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  • 1.
    Afanasiev, Sergey V.
    et al.
    Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Joliot-Curie 6.
    Afonin, Alexander G.
    Institute of High Energy Physics - Moscow Region.
    Ambrosi, Giovanni
    INFN Sezione di Perugia.
    Azzarello, Philipp
    INFN Sezione di Perugia.
    Baranov, Vladimir T.
    Institute of High Energy Physics - Moscow Region.
    Baricordi, Stefano
    INFN Sezione di Ferrara.
    Battiston, Roberto
    INFN Sezione di Perugia.
    Bertucci, Bruna
    INFN Sezione di Perugia.
    Bolognini, Davide
    Università dell'Insubria.
    Burger, William J.
    INFN Sezione di Perugia.
    Carnera, Alberto
    INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro.
    Cavoto, Gianluca
    INFN Sezione di Roma.
    Chesnokov, Yury A.
    Institute of High Energy Physics - Moscow Region.
    Dalpiaz, Pietro
    INFN Sezione di Ferrara.
    Mea, Gianantonio Della
    INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro.
    Denisov, Alexander S.
    Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute.
    Salvador, Davide De
    INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro.
    Fiorini, Massimiliano
    INFN Sezione di Ferrara.
    Foggetta, Luca
    Università dell'Insubria.
    Gavrikov, Yury A.
    Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute.
    Guidi, Vincenzo
    INFN Sezione di Ferrara.
    Hasan, Said
    Università dell'Insubria.
    Ionica, Maria
    INFN Sezione di Perugia.
    Ivanov, Yuri M.
    Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute.
    Ivochkin, Vladimir G.
    Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro.
    Zuccon, Paolo
    INFN Sezione di Perugia.
    Experimental apparatus to study crystal channeling in an external SPS beamline2007In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 6634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the new generation of high intensity hadronic machines as, for instance, LHC, halo collimation is a necessary issue for the accelerator to operate at the highest possible luminosity and to prevent the damage of superconductor magnets.1 We propose an experiment aimed to systematic study of the channeling phenomenology and of the newly observed "volume reflection" effect. This experiment will be performed for an external SPS beamline and will make use of a primary proton beam with 400 GeV/c momentum and very small (∼ 3 μrad) divergence. The advantage of a proposed experiment is precise tracking of particles that interacted with a crystal, so that to determine the single-pass efficiency for all the processes involved. For this purpose, a telescope equipped with high-resolution silicon microstrip detectors will be used. New generation silicon crystals and an extra-precise goniometer are mandatory issues. Main goal of the experiment is to get the precise information on channeling of relativistic particles and, ultimately, on the feasibility of such technique for halo collimation at LHC. In this contribution we review the status of the setting-up of experimental apparatus and its future development in sight of the planned run in September 2006.

  • 2.
    Banaem, Hossein Y
    et al.
    Tehran University of Medical Science.
    Ahmadian, Alireza
    Tehran University of Medical Science.
    Saberi, Hooshangh
    Tehran University of Medical Science.
    Daneshmehr, Alireza
    University of Tehran.
    Khodadad, Davood
    Tehran University of Medical Science.
    Brain tumor modeling: glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy2011In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 8285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.

  • 3.
    Benckert, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Jonsson, Mikael
    Molin, Nils-Erik
    Measuring 3-D displacement of a surface using the white light speckle technique1986In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, p. 207-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When measuring in plane surface deformation using white light speckle photography, errors will arise if an out of plane displacement is present. Here it is shown that stereoscopic photography resolves this problem and makes the measurement of true in plane displacements possible. A rigid body translation is also introduced to determine unambiguously the direction of the displacement

  • 4.
    Blomquist, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Wernersson, Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Range camera on conveyor belts: estimating size distribution and systematic errors due to occlusion1999In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 118, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When range cameras are used for analyzing irregular material on a conveyor belt there will be complications such as missing segments caused by occlusion. Also, a number of range discontinuities will be present. In the framework towards stochastic geometry, conditions are found for the cases when range discontinuities take place. The test objects are pellets for the steel industry. An illuminating laser plane will give range discontinuities at the edges of each individual object. These discontinuities are used to detect and measure the chord created by the intersection of the laser plane and the object. From the measured chords we derive the average diameter and its variance. An improved method is to use a pair of parallel illuminating light planes to extract two chords. The estimation error for this method is not larger than the natural shape fluctuations (the difference in diameter) for the pellets. The laser-camera optronics is sensitive enough both for material on a conveyor belt and free falling material leaving the conveyor.

