ current product catalog with the ski that was the result of this master thesis project.

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  • 10.
    Bergdahl, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Out of the box: Ett utforskande av vuxenvärldens avtryck på barn i form av visuellt överförda (köns)normer och hur grafisk design och normkreativitet kan skapa en lösning.2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is my final degree project for my Bachelor of Fine Arts in graphic design. For me, the theme subject norm creati- vity came naturally as a result of a perspective on graphic design as both a responsibility, opportunity and power as well as a method of change.

    As a parent, the society of future generations is a burning topic. This resulted in a project that would engage, chal- lenge and create new insights for me as a designer and inspire to more ways to practice design.

    The project is based on harmful norms (particularly regarding gender) and it’s consequences. Consequences that can be seen as e.g. mental illness, inequality and men’s violence against women. Something that has been crys- tallized during this pandemic. I have chosen to investigate how graphic and visual design can make a difference on the impact the adult world makes on future generations through visually communicated norms. How to create tools that preschool children and adults can use together to raise awareness, increase knowledge and work against gender norms by using norm creativity, as well as inspire children pedagogically to norm creativity.

    The vision was to create a playful, understandable and engaging way to illuminate and increase knowledge about norms, gender and gender equality that children can absorb. I have with norm creativity as a tool explored how norm-breaking can be expressed. The project has made it clear that design is close related to society, people andvarious forms of communication.The process has consisted of investigation and processing information and understanding in the form of research and artistic exploration. Methods such as personas, creative workshops, prototypes have, through an iterative process, used idea development, analysis and reflection to arrive at the final proposal.

    The project resulted in a game with both literal as well as figurative goal to get out of the box and discover more possibilities. It is a way of visualizing norms and a tool for working norm-critically. The game contains visual examples to explore and talk about and more options than the ones we usually see. The game focuses on children but also puts weight on adults with the initention that the children’s perspective will lead to insights.

    It is based on pedagogy, children’s development and so- cialization and that talknig is the first step towards change. Interaction is a keyword; expressing emotions and expe- rimenting with qualities. There is room for many opportu- nities within the same individual, more ways of being and qualities with different benefits.

    In this project, I have used my expression to create im- pressions that I hope can make a difference to the imprint we adults leave behind.

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  • 11.
    Bergerstam, Fanny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Enhancing information mediation to employees at Willys: How a analysis of Willys onboarding process led to a mobile application for employees2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A well thought out process is today a commonly used approach to enable new employees to become efficientin their new role. Axfood is a Swedish company group that operates in the food and logistics industry. Thegroup includes chains as Willys & Hemköp, among others. With over ten thousand employees and a growingcompany the need for recruitment is always present. Axfood is currently in the process of reorganizing theirinternal onboarding processes, rebuilding it from the ground up. This master thesis has been a part of thisbigger initiative and have focused on the onboarding process at the store chain Willys.

    The project has followed the human centered design process, developed by IDEO. This process includes thethree phases, inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The methods used to reach a final result has been interviews,user journey maps, creative workshop, ideation methods, wireframing, prototyping and user testing. In the inspiration phase the current state and the users experiences of the onboarding process was explored.This made it possible to identify enhancement opportunities, one of them being the fact that none of the askedemployees did continuously use Willys intranet. In decision with Axfood, this opportunity was selected as thefocus of the solutions proposal. When the project reached the creative phase it therefore had a new direction,which led: how can Axfood use digital tools to reach employees and distribute information in an attractiveway?

    Throughout the creative and implementation phase a solution for this problem was explored, prototyped,tested and enhanced.The project resulted in a solutions proposal in the form of a mobile application aimed to employees. Thesolution functions as an inspiration of how Axfood can mediate information to employees in a attractive anduser friendly way. The content has been developed based on the user groups request and needs, providingthem with information and support that make them more efficient in their role. Beyond the final result theproject has also contributed Axfood with usable data of their employees needs and knowledge of how humancentered methods can be used in the future.

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  • 12.
    Bergkvist, Charlie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Tools of the Trade: En granskning av sambandet mellan grafisk design & Adobes digitala verktyg2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis project treats the relationshipbetween graphic design and the digital tools and software offered by Adobe. The first part of the paper presents an investigation which through interviews, survey and examination observe the spread of Adobes tools and programs, as well as attitudes around them and relevant competencies for graphic designers. The second part of the paper takes these results and put them in context with counterculture, deconstruction, underdog-topdog as well as theories and strategies about motivation and creativity. These results and contexts are then brought forward to motivate an artefact in the shape of a magazine which emphasizes these valued competencies within graphic design, as well as strengthening a norm-critical approach to the toolkit of students and beginners within graphic design. The artefact and bachelor thesis project is aimed towards beginners and students within graphic design as the target group. This bachelor thesis project aims towards gaining an insight into whether or not there is a norm within graphic design and the tools and programs of Adobe and how one can counteract the attitudes that exist around it.

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  • 13.
    Berglund, Fanny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Semester på hemmaplan: Upptäck ditt Norrbotten2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is easy to, as a person, get stuck in old wheel tracks and patterns. We walk the same streets and thus meet with the same visions time after time. This can cause us to stop seeing our surroundings and the environment around us. It is perhaps boring, mundane and non-exotic. This degree project is created to open people's eyes to the great things that are around us. Especially in these times, when the environment is at its breaking point and the virus covid-19 is spread around the world, it is required that we review our travel habits and the standards that apply to travelers.

    The project aims to examine how graphic design can help inspire people to explore and experience their local environment. Upptäck ditt Norrbotten is created to lift places and activities well worth a visit in the county.

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  • 14.
    Berndts, Annica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Johansson, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Designprinciper för design av digitala formulär i mobila e-tjänster inom hälso- och sjukvården2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En anamnes är när patienten med egna ord svarar på frågor om sin personliga sjukdomshistoria. Anamnesen skrivs idag upp till 20 gånger per vårdtillfälle tillsammans med epikrisen avvårdpersonal. Om anamnesen skulle samlas in digitalt av patienten som fyllt i den själv via ettformulär, kan denna information tas fram ur journalen av vårdpersonal vid vårdbesök.

