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  • 1.
    Abeysekera, John
    et al.
    ndustrial Ergonomics, Work Science Academy (WSA), Linköping.
    Illankoon, Prasanna
    Work Science Academy (WSA), Kandana, Sri Lanka.
    The demands and benefits of ergonomics in Sri Lankan apparel industry2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 255-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apparel exports bring in sizeable foreign income to Sri Lanka. To protect and promote this industry is a paramount need. This can be carried out by applying Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) which has proved to control negative effects at work places. This paper reports a case study which describes the demands and benefits of HFE in MAS Holdings which owns a large share of the apparel industry in Sri Lanka.The study consisted of walk through observation survey, a questionnaire survey and ergonomic work place analysis followed by a training programme to selected employees in three companies.Positive responses to questionnaires revealed good ergonomic practices in the work places surveyed. Ergonomically unfit chairs and potential hazards e.g. exposure to noise and hot environment were detected. It is seen that MAS have introduced strategies originated by Toyota Production System viz. 5S, Kaizen, six sigma etc., which are in fact ergonomic methods. A progressive project MAS boast of viz. ‘MAS Operating System’ (MOS) empowers training and development to employees.MAS Holdings has adequately realized the benefits of applying HFE as evident by the number of awards received. Relevant companies were advised to take appropriate corrective measures to control the potential hazards.

  • 2.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Bonnevier, Sara Sällström
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Danielsson, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    How to increase safety in complex systems: an ongoing project2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3234-3237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to describe an ongoing project with the aim of improving safety in an organization working with maintenance and development of the railway infrastructure in Sweden. The first sub goal was to investigate the Genta method, with 62 employees resulted in a description of these latent errors in the organization.eral Failure Types in the organization. Seminars and interviews, based on the Tripod Del Recommendations for an improvement toward a safety culture was suggested, action plans were formulated and, in some cases, implemented. A follow up study is planned in a two year perspective

  • 3.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    The alarm system and a possible way forward2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 2840-2844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to make a review of studies concerning problems with alarm systems and to make a theoretical analysis of these problems. The aim is also to show some general design ideas to improve alarm presentation in process descriptions. Using research results from situation awareness and decision making a number of suggestions for further development of alarm systems are presented. Recommendations include providing operators of complex systems feedback that can support their mental models and situational awareness. Furthermore a recommendation is to design alarm systems that can learn from experience

  • 4.
    Broström, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science. Vehicle HMI-Dept 94750, Driver Interaction & Infotainmen t, Volvo Car Corporation PV32, SE-405 31 Göteborg.
    Davidsson, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science. Vehicle HMI-Dept 94750, Driver Interaction & Infotainmen t, Volvo Car Corporation PV32, SE-405 31 Göteborg.
    Towards a model to interpret driver behaviour in terms of mismatch between real world complexity and invested effort2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 5068-5074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving behaviour has been less documented than driver workload. The possibilities to define a framework that could be part of a driving behaviour model were investigated. The results present a framework that defines twelve scenarios in which drivers have misinterpreted a driving situation. The descriptions show evidence of increased user experience for some scenarios while other indicates reduced traffic safety. The results suggest that by using the framework-descriptions on how and why mismatches occur, design guidelines for in-vehicle systems can be developed.

  • 5.
    Dahlberg, Raymond
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Bildt, Carina
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Vingård, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Educational background: Different processes and consequences on health and physical and mental exposures among women and men2007In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To compare health and exposures at work and at home of women and men with the same educational background. METHODS: The study group consisted of 3831 individuals, grouped into three educational categories based on length of education. Category 1, which represents 9-year compulsory school; Category 2, which includes 3-year upper secondary school, i.e. in total 12 years of education; and Category 3, which includes post-secondary school, such as university. They responded to a questionnaire that included questions on health and exposures at work and at home. RESULTS: Significant differences were shown in health outcomes between women and men with the same educational background and also in exposures in their professional and private lives. Associations between educational background and health were found and analyses revealed that men with a university education run the lowest risk of developing ill health. CONCLUSION: Women with the same educational background as men are differently exposed, both in paid and unpaid work, due to the segregated labour market and the unequal distribution of domestic duties. Men in all educational categories studied had better health compared to women with the same educational background.

