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  • 1.
    Emami, Nazanin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Söderholm, Karl-Johan M.
    University of Florida.
    How filler properties, filler fraction, sample thickness and light source affect light attenuation in particulate filled resin composites2005In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 721-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way by which variables such as filler type, filler surface treatment and light source affect light attenuation in particulate filled resin composites was presented. Mixture of 50 wt% bisGMA and 50wt% TEGDMA consisting of a photo-initiatior and a co-initiator was prepared. Three different filler types, HBB, SBB, and KU, which were either silane surface treated or not, were added to that mixture in eight different volume percentage. It was observed that of the two light sources, more light was absorbed by the composite when the laser light was used. It was also observed that the HBB filler absorbed most light and the KU filler the least.

  • 2.
    Emami, Nazanin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Söderholm, Karl-Johan M.
    Department of Dental Biomaterials, University of Florida.
    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of two light-cured dental composites2005In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 977-983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesClinical observations suggest that some composite resins are more often linked to post-operative sensitivity than others. These differences may relate to differences in modulus of elasticity and polymerization rates among materials. The aim of this study was to identify viscoelastic behavior of two light curable composites and determine whether significant differences in viscoelastic behavior exist between the two materials when light cured at each of three different irradiance values.MethodsTwo composites (Z100 and Z250 by 3M ESPE) were evaluated. Six specimens per composite and irradiance value (250, 500 and 850 mW/cm2) were made. The curing times were chosen to produce a fixed energy value of 30 J/cm2 independent of irradiation value. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was performed in single cantilever clamped mode.ResultsThere were significant differences in transition temperatures between the two materials and the three frequencies at their glass transition temperatures, while significant differences did not exist at the lower transitions. The glass transition of Z250 was lower and narrower than that of Z100. Z250 exhibited lower storage modulus values. The irradiance values did not affect any of the transition temperatures significantly.SignificanceThe lower and more distinct Tg of Z250 suggests that Z250 cures more efficiently than Z100. The lower storage modulus of Z250 suggests that Z250 develops less stress in the tooth than Z100 during curing if shrinkage is the same for the two materials. The findings suggest that the material chosen, rather than irradiance, determines the stress level developed during light curing.

  • 3.
    Kou, Wen
    et al.
    Dental Materials Science, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University.
    Kou, Shaoquan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Liu, Hongyuan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sjögren, Göran
    Dental Materials Science, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University.
    Numerical modeling of the fracture process in a three-unit all-ceramic fixed partial denture2007In: Dental Materials, ISSN 0109-5641, E-ISSN 1879-0097, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1042-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The main objectives were to examine the fracture mechanism and process of a ceramic fixed partial denture (FPD) framework under simulated mechanical loading using a recently developed numerical modeling code, the R-T2D code, and also to evaluate the suitability of R-T2D code as a tool for this purpose. Methods: Using the recently developed R-T2D code the fracture mechanism and process of a 3 U yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal ceramic (Y-TZP) FPD framework was simulated under static loading. In addition, the fracture pattern obtained using the numerical simulation was compared with the fracture pattern obtained in a previous laboratory test. Results: The result revealed that the framework fracture pattern obtained using the numerical simulation agreed with that observed in a previous laboratory test. Quasi-photoelastic stress fringe pattern and acoustic emission showed that the fracture mechanism was tensile failure and that the crack started at the lower boundary of the framework. The fracture process could be followed both in step-by-step and step-in-step. Significance: Based on the findings in the current study, the R-T2D code seems suitable for use as a complement to other tests and clinical observations in studying stress distribution, fracture mechanism and fracture processes in ceramic FPD frameworks.

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