    Denna studie introducerar en design av ett digitalt formulär för patienter att fylla i själva, för enmobilapplikation som fokuserar på användarvänlighet. Studien följer forskningsstrategin designscience som metod. Med hjälp av teori, intervjuer och en enkät tas designbeslut fram för attutföra ett designarbete som resulterar i en artefaktprototyp. Designarbetet går igenom treiterationer och mynnar ut i fyra egna identifierade designprinciper som tillsammans meddesignprinciper från tidigare forskning är nödvändiga att använda vid design av ett digitaltformulär för en mobilapplikation.

    Studiens slutsats sammanfattar de designprinciper som tagits fram för ett digitalt formulär i enmobilapplikation som främjar användarvänlighet. Designprinciperna bidrar till att ökaanvändarvänligheten genom att vardera en har användaren i fokus och bidrar till att formuläretblir enkelt att använda.

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  • 15. Björk Engström, Philip
    Measured values versus artistic input: Shading and material creation for film2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How important is a perfect index of refraction value for the look of a material? Does everything have to be physically accurate to be percieved as a photorealistic material?

    There are some aspects of a lot of materials that is already physically measured, like its reflectance values. Are all these measurements enough to create a material that can be percieved as photorealistic, or are there other more diffuse things that needs and artistic input? This paper will take silver as an example. Silver often has two distinct types of oxidation: one semi-transparent yellow-ish coating and one more black opaque tarnish. Is this something that can be dialed in from derived data? What properties of the metal will change when the oxidation occurs and how will it affect it look of it from a shading perspective?

    Silver utilitys will be thoroughly examined to make out what important visual cues there are, and what they are made of. This information will then be used to create a silver material that could be percieved as real. A reference silver cup will be used as a comparison next to the rendered material.

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  • 16.
    Bondeson Siwe, Tove
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Designing nonverbal utterances by nonhuman characters: How clearly can emotions and characteristics be conveyed?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research seeks to explore the concept of voice design, specifically voice design for non-human characters that do not communicate using words. The idea was to mimic the vocal contours of human non-verbal vocal expression with a synthesizer to achieve emotional clarity, as well as make it sound less like a machine and more like a fleshed-out character. The background investigates how humans can communicate emotions with non-verbal vocal expressions along with principles for sound design for Human-Robot interaction and methods for voice design/processing in film.  This to build an idea on how to proceed when designing a non-verbal character voice. A listening test was conducted where participants would rate valence and energy levels in emotional utterances made by humans and emotional utterances that had been created using a synthesizer. As well as provide insight on what type of character could be creating the sounds made with the synthesizer. The results suggest that although the synthesized sounds lacked emotional clarity, they were still enough to give the participants an idea of a character.

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  • 17.
    Borg, Emilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    The Bad Design Anthology: Ett arbete om vitt privilegium2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We all grow up in different conditions, with differentiatingexperiences in a society founded upon the samerules, guidelines, and standards that are still exercised todayand which we as people are more or less forced to liveby. With social structures so tightly wound around theseguidelines it can sometimes be difficult to know how onemight behave and relate when those same guidelines onone hand serve as an advantage for some while beingdetrimental and harmful to others.This was something I was not fully aware of until the BlackLives Matter movement called for justice following themurder of George Floyd during the summer of 2020. TheBLM-movement spread, protests ensued on a global scale,and social media exploded showcasing black squaresand people expressing themselves regarding both pastand ongoing racism.My work has focused on observing the role graphic designplays in the continued establishment of the guidelinesand rules making the elimination of racism impossible.In an attempt to also demonstrate it’s no longerenough to say: "I am not racist".

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  • 18.
    Burlin, Celina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Explainability to enhance creativity: A human-centered approach to prompt engineering and task allocation in text-to-image models for design purposes2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the power, utility, and prevalence of generative AI technologies continue to grow, the debate on whether and how designers should incorporate text-image models into the design process is gaining momentum. To ensure productivity, creativity, and human values, this project seeks to address design interaction and task allocation between designers, and generative AI models become essential. Explainability is a growing area of research, although many of the explanations to enhance interpretability and transparency in ML models target ML engineers rather than end users. This project investigates what kind of explanations the designers would need to communicate with the models successfully. Through a participatory design approach, this project resulted in some key findings regarding the creative nature of using natural language to express design, how experience using generative AI models affects how you use them, and how designers can benefit from recognizing the model as creative. The project resulted in two concepts for enhancing the user experience of prompt engineering, one targeting user behavior and the other improving explainability and transparency in image-generative AI models.

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  • 19.
    Bygdén, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    We not me: Informationsgrafik som verktyg i en demokratisk metamorfos2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Is democracy at risk? Are we in need of new ways to make democracy happen in todays society? That is what I have been working with examining in this projekt. Through a speculative approach, inspired by designmethods that seek to answer questions of future needs, I have examined if infographics could be a possibility to futher develop the muncipal communication(in Sweden). Especially in matters where the citizens have been invited to participate in the process of a desicion. With the theory that information is a foundation for participation and the possibility to make your voice heard as an outset I have found that infographics have many traits that can contribute to maintain and develop a democratic process.

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  • 20.
    Börjesson, Christopher
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    3D-printing: För effektivisering av produkter2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, my work on 3D-printing will be presented. This project is what constitutes my examination project in the education of industrial design engineering.

     

    3D-printers are tools that have undergone great development in recent years. Through this development, the machines have become increasingly accessible to private individuals thanks to reduced prices, easyer use and higher quality. Through an increased use of the tool on a more private level, new opportunities are created for how we manufacture products, as well as how our attitude to its components are viewed.

     

    The purpose of the work was to investigate how 3D-printing can be used to create more efficient and sustainable products with a focus on users, manufacturers and the environment. The goal was to develop an approach to utilize the function of a 3D-printer in a way that contributes to higher sustainability and efficiency, where the end result should contribute to this without forcing the user to make any decisive sacrifices.

     

    The work has been carried out with a three-part process, divided into the phases Inspiration, Ideation and implementation, which together constitute an iterative design process. Initially in the inspiration phase, inspiration was created for the work with the help of a literature study, theory collection and a context analysis. Then began the ideation phase, whose purpose was to start creating ideas and conceptualize the inspiration that has previously been collected in the inspiration phase. To implement these ideas and concepts, the implementation phase was carried out to achieve a more completed and implemented concept.

