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  • 1.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Warg, Lars-Erik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Learning and hypothesis testing in probabilistic inference tasks1985In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 305-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between learning of probabilistic inference tasks and the availability of correct hypotheses for the tasks in individual subjects was investigated in two experiments. The results showed that having the correct hypotheses as measured before learning the tasks was neither a sufficient nor a necessary condition for learning the task. It was concluded that the hypothesis measurements are not reliable enough to allow predictions on an individual level. The results also showed that subjects have not only the four basic functions: positive linear, negative linear, U-shaped and inversely U-shaped, in their hypothesis hierarchies but also J-shaped functions. That the subjects can leam such functions is thus no discodinnation of the hypotheses sampling conception of learning as assumed in earlier studies.

  • 2.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gavelin, Hanna M.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Király, Orsolya
    Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Demetrovics, Zsolt
    Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming, University of Gibraltar, Gibraltar.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Comparing psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits between the WHO and APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms: A psychometric investigation2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by the American Psychiatric Association and Gaming Disorder in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization requires consistent psychological measures for reliable estimates. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Disorder Test (GDT), the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10), and the Five-Item Gaming Disorder Test (GDT-5) and to compare the WHO and the APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms in terms of psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits.

    Methods: A sample of 723 Swedish gamers was recruited (29.8% women, 68.3% men, 1.9% other, Mage = 29.50 years, SD = 8.91).

    Results: The results indicated notable differences regarding the estimated possible risk groups between the two frameworks. However, the association between gaming disorder symptoms and personality traits, life satisfaction, and psychopathological symptoms appeared consistent across the two frameworks. The results showed excellent psychometric properties in support of the one-factor model of the GDT, IGDT-10, and GDT-5, including good reliability estimates (McDonald's omega) and evidence of construct validity. Additionally, the results demonstrated full gender and age measurement invariance of the GDT, IGDT-10, and GDT-5, indicating that gaming disorder symptoms are measured equally across the subgroups.

    Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the IGDT-10, GDT-5, and GDT are appropriate measures for assessing gaming disorder symptoms and facilitating future research in Sweden.

  • 3. Gärling, Anita
    Parents' heuristics for judging children's accident risk.1989In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examined heuristics that parents use for judging the risk or likelihood of accidents to children. It was hypothesized that the risk is judged on the basis of the number of personally experienced previous accidents or near-accidents that are recalled. Mothers (aged 20-49 yrs), female undergraduates who had theoretical knowledge but little experience with children, and female students with both little theoretical knowledge and experience (N = 216) judged the risk that a child at the age of 2-4, 5-6, 7-9, and 10-12 yrs would have an accident where the Ss lived. A positive relationship between judged risk and the number of recalled accidents was found but the latter referred to generic classes rather than to personal experiences, and the mothers did not judge the risk as higher and did not recall more accidents than the other Ss. When the risk of accidents to children was judged from specific descriptions, the importance of causal conceptions of accidents was verified.

  • 4.
    Henriksson, Sophie
    et al.
    Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Anclair, Malin
    Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads universitet, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on health-related quality of life: An evaluation of therapies provided by trainee therapists2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Elbe, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sörman, Daniel E.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The bilingual effects of linguistic distances on episodic memory and verbal fluency2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of linguistic distance or the relatedness between two languages, on bilinguals’ episodic memory performance and verbal fluency is an understudied area. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if differences in linguistic distances have differential effects on these abilities. Measures of episodic recognition, categorical fluency, and global cognitive functioning were also considered in the analyses. Two matched samples with participants living and educated in Sweden were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study. Results showed that bilinguals who speak linguistically similar languages (Swedish and English), performed significantly better than monolinguals on both episodic memory recall and letter fluency, while bilinguals who speak two languages that are more distant (Swedish and Finnish), showed no advantages compared to their monolingual counterparts. For both tasks, however, a linear trend was observed indicative of better performance for the Swedish‐English group compared to the Finnish‐Swedish group, and for the Swedish‐Finnish group compared to the monolinguals group. As expected, no differences between groups were found in any of the other cognitive tasks. Overall, results suggest that the impact of linguistic distances should be explored in more detail in the future.

  • 6.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Wass, Malin
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina Margareetta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Lund University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Cognitive development, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implants2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 463-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes some of the results of studies in our laboratory exploring the development of cognitive, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implantation (CI). The children with CI performed at significantly lower levels than the hearing comparison group on the majority of cognitive tests, despite showing levels of nonverbal ability. The differences between children with CI and hearing children were most pronounced on tasks with relatively high phonological processing demands, but they were not limited to phonological processing. Impairment of receptive and productive prosody was also evident in children with CI. Despite these difficulties, 75% of the children with CI reached a level of reading skill comparable to that of hearing children. The results are discussed with respect to compensation strategies in reading.

