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  • 1.
    Broström, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Aust, Mikael Ljung
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Individual glance strategies and their effect on the NHTSA visual manual distraction test2016In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 36, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate how individual differences in glance strategy could impact the glance performance test defined in the NHTSA visual manual distraction guidelines. Better understanding of the test procedure could help development of new technology for safe driving. A custom in-vehicle information system was developed and assessed in a driving simulator by eighteen participants. The interfaces were designed according to recommendations in the NHTSA guidelines and contained manual radio-tuning tasks, sound settings tasks and six letter spelling tasks. Two of the six tested interfaces fully complied with the test. In addition, clear individual differences in glance strategy were found among the participants. Four individual glance strategies were identified. Two of these, long glancers and frequent glancers, highly affected the outcome of the compliance test. Participants belonging to the long glancers and the frequent glancers categories were identified as statistical outliers in many test cases. For example, if the individual values of these participants were replaced with sample mean, the number of complying interfaces would increase to five out of six, which is more in line with expectations for these interfaces. The results of this study show that individual variations in glance strategy exist. Also, these individual variations seem to have a non- negligible influence on the result when performance-testing of in-vehicle interfaces is done according to the NTHSA guidelines.

  • 2.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bengtsson, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Driving performance during visual and haptic menu selection with in-vehicle rotary device2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 18, p. 123-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-vehicle haptic rotary device developed to interact with secondary tasks can provide haptic support to a visual interface and reduce the need to look away from the road. However, added haptic information intended to support interaction may distract the driver by adding cognitive load. This study examines how visual and haptic interfaces affect driver performance and if visual–haptic information could reduce effects of driver distraction. Four menu selection interfaces were compared: visual-only, visual–haptic with partly haptic support, visual–haptic with full haptic support, and haptic-only. The Lane Change Test was used with four measures. Interaction with the interfaces while driving caused increased driving deviation and delayed lane change initiation. The visual-only and the visual–haptic interface with partly haptic support caused erroneous crossed lanes. The haptic-only interface caused missed road signs. Full haptic support had the least negative effect on driver performance. In conclusion, haptic support could reduce effects of visual load without adding effects of cognitive load.

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