  • 5. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Structural health monitoring of a concrete bridge in Sweden2006In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 6176, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade the interests in upgrading, assessment and maintenance of our ageing infrastructure has grown avalanche-like. The main reason is economical aspects but also reasons due to accessibility environmental consideration play a vital role. Recently the Swedish and Norwegian Railway Association decided to upgrade the Iron Ore Line "Malmbanan", a railway line for transportation of iron from northern Sweden to the coasts of Norway and Sweden. Here the owner wanted to increase the axle loads from 25 to 30 tons to reduce the transportation costs. In one of the cases, the Luossajokk Bridge, a recalculation according to design codes showed that the increased axle loads would exceed the yield limit in the reinforcement. Before any decision was taken regarding strengthening or replacing the bridge an assessment with probabilistic methods was used. It appeared that the bridge could carry the higher load with a safety index β ≥ 4.7 for reasonable assumptions of the load distributions. A measurement system was installed to check the real worst placement of the new iron ore locomotive (IORE), and the actually level of strains in the reinforcement for the worst load case1. It was shown that the strain level was far from critical and that the evaluated worst placement of the locomotive was almost correct2. To assure a reliable transportation a long term monitoring program was arranged to check the development of strains with time. Examples from the probabilistic evaluation and the monitoring of the bridge are given and discussed.

  • 6.
    Funke, Bernd
    et al.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    López-Puertas, M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Stiller, G.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Clarmann, T. Von
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    New non-LTE retrieval method for atmospheric parameters from MIPAS/ENVISAT emission spectra at 5.3 μm2002In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 4539, p. 396-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric emissions at 5.3 μm will be measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), a high-resolution limb sounder on board the European polar platform ENVISAT, scheduled to be launched in 2001. Measured spectra at 5.3 μm contain information on important atmospheric quantities such as NO volume mixing ratio, thermospheric temperature, and chemical NO production rates. However, the scientific analysis of this spectral region has to deal with complex non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) effects. A conventional non-LTE retrieval approach using ab initio vibrational temperatures cannot be applied due to rotational and spin-orbit non-LTE of NO in the thermosphere, and the dependence of NO state populations on the NO abundance itself caused by chemical excitations. An innovative non-LTE retrieval method enabling the treatment of vibrational, rotational, and spin non-LTE as well as a dependence of the non-LTE state distribution on the retrieval target quantities has thus been developed for the MIPAS data analysis. The ability of the developed non-LTE inversion tool to retrieve NO abundance profiles, thermospheric temperature profiles, and NO mean production rates by NO2 photolysis in the stratosphere and N+O2 combination in the thermosphere is demonstrated by means of a feasibility study.