     

    The work resulted in the concept TonePrint. TonePrint is a speaker and a pair of headphones that work together in a form of ecosystem to make the interaction smoother for the user when changing audio source. The product TonePrint is a product that the user 3D-prints by oneself. This contributes to a more efficient and sustainable product as well as production. The product is designed in a way that enables the user to configure the product based on their own needs, which contributes to increased personalization. It allows the user to reuse components from previous devices that would otherwise be discarded, or select components based on their own liking and taste.

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  • 21.
    Carlsson, Arvid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Do Players Perceive Emotional Content in Ambiances in Games?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ambience or ambient sound is normally defined as the background sounds that are used to create a sense of atmosphere. This paper is about players, and if they perceive emotional content in ambiences in games. The study involved the creation of two game levels, a dense forest and a meadow, with two different sound designs each, one conveying joy and the other melancholy. The aim of the experiment was to determine whether the participants could detect the intended emotional content. The results indicated that the peaceful emotion was easier to detect than the melancholy one. The majority of participants rated the levels similarly. While it may be challenging to create an intended emotional response in players, the study concludes that ambiences can indeed be perceived as having emotional content.

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  • 22.
    Carlström, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Wargsjö, Hampus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Printing Prosthetics: Designing an additive manufactured arm for developing countries2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional prosthetic arms that are being fitted in developing countries are facing major issues in suppling patients with proper assistive aids. Not only is the process time consuming with every single unit having to be customized for the user but some parts can’t be locally produced which drives up price even further. The objective of this master thesis was to develop a prosthetic arm for developing countries with the help of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for the client 3D Life Prints which are based in Nairobi, Kenya. A prosthesis is used to aid an amputee in daily living activities. With additive manufacturing the intention is that a local manufacturing process could be developed and improved which would reduce the time of fitting and distributing a prosthesis. The initial prosthesis, that was the origin of the design, was a below elbow prosthetic arm that was being developed by the client. The prosthesis was fabricated with the additive manufacturing process fused deposition modelling (FDM) which has the advantage of providing the cheapest printers. To summarize the aim of the project the research questions that was established was as followed

    1. How are conventional prosthetic arms generally being manufactured, distributed and used compared to additive manufactured prostheses in Nairobi, Kenya? 

    2. Who is the primary user of prosthetic arms in developing countries, what problems are they facing with current solutions and what factors are considered as the most important? And why?

    3. How should additive manufactured prostheses be designed for optimal usage in developing countries?

    In addition to answer the research questions the aim was that the development of the system would lead to enhanced functionality for the user and to facilitate manufacturing for the organization.

    To get a general overview of additive manufacturing prostheses the fields theories that was studied included context of developing countries, user centred design (since the aim was to approve on a product which needed to suit a specific user), upper limb prostheses and additive manufacturing. As a result, from different stages of the design process a final design was reached called the “3D Life Arm”.  The final system was comprised of four main components, the Harness system, the Insert, the Cover and the Socket. These components used additive manufacturing in both rigid material (Harness parts, Socket and Insert) and flexible material (the Cover). Locally available components were used for parts not feasible to additive manufacture e.g. fishing wire and screws. The two factors that were concluded to be the most important for the user were the aesthetic appeal and cost. With social stigmas playing a major part according to users and experts in Nairobi, the prosthesis needs to resemble the missing limb as much as possible. It was concluded that cost was the major factor when designing prostheses for developing countries since user just wasn’t able to afford the prostheses that was being manufactured in Nairobi. In the end a cost and time analysis was conducted to verify what price the complete system would need to be manufactured. With three printers all parts could be printed for the price of 282 SEK and would take approximately 15 hours and 15 minutes to print which is considerably lower than that of the functional prosthesis being distributed in Nairobi. Further evaluations need to be done to establish that the prosthesis will manage the strains and stresses of daily living activities of the user and a complete fitting strategy needs to be evaluated further. It’s the authors belief however, that with the help of fully educated prosthetist there is a future for additive manufacturing of upper limb amputees. 

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  • 23.
    Cascini, Gaetano
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Nagai, Yukari
    Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Japan.
    Georgiev, Georgi V.
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Zelaya, Jader
    Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Japan.
    Becattini, Niccolo
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Boujut, Jean François
    CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.
    Casakin, Hernan Pablo
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Crilly, Nathan
    Department of Engineering, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Dekoninck, Elies A.
    University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Gero, John S.
    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, United States.
    Goel, Ashok K.
    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, United States.
    Goldschmidt, Gabriela
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
    Gonçalves, Milene
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Grace, Kazjon S.
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Hay, Laura
    Design, Manufacturing and Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, Scotland.
    Le Masson, Pascal
    Mines ParisTech, Paris, France.
    Maher, Mary Lou
    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, United States.
    Marjanović, Dorian
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Motte, Damien
    Division of Product Development, Department of Design Sciences LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Papalambros, Panos Y.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, United States; University of Michigan, Livonia, United States.
    Sosa, Ricardo
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand; Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Srinivasan, Venkatamaran V.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Tversky, Barbara
    Stanford University, Palo Alto, United States; Columbia University, New York, United States.
    Yannou, Bernard
    Laboratoire Génie Industriel, Chatenay-Malabry, France; CentraleSupélec - Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Universite Paris-Saclay, Saint-Aubin, France.
    Wodehouse, Andrew J.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Perspectives on design creativity and innovation research: 10 years later2022In: International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, ISSN 2165-0349, E-ISSN 2165-0357, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 24.
    Danial, Dany
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Onlineprylar: Ett egenutvecklat annonseringsgränssnitt med användare i fokus2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to selling both new and used goods and services, it is quite common for people touse various online sales platforms. For those people who have a stressful everyday life with jobs,errands and responsibilities in the home, an advertising interface that is quick and easy to use isneeded. The advantage of this is that it can be used at any time and it also ensures that you do notlose much time and attention from the daily activities. This is a degree project in bachelorprogramme in Industrial Design engineering at Luleå University of Technology and is about,through the involvement of users, creating and developing an advertising interface that is bothuseful and user-friendly.

    To be sure that the users are in focus, a user-centered design process is used that contains the subprocesses;Project Planning, Context of Use, Create Ideas and Prototype Concepts. By usingdifferent creative and user-centered methods, such as Personas and Think aloud, different userneeds have been described. Then Brainstorming is used to generate a lot of ideas for partialsolutions based on the five components of an interface; layout, shape, color, object and function.Scamper is then used to combine all the sub-solutions based on the components, into a completesolution. To create a whole picture of the complete solution, it has first been sketched, thenvisualized and finally web-programmed a clickable prototype.