  • 6.
    Danielsson, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Alm, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Usability and decision support systems in emergency management2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3455-3458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The actors in charge of an emergency response are confronted with severe difficulties in coordination and decision making, especially in major accidents. To facilitate coordination, various decision support systems (DSS) integrated in communication systems have been developed. However, many DSS in the rescue service organizations are afflicted with under-use and other usability problems. Drawing on both a literature review and an analysis of recently obtained survey data from rescue personnel concerning usability of common communication system in Swedish emergency organizations, this paper addresses the issue of usability of DSS. It is concluded that the impetus for developing DSS in many cases has been the technological possibilities per se, not taking the decision makers task structure and contextual factors into account. It is argued that priority should be given to functions that provide a visual overview of the event and facilitate storing of the series of decisions made during the response

  • 7.
    Davidsson, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science. Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Countermeasure drowsiness by design: using common behaviour2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 5062-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study takes a starting point in what drivers do to avoid drowsiness while driving instead of starting with what researchers know is efficient (Take a short nap). It is concluded that research is missing when it comes to how efficient common behavior countermeasures are and that there is a mismatch between research and how people actually behave. A three stage approach which includes identification, information and countermeasure is suggested. Furthermore are a few ideas of what car manufacturers can do to support human behavior presented

  • 8.
    Fjell, Ylva
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Section of Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Karlqvist, Lena
    Bildt, Carina
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Self-reported musculoskeletal pain and working conditions among employees in the Swedish public sector2007In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal disorders constitute a considerable public health problem, often resulting in sickness absence, particularly in public sector employees. Increased knowledge on how this is related to individual and work-related factors is required. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between self-reported musculoskeletal pain and the following factors: physical and psychosocial work conditions, lifestyle, psychosomatic symptoms and sick leave. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed by a total of 2523 people, of which 87% were women and 13% men. The participants were employed in public hospitals, educational institutions, home care services for the elderly and domestic/catering services in a Swedish county. The response rate was 92%. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the high level of self-reported musculoskeletal pain was highly associated with strenuous physical and psychosocial work conditions. The physical factor with the highest odds ratio (OR) was working in a forward-bent position. High work demands was the most prominent psychosocial factor and distinctly associated with musculoskeletal pain among men. Physical work strain and other demanding working conditions, which were associated with musculoskeletal pain, were frequent among employees in home care services for the elderly and domestic/catering services. There was a strong association between long-term sick leave and high musculoskeletal pain. Furthermore, there was a strong association between a high level of musculoskeletal pain and the exhibition of psychosomatic symptoms in both women and men; this is an interaction that may intensify the total experience of illness and thus needs to be further investigated.

  • 9.
    Gard, Gunvor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Larsson, Agneta
    How can cooperation between rehabilitation professionals in rehabilitation planning be improved?2006In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 191-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that there are often problems with cooperation between rehabilitation professionals within vocational rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to describe employers' experiences of how cooperation between different rehabilitation professionals can be improved in a vocational rehabilitation planning process. Ten employers who had sent their employees to vocational rehabilitation at a rehabilitation centre in the north of Sweden during 2000 and 2001 participated in the study. Qualitative interviews were performed and analysed by thematic content analysis. The employers' cooperation with clients could be improved by a focus on clients' needs and participation in the rehabilitation process. The employers cooperation with Social Insurance companies could be improved by, 1) early prevention and intervention, 2) knowledge of each other's roles, responsibilities and opportunities and 3) priority making. The employers' cooperation with rehabilitation professionals could be improved by, 1) early identification of rehabilitation needs and goals and early rehabilitation and, 2) increased focus on own responsibilities from each part in the process.