  • 7. Hejll, Arvid
    et al.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Structural health monitoring of the Gröndals bridge in Sweden: the behaviour of CFRP strengthening in cold temperature2006In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 6176, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To obtain a better knowledge of existing structures behaviour monitoring can be used. The use of monitoring in bridge structures by the use of instruments to assess the integrity of structures is not new and there are reports from structures tested as early as in the 19th century according to ISIS Canada1 However, the term SHM (Structural Health Monitoring) is relatively new to civil engineering and the driving force to implement SHM comes from recognising the limitations of conventional visual inspections and evaluations using conservative codes of practice. The possibilities to monitor existing structures with help of the rapidly evolving Information Technology are to day carried out. The objective of SHM is to monitor the in-situ behaviour of a structure accurately and efficiently, to assess its performance under various service conditions, to detect damage or deterioration, and to determine the health or condition of the structure1. In Sweden strengthening and periodic monitoring of a large freivorbau bridge (pre-stresed concrete box girder bridge) has been carried out, the Gröndals Bridge. The bridge is located in Stockholm and is approximately 400 m in length with a free span of 120 m. It was opened to tram traffic in year 2000. Just after opening cracks were noticed in the webs, these cracks have then increased, the size of the largest cracks exceeded 0.5 mm, and at the end of year 2001 the bridge was temporarily strengthened. This was carried out with externally placed prestressed steel stays. The reason for cracking is quite clear but the responsibility is still debated. Nevertheless, it was evidently that the bridge needed to be strengthened. The strengthening methods used were CFRP plates in the Service Limit State (SLS) and prestressed dywidag stays in the Ultimate Limit State (ULS). The strengthening was carried out during year 2002. At the same time monitoring of the bridge commenced, using LVDT crack gauges as well as optical fibre sensors. This monitoring was carried out during the summer period. In addition to this a winter monitoring was carried out in the beginning of 2005. This paper presents the background to strengthening and a comparison between summer and winter monitoring where the strengthening behaviour between the two seasons is enlightened. The result from the monitoring is very interesting; it would have been preferable to strengthen the bridge during the winter.

  • 8.
    Khodadad, Davood
    et al.
    Tehran University of Medical Science.
    Ahmadian, Alireza Alireza
    Tehran University of Medical Science.
    Ay, Mohammadreza
    Tehran University of Medical Science.
    Esfahani, Armaghan Fard
    Tehran University of Medical Science.
    Banaem, Hossein Yousefi
    Zaidi, Habib
    Geneva University Hospital.
    B-spline based Free Form Deformation Thoracic non-rigid registration of CT and PET images2011In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 8285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate attenuation correction of emission data is mandatory for quantitative analysis of PET images. One of the main concerns in CT-based attenuation correction(CTAC) of PET data in multimodality PET/CT imaging is misalignment between PET and CT images. The aim of this study, is to proposed a hybrid method which is simple, fast and accurate, for registration of PET and CT data which affected from respiratory motion in order to improve the quality of CTAC. The algorithm is composed of three methods: First, using B-spline Free Form Deformation to describe both images and deformation field. Then applying a pre-filtering on both PET and CT images before segmentation of structures in order to reduce the respiratory related attenuation correction artifacts of PET emission data. In this approach, B-spline using FFD provide more accurate adaptive transformation to align the images, and structure constraints obtained from prefiltering applied to guide the algorithm to be more fast and accurate. Also it helps to reduce the radiation dose in PET/CT by avoiding repetition of CT imaging. These advances increase the potential of the method for routine clinical application.

  • 9.
    López-Puertas, M.
    et al.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Funke, B.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    López-Valverde, M. Á
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Clarmann, T. Von
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Stiller, G.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Oelhaf, H.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Fischer, H.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Flaud, J. M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Non-LTE studies for the analysis of MIPAS/ENVISAT data2002In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 4539, p. 381-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a high-resolution limb sounder on board the European polar platform ENVISAT, scheduled for launch late in 2001. Three main characteristics converge in MIPAS which make it a very useful instrument for non-LTE studies: its wide spectral coverage (4.15-14.6 μm or 680-2275 cm-1); high spectral resolution (0.03 cm-1), and high sensitivity; all of this in addition to its global spatial coverage. In this paper we present an overview of the non-LTE studies that have been carried out in preparation for the analysis of MIPAS data, including the evaluation of non-LTE effects in the operational processing, focussed in the stratosphere, and the retrieval of species that normally emit under non-LTE conditions. The current mission plan for measuring the non-LTE upper atmosphere is described, as well as the general purpose non-LTE retrieval scheme developed for analyzing those measurements.