    Through user tests of the clickable prototype, the results have clearly pointed out that it fulfills thepurpose and goal of the degree project, i.e. to create, develop and deliver a useful and user-friendlyclickable prototype.

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    Onlineprylar - Demo
  • 25.
    Davidsson, Oliver
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Value of Perceived Value: Things are not what they are, they are what we think they are.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Medicin and drugs work at a pharmacological level of chemis-try, but they also work on a level of psychology. How we perceive and react to things, not just emotionally, but also physiologically is affected not only by what the thing is, but by the context in which we con-sume it. This is why wine tastes better if you pour it from a heavier bottle, and almost everything be-comes more desirable if in scarce supply.

    Here lies an important question. You got two choices, you either say; “This is okay and we should encourage this. What’s the job of a painkiller if not reducing pain. And if you can reduce pain with words and color rather than with chemicals, who’s to say that’s an invalid thing to do.”

    Or you say;“This is a very self-serving jus-tification and defence of design and marketing.” But wether we like it or not, making someone pay more for a drug that says “For neck pain” will make that drug more effective at treating neck pain. The same thing presented in two different ways can be good, or bad. And this is en-tirely dependent on context, because everything is part pla-cebo.

    Ethics and morals always comes in question, especially when dealing with placebos. So how do we design ethically and still produce the desired results? This is the perfect metaphor for design and perceived value. The negative attitude is partly due to the fact that we do not understand how it works, despite numerous studies showing that it works. Just like design and perceived value, the value of a placebo is added in a subconscious way.

    By investigating use of per-ceived value, how its works and why we don’t like it, I aim to create an ethically correct drug concept.

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  • 26.
    Dupouy, Mathilda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    I Egen Hög Person: Ett examensarbete om ångest2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I Egen Hög Person is a combination of illustration and anxiety management; how to safely approach your emotions while simultaneously maintaining a much-needed distance. It’s the result of an idea that came out of the thought of   not letting our emotions be limited to the mental state; in this thesis, they take a step out into the physical world. The questions “How can I use graphic design to create a visual and tactile tool for anxiety management aimed at adults?” and “With the help of illustration, how can I humanize and embody the emotions that come with anxiety?” explores how one can enable a more understanding and healthy rela-tionship to oneself and what one feels. Because what is it really that happens when we suddenly put a face to our anxiety? Through surveys, workshops, image analysis, mind maps, mood boards, sketches and design sprints, the subject of anxiety is explored, and how it is best conveyed visually.

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  • 27.
    Edberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Schulz, Madelene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Backup opening of automatic doors in autonomous vehicles: A usability study2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shared autonomous vehicles provide a solution for the future of sustainable and accessible transportation in urban areas, both in terms of social and environmental sustainability. However, these types of vehicles face different challenges in comparison to privately owned ones. For example, it is of greater importance that a shared autonomous vehicle can cater to a large number of users with different prerequisites such as age, limited movement and strength, or visual impairment. 

    In this project, methods, and interactions for creating a human-centered design solution for backup door opening of automatic doors in the shared autonomous vehicle CM1e have been investigated. The aim of the project is to support the development of safer autonomous vehicles by implementing a solution that is user-friendly and inclusive for a large number of users having different prerequisites. The project has been conducted in Gothenburg at the company China Euro Vehicle Technology (CEVT). At the end of the project, it is expected to deliver a viable mapping of use cases where the user needs to use a backup door opening solution or has to exit in a non-optimal way, pain points of the current solution for the mapped-out use cases, a well-informed and holistic approach to decide which use cases are most relevant to solve considering different criteria, and finally a feasible solution at a conceptual level, solving the most urgent use cases and pain points.

    This project has had a holistic approach and has focused on both the context and scenarios of usage and how this impacts the users and usability. The investigated area is rather complex having many functions and several mediums. This has also contributed to the project to consider delivering a solution that caters to a task (in this case, exiting a vehicle) rather than one individual interaction. To achieve this use cases have been generated along with user journeys with personas having different prerequisites. This to achieve an objective description of the current functions as well as a subjective description of its limitations depending on the prerequisites of the users. To generate a large number of ideas and select the most relevant ideas, the ideation phase has focused on co-creation with relevant stakeholders and also the enrichment of ideas. By using two different user tests, the proposed solution has been validated in order to create a valuable and credible result.

    The delivered result offers a solution for use cases where the user/rider needs to exit the vehicle, but the preconditions do not allow the user to do so e.g., to ensure the functionality of the doors. This was uncovered to sometimes keep the user in the vehicle during undesirable situations where the user wishes to exit. The proposed solution utilizes the function of a dead man switch to override the set preconditions and provide the user with control over the door opening process, enabling possible exit without the doors having to open a 100%. Included in the solution is also communication using interfaces and activation of the dead man switch functionality to create a user-centered, accessible, and safe backup door opening solution. The proposed solution is presented using CAD models and renderings in the shape of storyboards.

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  • 28.
    Eldstål, Emil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Generating Procedural Environments using Masks: Layered Image Document to Real-time environment2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore the possibilities of using an automated self-made procedural tool to create real-time environments based on simple image masks. The purpose of this is to enable a concept artist or level designer to quickly get out results in a game engine and to be able to explore ideas. The goal of this thesis was to better understand how you can break down simple ideas and shapes into more complex details and assets.

    In the first part of this thesis, I go over the traditional workflow of creating a real-time environment. I then go on and break down my tool, what it does and how it works. I start off with a Photoshop file, make tools in Houdini and then utilize those in Unreal for the end result. I also argument about the time-saving possibilities with these tools. From the work, I draw the conclusion that these kinds of tools save a lot of time for repeating tasks and the creation of similar environments.

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  • 29.
    Eliasson, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Silawiang, Hatharat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Märkbara renar: En digitaliserad och effektiv renmärkning2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, reindeer marking is performed to keep track of which reindeer belong to which reindeer owner. To identify and distinguish the reindeer, they are counted manually, i.e., by people entering the enclosure and dotting the reindeer in a book. The process for marking the calves can take up to two days depending on whether all the reindeer have entered the enclosure, the process then becomes long and drawn out. This will be the starting points in the project, to identify the reindeer in a more efficient and sustainable way. 