  • 10.
    Haraldsson, P.
    et al.
    Värnamo Sjukhus, Arbetsmiljoenheten.
    Jonker, D.
    Värnamo Sjukhus, Arbetsmiljoenheten.
    Strengbom, E.
    Värnamo Sjukhus, Arbetsmiljoenheten.
    Areskoug Josefsson, Kristina
    Värnamo Hospital, Samrehab.
    Structured Multidisciplinary work Evaluation Tool: Development and validation of a multidisciplinary work questionnaire2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 883-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Important success factors for the Occupational Health Service (OHS) include services being based on active participation and risk identification from a multidisciplinary/multifactorial perspective. Despite an extensive search, no questionnaire with this approach was found so a new questionnaire was developed at the OHS. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the new questionnaire named Structured Multidisciplinary work Evaluation Tool (SMET) through action research. METHOD: Communicative and pragmatic validity were tested through the development of the questionnaire using action theory and presented in a descriptive portrayal. The Content Validity Index (CVI) was used to test content validity for each item as well as for the questionnaire as a whole. RESULT: Communicative and pragmatic validity were developed and tested over time in four different periods between 2008 and 2014, in 24 clinics (with a total of approximately 1000 employees) in Region Jonkoping County. The content validity of the SMET questionnaire as a whole was close to excellent and the validity of the questions regarding physically and psychosocially demanding work factors were found to be excellent. The questions regarding environmentally demanding work factors were found to have a lower, but still good, validity. CONCLUSION: The SMET questionnaire has very good content validity. The pervasive work with the SMET questionnaire also shows good pragmatic and communicative validity.

  • 11.
    Helali, Faramarz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    How could you use the ergonomics 'knowhow' transfer management to enhance human working for sustainable improvements in industrially developing countries?2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 2730-2735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the different strategic understanding from getting ergonomics intervention programmes' conversations to 'Tip', including minimizing strategies; tipping point strategies; and maximizing strategies from building ergonomics intervention techniques. Those have indicated to different recognitions: 1) when amplification of the 'problem' is necessary; 2) when amplification of the 'tipping point' is necessary, and 3) when amplification of the 'success' is necessary. The practical applications and implications of the ergonomics intervention techniques are drawn from the findings of framing positive questions: 1) what is successful ergonomics intervention technique right now (Appreciative)? 2) What do we need to change for a better future (Imagine)? 3) How do we do this (Design)? 4) Who takes action and with what consequences (Act)? This requires re-framing of the ergonomics intervention techniques in an appreciative way, because of, the future action needs to be inspired by those things that participants feel are worth valuing, worth celebrating and sustaining.

  • 12.
    Illankoon, Prasanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Abeysekera, John
    Work Science Academy, Sweden.
    Singh, Sarbjeet
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Government College of Engineering & Technology, Jammu.
    Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 271-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined.

    OBJECTIVES:

    This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections.

    METHODS:

    Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:

    As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  • 13.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle.
    Björkeholm, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University.
    Marsh, John E.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Department of Building, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle.
    Office noise: Can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 505-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition.

    METHODS:

    30 students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design.

    RESULTS:

    Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked- and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high - suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  • 14.
    Månsson Lexell, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Langdell, I.
    1Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Lexell, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Vocational situation and experiences from the work environment among individuals with neuromuscular diseases2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 519-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular diseases (NMD) can affect the ability to be employed and to work, but there is limited knowledge of individuals' own perspectives of factors that are important for their vocational situation. OBJECTIVE: To explore the vocational situation among people with NMD that are employed, and to describe their experiences of how their disability, personal and environmental factors influence their ability to continue to work. METHODS: Nine participants with different NMD were included. A mixed-methods design was used, and data were collected by means of semi-structured and open-ended interviews, and ratings of aspects supporting or interfering with their work performance and the ability to continue to work. Data were analyzed with directed content analysis based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The participants' personal characteristics, support from others at work and at home, and a flexible work organization were perceived as important factors facilitating work continuation, whereas physically demanding work assignments and factors in the physical environment were perceived as barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of how personal characteristics as well as support from the work organization, managers and family members can facilitate the ability to work is important for employers, staff within different parts of the health care system, and the social security system. Future research should focus on interventions that are best suited to enhance the vocational situation for individuals with NMD

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Ines
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Fitinghoff, Hélène
    Department of Neurotec, Division of Occupational Therapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge.
    Lilja, Margareta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Continuing to work after the onset of rheumatoid arthritis2007In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 335-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe what have made it possible for a group of people with rheumatoid arthritis to remain in work. There were ten participants, six women and four men, aged from 32 to 59. They were working either full time or part-time, at the time the study was conducted. Data was gathered using focus group interviews. The transcribed interviews were analysed in accordance with the constant comparative method. The result showed that the assets the individuals possessed and the character of the environment in which they worked were important reasons why they were able to remain in employment. Four main categories were identified: the constructive value of work, the characteristics of work, physical health and well-being and the understanding and support of colleagues. The findings support a client-centred occupational therapy and rehabilitation, where the experiences of the person provide the reason for the intervention

