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  • 1. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Dahl, J.E.
    Cytotoxicity of dental glass ionomers evaluated using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium and neutral red tests2001In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 34-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of some commonly used glass ionomers. Three chemically cured glass ionomers (Fuji II, Lining cement, and Ketac Silver) and one light-cured (Fuji II LC) were tested. Extracts of mixed non-polymerized materials and polymerized specimens were prepared in accordance with ISO standard 10993-12. The polymerized specimens were cured and placed either directly in the medium (freshly cured), left for 24 h (aged), or aged plus ground before being placed in the medium. The cytotoxicity of extracts was evaluated on mouse fibroblasts (L 929), using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium (MTT)and neutral red (NR) assays. Further, the concentrations of aluminum, arsenic and lead were analyzed in aqueous extracts from freshly cured and aged samples, and the fluoride levels analyzed in aqueous extracts from freshly cured samples. All extracts except that of non-polymerized Ketac Silver were rated as severely cytotoxic in both assays. Extracts of polymerized material were significantly more cytotoxic than extracts of non-polymerized material. All freshly cured glass ionomers released aluminum and fluoride concentrations far above what is considered cytotoxic (aluminum >0.2 ppm and fluoride >20 ppm). Extracts from freshly cured Lining Cement contained the highest concentrations of aluminum and fluoride (215 ppm and 112 ppm). Extracts from freshly cured Ketac Silver had the lowest concentrations of aluminum and fluoride but the highest of lead (100 ppm). It can be concluded that all extracts from non-cured, freshly cured, and aged glass ionomers contained cytotoxic levels of substances. Curing did not reduce the toxicity significantly.

  • 2. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Dahl, J.E.
    Cytotoxicity of liquids and powders of chemically different dental materials evaluated using dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium and neutral red tests2003In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 52-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the cytotoxicity of liquid and powder components of chemically different dental materials using 2 basic unspecific cell culture methods. Three chemically cured glass ionomers (Fuji II, Lining cement, and Ketac Silver), 1 light-cured glass ionomer (Fuji II LC), and 2 chemically cured acrylates (Swedon and Super Bond) were tested. The liquids were diluted 1:10 in cell culture medium. The liquids from chemically cured acrylates were further diluted 1:100, 1:1000, and 1:10000. Extracts were made by incubating the powders in cell culture medium for 24 h at 37°C according to the ISO standard 10993-12. The cytotoxicity was assessed in transformed mouse fibroblasts (L-929) using two viability assays, dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) and neutral red (NR). Severe cytotoxicity was observed when testing powder extracts of Swedon, Fuji II, and Lining cement, whereas powder extracts of Ketac Silver, Fuji LC, and Super Bond induced slight to non-cytotoxicity. All of the 1:10 liquid dilutions were severely cytotoxic in the MTT assay. In the NR assay, however, four 10% dilutions were severely cytotoxic and 4 moderately cytotoxic. Further dilution of the liquids of the chemically cured acrylates reduced the toxicity, while the Super Bond catalyst was severely cytotoxic even as the 1:100 dilutions.

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