    This work is for a bachelor’s thesis in industrial design engineering at Luleå University of Technology, which will develop a sustainable concept by making it easier for reindeer herders and make the identification and documentation of reindeer more effective. By combining traditional reindeer marking with modern technology, a sustainable solution is developed that also reduces the strain on the reindeer. Being able to connect the right calf with the right sway and gather the information in a common place that is easy to handle is a requirement for the solution. 

    The work has been followed by IDEO's three-phase process for user-centered design. During the phases inspiration, ideation and implementation, different methods have been used to achieve the end result. These methods are, for example, semi-structured interview, benchmark, persona, workshops, Wireframes and simulation. These methods form a good basis for the work and the end result. By having regular contact with the user, the project has generated a solution that is based on the user's needs. 

    The result was a new digitized work process containing RFID chips that enables automatic pairing and digital documentation. This work process unites the traditional reindeer marking but make the activities that today tire out the reindeer herders and reindeer more effective. By having a better look at the reindeer and their breeding trees, the right reindeer will eventually be slaughtered. That is, the reindeer that are the oldest or have the worst conditions. It can also contribute to a more stable economy as the same quantities of reindeer are slaughtered every year. From a sustainability perspective, this benefits economic sustainability. Social sustainability is benefited by creating transparency within the Sami village and enabling more people to be involved during the process. Because the connection takes place automatically, the reindeer do not have to be stressed by people walking around in the enclosure. Since the reindeer's well-being is part of nature's ecology, it contributes to ecological sustainability. 

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  • 30.
    Elmehög, Isac
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    PLÅNKAN: Visuellt stöd för kognitiva svårigheter inom ekonomi2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on a perceived problem from staffmembers of an accommodation for youths with disabilitiesthat has been shared with me. Through this contact I got aclear view of the troubles that occured, the possibilities andlimitations that revolved around the subject. The problemthat had been identified was how the youths did not haveaccess to or sometimes were not trusted with a cash cardfor different reasons. This has created a problem for thesepeople when they are trying to shop from a store that hasbecome cashless. The consequences of this is clear, theycannot pay for themselves wich is based on two things.The trend of stores turning cashless and that people withintellectual disabilities have difficulties with understandingthe value of digital money. In this thesis I focus on the latter,the understanding of digital money.The problem will be treated with graphic design as a startingpoint and investigate how the cashless community canevolve to be more including. An initial idea session resultedin a focus of creating the following: An application thatsimplifies and clarifies digital monetary value. This will beperceived through providing the target group with a visualaid that can be customized based on the users comprehensionand preferences. The app will also include a paymentfeature that utilizes the opportunity to give the user visualaid. This can provide the user with a deeper understandingof the impact of the transaction on their total ammount.

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  • 31.
    Engblom, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Designing a ergonomic shelf system for Vermland2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 32.
    Eriksson, Filippa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    NUNC - en mental förbandslåda: Ett examensarbete med fokus på psykisk hälsa och självreflektion2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is probably a first aid kit in every household, containing band-aids and similar items, available in case of minor accidents. If you were to cut your finger, you could use the kit and patch yourself up, or if you were to catch a cold, there would be Ne-zeril to facilitate nasal airflow. But what do you find in the kit for a ”mental cold”?

    This work aims to explore how graphic design can play a role in increasing personal engagement to maintain mental well-being and prevent deeper depressions. The re-sult of this investigation is the concept NUNC, a mental first aid kit. The content of the box is intended to encourage people to reflect on their presence, become awa-re of their choices, discover and break negative thought patterns, and boost their self-compassion.

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  • 33.
    Eriksson, Ida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Den gröna lögnen: Att informera konsumenter om greenwashing och dess konsekvenser2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While the climate crisis has been an increasing problem, more and more companies have realised just how profitable green marketing is. Along this growing trend comes the risk of misleading consumers with vague or false environmental claims - called greenwashing. This type of misleading marketing has been refined over many years and is quite difficult for the average consumer to detect. This thesis aims to explore greenwashing and its consequences and thereafter inform consumers of this complex problem. The idea is also to look at the connection between green advertising and graphic design in order to pinpoint the responsibility of the design industry when it comes to the creation of greenwashing. The intention of this project is to find an aid that can inform the average consumer and give them the opportunity to oppose greenwashing.

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  • 34.
    Erkstam, Filippa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Lost my home: React.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What happens in man when the society you live in disappear? Howis the individual affected when large external forces changes the life conditions? In northern Sweden, the societies Kiruna and Malmberget move due to the mining. The project started in Malmberget but soon got a wider perspective. Societies will continue to disappear which is already seen in Ukraine and parts of the world where climate change is a fact. Lost my home is an exploration in how emoticons and graphic design can be a help for people to communicate. Emoticons is built on feelings and is a language we all understand no matter which countries we are from. The project is the start of exploring how emoticons can be its own language and help us to move on. 

  • 35.
    Fernberg, Alexander
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Pöhnert, Robin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Designing public transportation: how a future Scania city bus concept could look and function2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern cities are growing, and with them comes increases in green-house gas emissions, congestion and demands for transportation. Urban traffic in 2025 and forward is set to change drastically, with demands for only zero emission vehicle operation in city centres across the world. To meet the demands of these cities, shorter alternatives to today's public transportation could become of interest. This report is a Master of Science Thesis in Industrial Design Engineering done at Luleå University of Technology in collaboration with Scania CV AB in Södertälje, Sweden. The objective of this project was to give Scania an overview of their technical potential to build a short bus using existing components as well as deliver a concept of how one such product might look and function. The aim of this project is to develop a bus concept for Scania based on stakeholder demands and the components Scania has at their disposal. The research questions posed and answered in this report is the following;

    What demands are there on future urban buses?

    What components does Scania need to develop or purchase to build a shorter bus?

    How would the aesthetics, functions and layout of a bus aimed to meet the demands of urban centres and commuters be designed?

    The development followed a modified design thinking process, narrowing the project into three phases called Learn, Ideate and Prototype. These phases focused on one type of development, information gathering and understanding for Learn, idea generation and creation for Ideate and realisation and detail development for Prototype. Each phase consisted of research and design methods specialized for each phase and its mission. Examples of methods used during Learn is interviews and a case study, examples for Ideate is brainstorming and morphological charts and examples for Prototype is digital modelling and rendering.

