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  • 1.
    Emami, Nazanin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Söderholm, Karl-Johan
    University of Florida.
    How light irradiance and curing time affect monomer conversion in light-cured resin composites2003In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 111, no 6, p. 536-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that the degree of conversion of a light-cured dental composite relates to the calculated (s × mW cm-2 = mJ cm-2) rather than to the irradiance value (mW cm-2) of the light source. Two light-curable composite resins were cured with three different light irradiance values over different curing times. The specimens tested were 2, 4 or 6 mm thick, and the degree of conversion values were measured with Raman spectroscopy on the top and the bottom surfaces of the specimens. The highest conversion value of one of the materials was just below 60%, while the maximal conversion value of the other material was just below 65%. That difference in conversion values could be related to differences in monomer systems used in the two composites. By considering light energy per square centimeter (J cm-2) rather than light irradiance (mW cm-2), we found that equivalent energy values gave similar conversion values for a certain sample thickness. From these findings, we conclude that our experimental results support our hypothesis.

  • 2. Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Welendorf, Hanne
    NIOM-Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials.
    Ruyter, Eystein
    NIOM-Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials.
    Permeability of different types of medical protective gloves to acrylic monomers2003In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 111, no 5, p. 440-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel and orthopedic surgeons are at risk when manually handling products containing methyl methacrylate (MMA). Dental products may also contain cross-linking agents such as ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) or 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA). Skin contact with monomers can cause hand eczema, and the protection given by gloves manufactured from different types of material is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the breakthrough time (BTT, min) as a measure of protection (according to the EU standard EN-374-3) for a mixture consisting of MMA, EGDMA and 1,4-BDMA. Fifteen different gloves representing natural rubber latex material, synthetic rubber material (e.g. nitrile rubbers), and synthetic polymer material were tested. The smallest monomer MMA permeated within 3 min through all glove materials. A polyethylene examination glove provided the longest protection period to EGDMA and 1, 4-BDMA (> 120 min and 25.0 min), followed by the surgical glove Tactylon (6.0 min and 8.7 min) and the nitrile glove Nitra Touch (5.0 min and 8.7 min). This study showed that the breakthrough time (based on permeation rate) cannot be regarded as a ‘safe limit'. When the permeation rate is low, monomers may have permeated before BTT can be determined. Using double gloves with a synthetic rubber inner glove and a natural rubber outer glove provided longer protection when the inner glove was rinsed in water before placing the outer glove on top.

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