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  • 1.
    Lindberg, A.
    et al.
    Public Dental Health Clinic, Skellefteå.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Dijken, JW. van
    Department of Odontology, Dental School Umeå.
    A Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy analysis of the degree of conversion of a universal hybrid resin composite cured with light-emitting diode curing units2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The degree of conversion (DC), of a universal hybrid resin composite cured with LED curing units with low and high power densities and a 510 mW/cm2 quartz tungsten halogen unit, was investigated with Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. Three curing depths (0, 2, 4mm) and 0 and 7 mm light guide tip - resin composite (LT - RC) distances were tested. The DC of the LED units varied between 52.3% - 59.8% at the top surface and 46.4% - 57.0% at 4 mm depth. The DC of specimen cured with a 0 mm LT- RC distance at 4 mm depth varied between 50.8% - 57.0% and with 7 mm distance between 46.4% - 55.4%. The low power density LED unit showed a significantly lower DC for both distances at all depth levels compared to the other curing units (p < 0.05). Significant differences between the other curing units were only found at the 4 mm depth level cured from 7 mm distance (p < 0.05). The reduction in DC by increasing LT- RC distance was less than 10% for all curing units. It can be concluded that the improved LED curing units could cure the studied resin composite to the same DC as the control unit.

  • 2.
    Lindberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Djiken, Jan van
    Umeå universitet.
    Comparison of the effect of different LED curing units on depth of cure2005In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Adverse health reactions in skin, eyes, and respiratory tract among dental personnel in Sweden1998In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 33-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental personnel manually handle products that contain monomers. Several studies have documented adverse health effects after exposure to such products. Gloves made of vinyl or latex are easily penetrated by monomers. Ordinary glasses, or visors, do not protect against vapour from polymer products. Dental face masks filter out about 40% of respirable particles. To survey the prevalence of asthma, atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, hay fever/rhinitis, and hand eczema among dental personnel, a questionnaire was distributed to all dental teams in Northern Sweden. Referents were researchers, teachers, and secretaries from the same geographical area. The response rate was 76% for dental teams, and 66% for referents. The results show a significantly higher prevalence of conjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis among dentists, both male and female. Hypersensitivity to dental materials was reported by significantly more dental personnel than by referents.

  • 4.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Amalgam in dentistry: A survey of methods used at dental clinics in Norrbotten to decrease exposure to mercury vapour1995In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 19, no 1-2, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey was conducted on the possible factors influencing exposure to mercury vapour during the handling of amalgam and amalgam contaminated products at dental clinics in Norrbotten, the northern part of Sweden, as well as the current methods being used to minimise, if not prevent such exposures. Increased room temperature, a serious problem when working with amalgam, was the most common complaint from the dental personnel reflecting the observation that ventilation in most clinics was far from being satisfactory. However, methods of treating amalgam-contaminated waste products as well as the classification of products as high- or low-risk wastes also differed a lot. The results further showed that although majority of the dental personnel showed concern on the possible hazards of mercury vapour exposure and were interested in having the level of mercury vapour measured in their clinics, very few had access to any protective equipment against it. And among the few who had some forms of protective wear, most found the equipment disturbing and disruptive of work performance.

  • 5.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and hand dermatitis among Swedish dental personnel, including use of personal protective devices1998In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 105-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous study on dental personnel in northern Sweden show that dentists had a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported and physician-diagnosed atopic dermatitis and conjunctivitis, compared to chair assistants and referents (Lonnroth & Shahnavaz 1998). Further, significantly more male dentists reported experience of hand dermatitis compared to male referents. To compare the prevalence among dental personnel working in other geographical areas of Sweden, and survey the use of personal protective equipment, a questionnaire study was conducted during 1997, which included all dentists and his/her chair assistants, working in general private and public dental care in Sweden. A total of 7384 dental personnel were included in the study, 4293 dentists (54.7% male and 45.3% female), and 3090 chair assistants. Logistic regression was used for analysing data. Results show that significantly more dentists reported symptoms of atopic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and hand dermatitis, and had been diagnosed by a physician, compared to chair assistants. However, they did not report more sick-leave due to symptoms, compared to chair assistants. More female used protective devices, than male, and more chair assistants than dentists. Significantly more dental personnel in public dental care used protective devices, than in private dental care. Use of gloves, and face mask, decreased with increasing age but, use of eye protection, mainly in form of prescription spectacles, increased. The prevalence of hand dermatitis decreased significantly with increasing age but, more for female (p < 0.0001), than for male (p = 0.01).

  • 6.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Dental clinics: a burden to environment?1996In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 173-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To estimate environmental burden of mercury from dental clinics, a survey was conducted in 1993 at dental clinics in northern part of Sweden. Factors regarding amalgam separators, maintenance and disposal of collected sludge, age of clinics, cleaning of waste pipes, and sorting and handling of amalgam contaminated products were investigated. The result showed that many were not familiar with maintenance of the amalgam separator. A majority, 68%, were working in clinics older than 10 years, but only 9% reported that waste pipes had been cleaned or changed. Classification of amalgam contaminated products as high-risk and low-risk waste differed a lot, as well as handling of waste products. The result shows that there is need for more information and attention to all individuals working in Dental Care on how to reduce environmental burden of mercury from dental clinics

  • 7.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Hand dermatitis and symptoms from the fingers among Swedish dental personnel1998In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 22, no 1-2, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hand dermatitis among dental personnel has been an issue in recent years. Dental personnel manually handle polymer materials which are known to irritate skin, and also cause allergy. In addition, dental personnel wash their hands frequently, and use latex gloves, and are therefore at risk to develop hand dermatitis. To survey the occurrence of hand dermatitis among dental personnel, questionnaires were sent to all dental teams (dentist + chair assistant) working in the two northern Swedish counties. Referents were; researchers, teachers, and secretaries from a university and high schools, from the same geographical area. The response rate was 76% for dental teams, and 66% for referents. The results show that male dentists reported a significantly higher prevalence of hand dermatitis than male reference. In contrast to chair assistants and referents, dentists (both male and female) reported a higher extent of hand dermatitis on the left than on the right hand. There was an association between hand dermatitis among dental personnel and; age, eczema in childhood, and hay fever but, not with; sex, asthma, frequent washing of the hands, and glove use. Whitening of the fingers increased with increasing age among dental personnel. Pricking was also associated with frequent glove use. Pricking of the fingers was associated with sex, and 3.5 times more common among female dental personnel than male dentists. Numbness of the fingers, and finger pain was reported by more dentists than chair assistants and referents.

  • 8.
    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Shahnavaz, Houshang
    Use of polymer materials in dental clinics, case study1997In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 149-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dentistry uses a variety of different polymer materials. Dental polymer materials are based on methacrylate, its polymer, and polyelectrolytes. The setting of restorative materials and adhesives is initiated chemically by mixing two components or by light. In both cases, polymerisation is incomplete and monomers, not reacted, release. Studies have documented that monomers may cause a wide range of adverse health effects such as irritation to skin, eyes or mucous membranes, allergic dermatitis, asthma, parenthesise in the fingers, and disturbances from central nervous system such as; headache, pain in the extremities, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, sleep disturbances, irritability, loss of memory and changes in blood parameters. Dental personnel are occupationally exposed when handling the non reacted monomers. The use of gloves do not give enough protection as monomers, released from the material, easily penetrate all gloves used in dentistry. Face masks do not prevent inhalation of monomers. Ordinary glasses do not protect the eyes against vapor from monomers. The result from this study demonstrate the need for the development of ergonomic procedures and practices for safe handling of such materials in dental clinics.

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