    The final concept presented in this report is called Scania LVL and is a city bus concept planned to several years into the future. This concept consists of three parts, one visual exterior body concept, one component packing and usage concept and a seating layout, all coming together into one concept.

    The final concept met both the aim and goal of the project well and gave a good, but not perfect representation of what a short Scania bus could look and function like using all existing components.

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  • 36.
    Filipsson, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Prata meänkieli: Hur grafisk design kan bryta traditioner kring meänkieli2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different perspectives has been explored with the intention that the project will lead to innovation for the language culture. Traditions need to be developed over time and language modernized, for youth to be able to identify themselfs with language and therefore pass on meänkieli to the next generation of speakers.

    The project means to break with tradition around the minority-language meänkieli through graphic design. The range of litterature for youth is thin, today are most books for children or adults. The culture around meänkieli is often build with old traditions, which contributes to the lack of innovations. To understand how graphic design can raise language the background and relevant theories about graphic design needs to be explained.

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  • 37.
    Forsberg, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Aesthetical Perspectives in Street Lighting: A Study of Future Potentials in LED Lighting2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As of today, around 19% of all electricity that is produced around the world goes toward lighting roads and cities. The light is also produced in a wasteful manner, creating disturbances in nature as well as for people. Recent developments in light emitting diodes offers remedy to these problems but the technology needs a proper revision of street lighting’s purposes. Light emitting diodes use a fraction of the energy needed for previous lighting methods. They offer unique implementation opportunities in physical construction as well as being highly controllable which makes them highly adaptable. The thesis looks at how aesthetics can be used to optimally introduce the upcoming worldwide installation of the new technology. Its unique characteristics were looked at and used to create a Korean styled luminaire and an interactive street lighting system in two separate design processes. The results of the developments were firstly, a modular luminaire which combines Korean architectural aesthetics with a cost effective construction. The second result was an interactive urban street lighting system which suggests a dimmable lighting that through an adaptable computer control responds to pedestrians’ presences. This is a master’s thesis (D7014A) is a project in product design at the education of industrial design engineering at Luleå University of Technology and is worth 30 credits. The project spanned 20 weeks during the spring semester of 2016. The project was conducted in collaboration with Pukyong National University’s industrial design department, in Busan, South Korea.

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  • 38.
    Forslund, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Design av lastbilskapell – form,konstruktion och produktion2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Autokaross is currently working to reduce the impact their products are doing on the environmentwith reduced emissions through improvements in the aerodynamics of its bodywork.

    This report is a bachelor's degree in engineering design and deals with the development and designof the canopy towards Autokaross i Floby AB.The project is carried out over ten weeks and is based on the problems Autokaross specified atthe beginning of the work with welding and aerodynamics.

    The work focuses on the development of their canopy to get a simpler construction that does notuse welding and get a shape that is more aerodynamic and modern. The work has investigatedboth aerodynamics and methods of construction and joining methods to obtain a result that solvesthe problems Autokaross has with its current design.

    The final solution does not use welding during assembly and can be dismantled to give the usermore freedom when it comes to using the truck.

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  • 39.
    Franzén, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    PITEPULS: Så kan Piteå bli en attraktiv stad för musikstuderande2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studentantalet på Luleå Tekniska Universitet I Piteå har gått från hela 900 till 300 de senaste ca 12 åren. En trend som både Piteå kommun och LTU vill motarbeta, samtidigt som Piteå kommun vill öka antalet inflyttande till platsen. På uppdrag av det kommunala företaget Piteå Science Park så var därför målet med detta examensarbeteatt ta fram en lösning som både ökar intresset för de musikutbildningar som erbjuds på LTU i Piteå och Framnäs Folkhögskola samt uppmuntrar de studerande till att vilja bo kvar i staden efter avklarade studier. Examensarbetet ingår i utbildningen Teknisk design högskoleingenjör vid Luleå Tekniska Universitet. I projektet användes IDEOs Human-Centered design-process bestående av de tre faser inspiration, ideation och implementation. I varje fas användes ett antal metoder för att, på ett metodiskt och produktivt vis, utveckla ett koncept som uppfyllde de krav och önskemål som satts av uppdragsgivaren och målgruppen. Här genomfördes bland annat, en mängd intervjuer med både användare och experter, olika workshops för att ta fram och vidareutveckla idéer, insamling av inspiration med hjälp av metoden benchmarking och slutligen prototypande av konceptet. Under intervjuerna med användarna kom en hel del intressanta behov och önskemål fram, till exempel att de tyckte att det måste finnas fler och prisvärda aktiviteter i Piteå och att de inte besöker centrum oftare än 1 gång per vecka i snitt. Arbetet resulterade i slutkonceptet Pitepuls som är en eventhemsida där alla Piteås evenemang är samlade under ett och samma tak. Sidan innehåller event kopplade till kultur, sport, religion, och friluftsaktiviteter och skall vara tillgänglig för både studerande, fastboende och turister. Projektet genererade ett koncept som har potential att lyfta fram Piteå som eventstad och därmed öka dess attraktivitet, både bland unga vuxna men också bland fastboende och turister, samt att det därmed hjälper Framnäs och LTU Piteå att sticka ut bland mängden folkhögskolor och musikhögskolor.

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  • 40.
    Fredriksson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Autonomous transportation for a Swedish production facility: Mapping the technological and regulatory hurdles2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technology of autonomous vehicles has the potential to provide a significant number of safety, efficiency and environmental benefits to those who are able to harness it. As such, it is only natural that the company which is the subject of this project should want to explore this field, since the company prides itself on being at the cutting edge of both environmental sustainability and technological advancement. This inquiry was therefore launched in order to amass a sufficient knowledge base to enable management to make informed decisions about the possible future implementation of autonomous trucks, specifically to handle the logistics flow between their production facility in Skellefteå, Sweden and the nearby harbour. The first step to achieving this objective consisted of an exploration of the state of autonomous vehicle technology as well as the regulatory framework in Sweden for operating such systems on public roadways. Information was gathered from a vast array of sources, including academic literature, official reports from various authorities, journalistic publications as well as interviews with individuals with competence or experience within this field. While the regulatory situation in Sweden at the moment offers no legal way to operate autonomous vehicles on public roads, it is possible to be granted permission to perform trials of this technology under certain conditions. An investigation was undertaken to determine whether this might be a viable option for the company’s case. As such, hazard analysis was performed on the proposed route in Skellefteå. The method for this was based off of methodology gained from sources who had previously executed safety cases for trials of autonomous technology. A list of potential hazards relevant to the operation of autonomous vehicles was composed, together with variables with which to measure their severity. The relevance and appropriate scope of these hazards and variables was then verified by discussing it with sources with competence in this field. The route was then travelled in order to observe the prevalence of the aforementioned variables. The information was completed and verified through various reports gathered from the Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The result of the inquiry was that the autonomous technology on the market today is not sufficiently advanced to handle the specified application with an adequate level of safety. The route is also of limited use in establishing trials for testing of autonomous vehicles. While there are uses for autonomous transportation technology, great breakthroughs are needed before the technology reaches the level needed to handle such complex challenges as would be encountered on the proposed application. 