  • 10. Milz, Mathias
    et al.
    Clarmann, Thomas von
    Automated quality control of scene and residual FTIR spectra1999In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 3821, p. 404-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectrally high-resolved infrared spectra from Fourier transform experiments are often used to determine atmospheric parameters. Reliability of results depends on the quality of the measured spectra and on the successful fit of modeled spectra to the measured ones. Algorithms are presented which enable automated quality control of measured spectra as well as the differences between measured and the calculated spectra, so-called residual spectra. The measured scene spectrum is checked for successful phase correction, the compliance of given maximum and minimum envelope functions, spectral patterns in the variance spectrum, which is calculated during coaddition of several spectra, if applicable. The symmetry of isolated lines, the consistence of expected and real noise, and the plausibility of the magnitude of background radiation are assessed.The quality of the spectral fit first is assessed by means of the X2-test and, is checked for superimposed functions, periodicities, spectral signatures, and conspicuous determine possible calculated spectra.

  • 11. Milz, Mathias
    et al.
    Clarmann, Thomas von
    Stiller, Gabriele
    Fischer, Herbert
    Retrieval of water vapour in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere from mipas envisat limb emission spectra1999In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 3756, p. 536-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global Measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) are required to assess its influence on the radiation budget of the Earth and for its use as a suitable tracer for the study of troposphere-stratosphere exchange processes(STE). MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) is a Fourier transform spectrometer measuring limb emission spectra. The field of view of the satellite-borne MIPAS/Envisat is rather wide compared to horizontal and vertical structures in real water vapor distributions (e.g. hygropause). Our aim is to derive UT/LS water vapor profiles from MIPAS/Envisat data with optimized spatial resolution and accuracy. The retrieval errors and vertical resolution were assessed in an altitude- range 5 - 25 km with respect to a MIPAS standard observation scenario and the retrieval of the water vapor profile to be performed on the measurement grid. As target parameters we used water vapor and continuum in the first case and water vapor, temperature and continuum in the second scenario. Improvements by joint retrieval of water vapor and temperature are investigated, in particular for saturated H2O- signatures originating fromthe troposphere. The vertical resolution was estimated by the use of so-called averaging kernels. 

  • 12. Miroshnikova, N.
    et al.
    Yalukova, O.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sarady, Istvan
    Study of the interaction mechanisms between different materials and pulses from CO2 and Nd:YAG-lasers using digital speckle photography₂₂2004In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 5506, p. 42-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed irradiation from CO2- and Nd:YAG lasers focused on the front side of different plates produces nearly instantaneous surface changes on the rear side of the plate. The responses of the materials depend on physical parameters such as pulse energy and duration, photon energy, the absorption and mechanical characteristics of the target material. The equipment built up for visualization of these phenomena consists of a cw. He-Ne laser, a digital CCD camera and a fast computer. The analysis is done using Digital Speckle Photography (DSP). Using focused and defocused laser speckle patterns, DSP enables measurement of in-plane strain fields, Brownian motion and residual micro-structural changes in the material caused by a laser pulse. Results are obtained at the frame rate of the digital camera and allow the creation of animated real-time or "movie" sequences. Results from CO2- and Nd:YAG pulse interaction on Al2O3 ceramics and steel plates will be presented. The Brownian motion during the relaxation phase is more or less localized to the impacted area for both materials and both wavelengths but the relaxation times differ significantly. Steel also exhibits some residual material changes and doesn't recover completely while Al2O3 returns to its initial state some time after the impact

  • 13. Schedin, Staffan
    et al.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Finnström, Marie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Measurement of the density field around an airgun muzzle by pulsed TV holography1999In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, no 3823, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The density distribution in the air surrounding an airgun muzzle is visualized using pulsed TV holography. A ruby laser emitting short coherent light pulses (30 ns) is used as light source. Pulsed holograms are captured by a CCD-camera and their optical phase difference is evaluated by means of the Fourier transform method. A number of experiments are performed where the event is recorded at different instants of time as the lead bullet is about to leave the muzzle. Phase maps showing the integrated density distribution are presented. A jet with decreasing density ahead of the bullet can be observed. At the moment the bullet leaves the muzzle, a spherical sound pressure wave starts to propagate out into the air. The density in the jet in front of the traveling bullet can be calculated by means of full shock-wave theory. The theory confirms the decrease in density observed in the measurements