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Umeå, S-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Karl
    University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    A functionalistic approach to memory: theory and data1987In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 173-188Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Sandberg, Karl W.
    University of Umeå, Department of Psychology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Integration and cue overlap in recognition failure of recallable words1990In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 302-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    40 students (aged 20-27 yrs) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 types of encoding instruction to test the hypotheses that (1) low integration causes deviations above the Tulving-Wiseman function (TWF) of E. Tulving and S. Wiseman (see record 1978-07206-001) and (2) that high integration causes no deviations above the TWF. Results confirmed the hypothesis that low integration led to high recognition recall rates but not the hypothesis that high integration would produce data points on, not below, the function.

  • 9.
    Sandberg, Karl W.
    Department of Psychology, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Recognition failure of recallable words: free and cued recall compared1988In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 29, no 3-4, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tested 72 Swedish students (aged 17-21 yrs), assigned to 1 of 6 conditions, to examine whether the phenomenon of recognition failure of recallable words could be demonstrated when a free recall (FR) test rather than a cued recall (CRL) test was used. Ss were instructed that a recognition test, a CRL test, or an FR test would follow the study trial, but the actual test sequence given was recognition followed by CRL or recognition followed by FR. Results demonstrate that cases of recognition failure of recallable words occurred in all 6 conditions, but the amount of recognition failure for the recognition-FR test sequence was less than that predicted from the function of E. Tulving and S. Wiseman (see record 1978-07206-001). Data for the recognition-CRL test sequence showed the amount of recognition failure that was predicted by this function.

  • 10.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Volna, Iveta
    School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Zhao, Jiaying
    Department of Psychology and Institute for Resources Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Irregular stimulus distribution increases the negative footprint illusion2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 530-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a climate change mitigation strategy, environmentally certified ‘green’ buildings with low carbon footprints are becoming more prevalent in the world. An interesting psychological question is how people perceive the carbon footprint of these buildings given their spatial distributions in a given community. Here we examine whether regular distribution (i.e., buildings organized in a block) or irregular distribution (i.e., buildings randomly distributed) influences people's perception of the carbon footprint of the communities. We first replicated the negative footprint illusion, the tendency to estimate a lower carbon footprint of a combined group of environmentally certified green buildings and ordinary conventional buildings, than the carbon footprint of the conventional buildings alone. Importantly, we found that irregular distribution of the buildings increased the magnitude of the negative footprint illusion. Potential applied implications for urban planning of green buildings are discussed.

  • 11.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Lund University.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Department of Psychology, University of Linköping, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Lund University.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Technical Audiology, Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Technical Audiology, Linköping University.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina Margareetta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Lund University, Department of Otolaryngology, Section of Audiology, Linköping University Hospital.
    Cognitive and linguistic skills in Swedish children with cochlear implants: Measures of accuracy and latency as indicators of development2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 559-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine working memory (WM) capacity, lexical access and phonological skills in 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) (5;7-13;4 years of age) attending grades 0-2, 4, 5 and 6 and to compare their performance with 56 children with normal hearing. Their performance was also studied in relation to demographic factors. The findings indicate that children with CI had visuospatial WM capacities equivalent to the comparison group. They had lower performance levels on most of the other cognitive tests. Significant differences between the groups were not found in all grades and a number of children with CI performed within 1 SD of the mean of their respective grade-matched comparison group on most of the cognitive measures. The differences between the groups were particularly prominent in tasks of phonological WM. The results are discussed with respect to the effects of cochlear implants on cognitive development.

  • 12. Ärlemalm, Tore
    Recognition failure and cue-dependence1997In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 183-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Ärlemalm, Tore
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Department of Psychology.
    Recognition failure and integration1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 271-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explored recognition failure of recallable words (poor integration), using confidence ratings given to recall responses. 70 Ss (aged 15-35 yrs) were instructed to learn word pairs in such a way that they would be able to recall the target word when the cue word was presented. Ss were given either instruction about shallow coding (the words had the same letters) or deep coding instruction (words were meaningfully related). Ss then performed confidence ratings of responses of both the recognition and cued recall test. Results indicate that very poor integration produces a deviation above the function, whereas a very good integration produces a deviation below the function. The effect of integration (and cue overlap) is explained by means of a conceptualization cue dependency. Support is also given to the notion that an enhanced variability of goodness of encoding contributes to an enhanced dependence between recall and recognition

  • 14. Ärlemalm, Tore
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Department of Psychology.
    Recognition failure of recallable words: exception due to poor integration1992In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 266-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of recognition failure of recallable words shows a remarkable regularity across a wide variety of experimental conditions. A quadratric function, referred to as the Tulving-Wiseman (E. Tulving and S. Wiseman; see record 1978-07206-001) function, summarizes this regularity. A few cases of deviation from this have been identified and classified into 2 categories of exceptions to this function. An experiment with 40 Ss (aged 15-42 yrs) was designed to deal with 1 of these categories, namely the exception that occurs because of poor integration between cue and target information of studied word pairs. An index based on confidence ratings of recall responses was developed to assess variability in integration. Poor integration was demonstrated especially for 1 presentation of low associative word pairs, and significant deviations from the function was obtained for this condition

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