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  • 41.
    Friedrich, Hedvig
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Ilska, lycka och sorg i icke-mänskliga varelser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The intention with this report is to investigate the possibilities of animate, breathe life into and show relatively human emotions in creatures that normally can’t show those in a manner that we recognize. That includes making suggestions on how that creature can mimic three specific emotions. These are anger, happiness and sadness.The report doesn’t have the intention to take away or add bones, joints and such to increase the possibilities for this, but the work is done with only what the original can provide.One of the goals with the report is to animate and create still frames to give life to such a creature through animation with the mentioned emotions. The animation and the created poses are what’s going to be in focus, not texturing or parameters that are too technical. Eventual texturing that are in the pictures are textures that have been available since before this report.The models for the animations comes from different sources, which is gone through later, and the animations themselves are done and compiled in the 3D-programs Cinema 4D by MAXON and Autodesk Maya.

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  • 42.
    Fryklund, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Såld på dina skor: The Becker Project2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Världen står inför utmaningen att tackla den tilltagande miljökrisen. Våra naturresurser har sedan industrialiseringen använts mer och mer oansvarsfullt på grund av ett kortsiktigt tänk och iver efter mer. Vi producerar er och er saker som dessutom många gånger har kort livslängd och snart måste ersättas. Antingen på grund av dålig kvalitet, att de upplevs omoderna eller helt enkelt för att konsumenten vill göra ett nytt inköp. Överkonsumtionär troligtvis en av de största faktorerna till miljökrisen, och det är därför jag valt att belysa detta område.Designers och marknadsförare har haft en central roll i den här företeelsen. Det är de som lyckats göra företags produkter attraktiva hos konsumenterna och som många gånger lett ”merköp”. Med bra kännedom om hur folk konsumerar reklam, vad de har för drivkrafter och vad det är som lockar dem har de tillsammans med företag kunnat bidra till ett överkonsumtionsbeteende.Jag tror att med samma förmåga att påverka människors konsumtionsbeteende kan des- giners också använda för styra människors beteende i en annan riktning. Det handlar inte enbart om att köpa ”gröna” produkter eller utveckla teknik som effektiviserar produktionen eller resursanvändningen. Vi måste förändra vårt beteende grundligt och konsumera produkter i mindre utsträckning.Enligt WWF skulle vi behöva 3,7 jordklot för att kunna försörja hela världen med naturre- surser om alla levde som vi i Sverige (wwf.se, 2013). Överkonsumtion och resursförbruk- ning måste minskas, något måste göras för att stoppa trenden. Jag vill undersöka vad design kan göra för att dämpa konsumtionsbeteende och leda mot en mer hållbar livsstil.

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  • 43.
    Ghasemi Hansson, Fanny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Konstnärlig frihet och censur i Iran och Sverige2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis delas with the topic of artistic freedom and censurship, how it affects people diffrently in different countrys and societies. By highlighting stories of censorship with the help of interviews and graphic design. I aim not only to increase awareness between people but also to highlight the importance of democracy and artistic freedom.

    Iran and Sweden are two, in many ways, different countrys and societies, one open and democratic and the other strictly controlled, however, deep down we are united in a universal pursuit of freedom and strive for a better life. What are the subjects that are censored and provoke strong reactions, is it the same in Iran and Sweden? This is one of the issues I explore in this thesis.

    When I myself first came across censorship, it made me think about how many people live surrounded by it all the time, whitout beeing able to influence or change it. I have a desire to lift those people’s stories and experiences to show what it is like when that freedom is taken away. I have learned a lot about what censorship is and in how many different ways it can manifest. In Sweden, censorship does not occur systematic and previewed by a government agency that controlles art and artists but that does not mean we are unaffected by it. Through self-censorship caused by threats, artist’s voices are silenced. There is an economic factor that plays a big role and affects the artists economic and social situation. Nor should we accept politicians interference in an artistic expression, we must exercise our democratic right to protest and make our voices heard when art is kidnapped for political purposes.

    Through surveys, mind maps, interviews, literature study and sketches, I explore how I can express the importance of artistic freedom and counteract censorship through graphic design. With the help of illustration, color, typography and symbols, I make an artifact, a fanzine, which is meant to express feelings about how it feels to live and grow up under censorship and oppression. I believe that a lot of prejudice between people is based on ignorance and by giving a glimpse of how life is like under the pressures of censorship and strict rules in Iran, I hope to decrease it.

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  • 44.
    Gladh, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Salomonsson, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Ladder to rooftop tents: Product development of a new contractable ladder suited for Thule rooftop tents2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis report contains the development of a new ladder specifically designed for needs of the rooftop tent users. The project has been conducted by two students wor- king full time over the duration of twenty weeks with the start in mid-January and is a culmination of their education in industrial design engineering at Luleå university of technology. The thesis is a collaboration with Thule which is a Swedish compa- ny specializing in outdoor and transportation products for the active user. Thule’s largest user base are the occasional users, which uses their products once or twice a year.

