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  • 1.
    Illankoon, Prasanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Judgemental errors in aviation maintenance2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aircraft maintenance is a critical success factor in the aviation sector, and incorrect maintenance actions themselves can be the cause of accidents. Judgemental errors are the top causal factors of maintenance-related aviation accidents. This study asks why judgemental errors occur in maintenance. Referring to six aviation accidents, we show how various biases contributed to those accidents. We first filtered aviation accident reports, looking for accidents linked to errors in maintenance judgements. We analysed the investigation reports, as well as the relevant interview transcriptions. Then we set the characteristics of the actions behind the accidents within the context of the literature and the taxonomy of reasons for judgemental biases. Our results demonstrate how various biases, such as theory-induced blindness, optimistic bias, and substitution bias misled maintenance technicians and eventually become the main cause of a catastrophe. We also find these biases are interrelated, with one causing another to develop. We discuss how these judgemental errors could relate to loss of situation awareness, and suggest interventions to mitigate them.

  • 2.
    Lefford, M. Nyssim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Thompson, Paul
    Music, Sound and Performance, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK.
    Naturalistic artistic decision-making and metacognition in the music studio2018In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 543-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional artistic contexts, such as studio-based music production, are rarely investigated in naturalistic decision-making (NDM) research, though creative work is characterised by uncertainty, risk, a lack of clearly definable goals, and in the case of music production, a complex socio-technical working environment that brings together a diverse group of specialized collaborators. This study investigates NDM in the music production studio. In music production, there is a professional role explicitly tasked with taking decisions—the (record) producer. The producer, as a creative collaborator, is differentiated as a problem-solver, solution creator and goal setter. This investigation looks at the producer’s metacognitive abilities for reflecting on the nature of problems and decisions. An important challenge for this study is to develop methods for observing decision-making without unrealistically reducing the amount of uncertainty around outcomes or creative intention within a studio production. In the face of that, a method is proposed that combines socio-cultural musicology and cognitive approaches and uses ethnographic data. Preliminary findings shed light on how the producer in this study self-manages his decisions and his interactions with, and in response to, the production environment; how decisions and actions sustain collaboration; how experience is utilized to identify scenarios and choose actions; and the kinds of strategies employed and their expected outcomes. Findings provide evidence that exercising producing skills and performing production tasks involve metacognitive reflection.

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