  • 14.
    Synnergren, Per
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Mechanical testing using digital speckle photography2000In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, no 4101, p. 399-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some recent applications of stereoscopic and two-dimensional digital speckle photography in experimental mechanics are presented. The examples include uses of both laser speckles and white light speckles. Topics covered are: control of the flow front when manufacturing fibre reinforced polymer composites by a closed molding process, measurement of internal deformations at high strain rates, and in opaque specimens, using flashed x-ray radiation. It is also shown how defocused laser speckles can be used to measure in-plane strain fields without the need of numerical differentiation and how laser speckles can be used to monitor the extent of the plastic zone in materials.

  • 15.
    Verdes, Carmen
    et al.
    Universität Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics.
    Buehler, Stefan
    Kuenzi, Klaus
    Universität Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics.
    Derivation of molecular species profiles, atmospheric temperature profile, and instrumental pointing from SMILES instrument2003In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 4482, p. 408-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent progress in sub-millimeter wave receiver technology gives the possibility to drastically improve the quality of limb sounding data by use of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer element. This receiver will detect molecular spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio one order of magnitude better than the conventional ambient-temperature Schottky receiver. SMILES (Superconductor Submillimeter-wave Limb-emission Sounder) is proposed by the Communications Research Laboratory and the National Space Agency of Japan, with technical support from the National Astronomical Observatory, and with scientific support from the University of Bremen, in order to demonstrate the new sub-millimeter wave technology in space, and to conduct the measurements of limb-emission sounding for a group of molecular species profiles. In order to anticipate the performance of the instrument, retrieval simulations are carried out. Synthetic measurements, as will be recorded by the SMILES instrument, are generated by the use of a forward model. These are then inverted, using an inversion model, in order to derive the variables of interest, such as molecular species profiles (e.g., O3, ClO, HCl), atmospheric temperature profile, or a first order instrumental pointing correction (i.e., a pointing offset). The applied inversion algorithm is the optimal estimation method (OEM). The advantage of the OEM is that it allows a formal error analysis needed for a general error characterization of retrieval performance. The error analysis takes into consideration the total statistical error, the measurement error, the vertical altitude resolution, and the correlation between the retrieved quantities. The altitude domain of a good measurement sensibility is defined by the measurement response.

  • 16.
    Winick, Jeremy R.
    et al.
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
    Mlynczak, M. G.
    NASA Langley Research Center.
    Wintersteiner, P. P.
    ARCON Corp., Waltham.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Analytical Services and Materials Inc., Hampton.
    Picard, R. H.
    Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
    Paxton, L.
    Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel.
    Lopez-Puertas, M.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía CSIC, Granada.
    Russell, J. M.
    Hampton University.
    Christensen, A.
    Aerospace Corp..
    Gordley, L.
    GATS, Inc..
    Thermospheric infrared radiance response to the April 2002 geomagnetic storm from SABER infrared and GUVI ultraviolet limb data2004In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 5235, p. 250-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SABER instrument on TIMED continuously measures certain infrared limb radiance profiles with unprecedented sensitivity. Among these are emissions of CO 2 v 3 at 4.3 μm, routinely recorded to tangent heights of ∼140-150 km, and NO at 5.3 μm, seen to above 200 km. Both of these are greatly enhanced during periods of strong auroral activity, when they can be measured to ∼200 km and ∼300 km, respectively. We use these infrared channels of SABER and coincident far ultraviolet (FUV) measurements from GUVI on TIMED, to study the geomagnetic storm of April 2002. These all give a consistent measure of auroral energy input into the lower thermosphere at high latitudes. Emission in yet another SABER channel, near 2.0 μm, correlates well with enhanced electron energy deposition. We also have, in the 5.3-μm emissions from the long-lived population of aurorally produced NO, a tracer of how this energy is transported equatorward and released over an extended period of time, a few days. In this paper, we discuss the global patterns of energy deposition into the expanded auroral oval, its transport to lower latitudes, and its loss as revealed by the NO 5.3-μm emissions.

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