    The current ladder used by Thule today is a telescopic solution that is mainly deri- ved from standards concerning contractable ladders and not specifically made for rooftop tent ladder. Thus, it has a lacking usability and is constructed from many dif- ferent parts which makes it unnecessarily complex and heavy. This has led to Thule wanting this project to explore the possibilities of creating a more weight optimized and cost-efficient ladder that can achieve several lengths ranging from 1,5 to 2,5 meters. This while also making it more user friendly and safe while incorporating the company values. Thus, the mission statement reads:

    “To create a safe, high quality, and easy to use rooftop tent ladder for the occasion- al, recreational user while reducing weight and complexity”

    The schedule has followed an iterative process influenced by the phases of design thinking, which is to emphasize, define, ideate, prototype, and finally test. This has helped to solve the complex problems by focusing on the users and their needs. To start this off, an extensive analysis of the market competition, users, Thule, and the current ladder was performed to be followed up with more creative methods as bra- instorming and different stages of sketching, aimed to solve the problems that was found. All of which later was constructed to a feasible concept with computer aided design, prototyping methods, and computer renderings.

    The result is a new rooftop tent ladder with a sliding design, fulfilling most of the project scope as well as solving other problems found in the first phases. The project has also provided Thule with a full-scale, functional mock-up to prove the concept, as well as some recommendations for future work.

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  • 45. Grahn, Niklas
    GPU vs CPU2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 46.
    Grele, Linnea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Designprocessen och EU:s gröna Taxonomi: En autobiografisk studie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's average temperature has increased more than one degree since the second half of the 18th century. Large companies in above all manufacturing industries have a big impact on emissions and can make a considerable difference. Design has become a competitive tool for companies to use and it has therefore become increasingly important to work with sustainable design. In recent years, the importance of protecting our planet has increased and therefore products on the market must be at the forefront of sustainable design in order to compete. As the companies have a large impact, there is a responsibility on them to ensure that there is some change in order for the EU to achieve climate neutrality by the year 2050. In order for this to happen, the EU- Commission has produced a regulation called the EU:s Taxonomy with two supplementary acts which is a classification system with 6 environmental targets in different sectors. The taxonomy aims to make it easier to make investments that promote the transition to a more sustainable business and ensures that there are clear criteria for what is classified as a sustainable investment.

    This report is the basis for a bachelor's degree project in Technical Design in course D0024A. This will be carried out over 10 weeks, which corresponds to 15 credits, under supervision from Luleå University of Technology. In this report, work is presented as how the design process is affected by the EU Taxonomy's approach and how it affects the final product. To do this, the autobiographical study method has been used through a previously completed project. There, each phase of the design process is reviewed step by step and then ends with a reflection based on my thoughts about folding decisions that could have been made differently or interesting aspects.

    The design process is a complicated process that needs to work in an iterative way so that you always go back to the starting point to see that the goals and needs are fulfilled. By having checkpoints along the way, it gives the process opportunities to identify the basis for the decisions taken along the way. 

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  • 47.
    Gunséus, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Skapa rörelse: En studie i underhållningsdesign och dekor som rör på sig.2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This batchelor’s project was carried out at a company that manufactures decor for the entertainment industry, e.g. amusement parks and event agencies. Currently, the company manufactures stationary decor, but has a vision to integrate different kinds of movement in the designs. The question they ask themselves is how? The objective was to explore this issue and the result is an ”introductory proposal” on how the company can begin its work together with 9 design principles for the design of entertainment products. The preparatory work involved a literature study, benchmarking, interviews with other companies in the entertainment industry as well as an analysis of the client and its conditions. The literature study emphasized how socially conditioned entertainment is and the importance of taking the whole interaction into account. Often a story is created around the product that  step by step tries to evoke emotions in the user. The highest-priority value words of the companies interviewed were ”new”, ”wow effect” and ”the creative vision”. The work strategies most frequently mentioned were ”understand the user”, ”constant development”, ”prototype” and ”mix different technologies”. The analysis of the client showed that the employees had difficulty getting over knowledge thresholds. This was primarily rooted in a paralyzing perception of unfamiliarity and a fear of making mistakes. The project was focused on helping this need. The introductory proposal, the ”knowledge lab”, is a workspace where the user can quickly build physical prototypes. It functions as an interactive textbook, the prototypes that are built are saved and used as material of knowledge the next time they are used. This becomes a circular learning process which means that the workspace automatically expands as the company’s collective knowledge level increases. The concept primarily received positive response connected to that it was perceived as easily accessible and inspiring, while negative criticism was concerned about how the documentation of new knowledge would be retained for a longer period of time.

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  • 48.
    Halldórsson, Halldór Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Tacit: A research journey into the methods, processes and knowledge of graphic designers2022Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By exploring the potential effects of digitisation on graphic design methods, this thesis aims to highlight some of the tacit knowledge possessed by graphic designers and to show that this knowledge can both be externalised and made communicable. Beginning with an interview study where professional designers’ views were gathered and analysed, the work continued through a participatory study where designers’ knowledge was highlighted in a documented design project. Finally, alternative ways of externalising knowledge were employed in an exhibition, displaying the creative outcomes of this thesis. The work shows that the hitherto largely hidden knowledge of graphic designers can be uncovered and made more communicable, strengthening designers’ professional identity and making the field more accessible to students. Furthermore, using versatile approaches in a design project can encourage conceptual development and even professional enjoyment, as well as increasing historical awareness.   

    The thesis uses an experimental approach to research method design and thus contributes to the development of graphic design research methodology. As such, in addition to expanding our understanding of graphic design knowledge, this work will enable a deeper exploration of methods, identity, and the definition of the profession’s taxonomy.

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  • 49.
    Halldórsson, Halldór Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    The Tacit Exhibition: An Experimental Display of Graphic Design Knowledge2023In: Visible Language, ISSN 0022-2224, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 80-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Halldórsson, Halldór
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Warell, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    How did you do that? The value of externalising knowledge in graphic design2021In: Journal of Design Research, ISSN 1748-3050, E-ISSN 1569-1551, Vol. 19, no 1/2/3, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to study graphic designers' views on knowledge, considering the challenges faced by the field today. Expressing thoughts about what is needed for a graphic designer to build professional confidence, interview respondents mentioned topics like historical knowledge as well as feedback and presentation skills. To facilitate the navigation of the ever-changing graphic design landscape and to build a solid professional identity, externalising tacit knowledge is a key issue. The study finds that graphic designers mainly talk about their design work when presenting to clients, primarily with the aim of convincing them to accept new proposals. A case can therefore be made for the necessity of developing graphic designers' skills when it comes to explicating design processes with the aim of making it clear to non-designers what it actually is that a graphic designer knows and does, as well as building a stronger theoretical foundation for the profession.

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