  • 16.
    Reinholdt, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Section of Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    A narrative insight into disability pensioners’ work experiences in highly gender-segregated occupations2009In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 251-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined some plausible explanations for the higher rates of ill-health seen in extremely gender-segregated occupations. The focus was on the work experiences of disability pensioners with last jobs prior to pensioning characterized by segregated conditions (i.e., less than 10% of the employees of their own sex). Seven interviews were subjected to qualitative content analyses focusing on aspects of health selection, gender differences in work tasks, and in the work situation. The results show a negative health selection into occupations in which the participants constitute an extreme minority. There were some differences in work tasks between the gender in extreme minority and the other gender. Exposure to different stress factors related to the minority status included increased visibility, performance pressure, and harassment. Gender had been of main importance for differences in exposure, for assigning work tasks, and for interaction dynamics between the groups in majority and extreme minority. Conclusions: A combination of negative health selection, gender marking of work tasks, and group interaction dynamics related to group proportions and gender may play a role in cumulative health risks. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to identify mechanisms and interactions in this context in order to better understand possible relationships between occupational gender segregation and increased health risks.

  • 17.
    Reinholdt, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Upmark, Marianne
    Section of Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Section of Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Health-selection mechanisms in the pathway towards a disability pension2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies emphasizing the disability pension (DP) process are rare. Objective: To identify similarities and differences in work and health between persons who, prior to DP changed jobs due to health-reasons (health-selectors) to other disability pensioners. Participants: a retrospective cohort study was performed on a random sample of all individuals in three counties of Sweden who, in 1998, were under the age of 65 and had been granted DP. Methods: A questionnaire was administered in 2000 (n=917, response rate 52%). The responses and register data on sickness absence in 1990 - 1998 and DP diagnoses were analysed. Results: The health-selection group had lower self-perceived health; more partial sick-leave days during the eight years preceding DP, and DP diagnoses were more often musculoskeletal and psychiatric disorders, than the other disability pensioners. The groups did not differ regarding occupational affiliation before the last job. For subjects in the health-selection group, the job change did more often not involve a change of employer, and more had switched to jobs entailing less physical strain, particularly customer service work. Work history did not differ between the groups regarding the average level of physical work demands during the work career, however, disparities were found in the distribution of demands. Conclusions: The findings pinpoint the importance of studying disability pensioning as a process over time in order to identify and elucidate how exposure and selection interact and contribute to early exclusion from the labour ma

  • 18.
    Sandberg, Karl W.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Stubbs, Jonathan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the rehabilitation of individuals with severe functional impairments in a municipal care service system2005In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the development of a scheme to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the training of individuals with severe functional impairments. Computers were used as an integral part of a rehabilitation programme for training, and the authors found that the resource was a useful addition to other treatment methods. This article describes the development and subsequent setting up of computers for training and how the study progressed. The study used a somewhat unique bottom up approach that first trained care-giving staff in computer skills. The caregivers in turn worked with and trained some of those they served. This learning strategy drew upon the concept of learning, empowerment and the motivation of all involved in a system and process. The study found that by using ICT all involved felt a greater sense of empowerment and improvement in the quality of life. That caregivers were involved at all stages was valuable in that they felt an ownership of the process and that they also benefited from being involved because they also learned new skills

  • 19.
    Vinberg, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Gelin, Gunnar
    Daphne Research.
    Organizational and health performance in small enterprises in Norway and Sweden2005In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 305-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on relationships between organizational factors such as leadership, learning, psychosocial work environment and quality aspects as they relate to organizational and health performance outcomes in 42 small enterprises in Norway and Sweden. A rather explorative analysis model was created using indicators that were based on theoretical concepts from a literature review and questionnaire data, concerning 988 employees and leaders. These indicators were then used for correlation analysis. The enterprise is the unit of analysis. Some strong links between organizational factors and organizational and health performance were found. There was also a strong relation between health performance and sickness absence. Using structural analyses, a structure containing six general components, and strong interrelationships between some indicators of organizational performance and health performance were found. It was also possible to position the enterprises according to two general dimensions. As a general guideline for action, the results tend to support the perspective that positive organizational development is related to health performance and a lowering of absence due to sickness. The findings support the strategies of practitioners who use a concept-driven or holistic approach that integrates several facets of workplace development

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