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  • 1.
    Berglund, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The assessment of households' recycling costs: the role of personal motives2006In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 560-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes households' perceptions of recycling activities in a municipality in northern Sweden, Piteå. The purpose of the paper is to analyze whether moral motives matter for the assessment of households' waste sorting costs. Data were gathered using a mail-out survey to 850 randomly chosen individuals in the municipality of Piteå, Sweden. We employ an economic model of moral motivation and econometric techniques. The main result that follows from the analysis is that the results support the notion that moral motives significantly lower the costs associated with household recycling efforts.

  • 2.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Department of Economic History, Umeå university.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970-19902013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, p. 6-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

  • 3.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Thörn, Martina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    The adoption of green public procurement practices: Analytical challenges and empirical illustration on Swedish municipalities2023In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 204, article id 107655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the adoption of green public procurement (GPP) practices at the local authority level. A conceptual contribution of the paper is an analytical framework, which acknowledges that the adoption of green criteria in tenders should be modelled as a conditionally independent decision from the decision to rely on GPP strategies (guidelines). This approach can help provide novel insights into how various political, organizational, and individual characteristics influence GPP. The paper provides an empirical illustration by concentrating on the role of organizational size. This analysis is based on survey responses from civil servants representing 140 Swedish municipalities. The results are based on the bivariate ordered probit estimator and suggest that large municipalities are more likely to rely on GPP strategies but also less prone to adopt green criteria in tenders when controlling for the presence of such strategies. In large organizations, the centralization of the procurement implies efficiency gains, but it will often be accompanied with longer organizational distances between the procuring and the environmental departments. The paper also highlights the wider implications of the proposed framework, including how future research on GPP practices could approach the role of various political and individual factors.

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  • 4.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Book review: Protecting the commons: a framework for resource management in the Americas2002In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 457-458Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of: Protecting the commons. A framework for resource management in the Americas Edited by Joanna Burger, Elinor Ostrom, Richard B. Norgaard, David Policansky and Bernard D. Goldstein, Island Press, Washington DC, 2001, ISBN 1-55963-738-2

  • 5.
    Dikgang, Johane
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Environmental-Economics Policy Research Unit (EPRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Environmental-Economics Policy Research Unit (EPRU), School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    The valuation of biodiversity conservation by the South African Khomani San "bushmen" community2012In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 84, p. 7-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The restitution of parkland to the Khomani San "bushmen" and Mier "agricultural" communities in May 2002 marked a significant shift in conservation in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and environs in South Africa. Biodiversity conservation will benefit from this land restitution only if the Khomani San, who interact with nature more than do other groups, are good environmental stewards. To assess their attitude toward biodiversity conservation, this study used the contingent valuation method to investigate the economic values the communities assign to biodiversity conservation under three land tenure arrangements in the Kgalagadi area. For each community and land tenure arrangement, there are winners and losers, but the winners benefit by more than the cost that losers suffer. The net worth for biodiversity conservation under the various land tenure regimes ranged from R928 to R3456 to R4160 for municipal land, parkland, and communal land respectively for the Khomani San, compared to R25. 600 to R57. 600 to R64. 000 for municipal land, parkland, and communal land respectively for the Mier.

  • 6.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Department of Economics, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    Wind farms — Where and how to place them?: A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 105, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores preferences among the general public in Sweden for attributes related to the establishment of wind power farms. The method applied is a choice experiment where people are asked to choose between two hypothetical wind farms characterized by different attributes. Five attributes are included in the experiment: (i) type of landscape, (ii) type of ownership, (iii) the degree of local participation in the planning process, (iv) the choice to transfer revenue to the society in a pre-specified way, and (v) a monetary cost in terms of an additional electricity certificate fee. The data are analyzed with multinomial logit, random parameter logit, and latent class models. The results indicate that consumers in Sweden are more likely to accept the higher renewable electricity certificate fee if: (a) wind power farms in areas used for recreational purposes are substantially avoided, (b) the establishment is anchored by whole or partial ownership in the local community and, (c) the locals are involved in the planning and implementation process. Our policy simulation exercise shows that respondents are willing to pay a higher electricity fee corresponding to about 0.6 Euro cents per kWh to avoid wind farms located in the mountainous area and private ownership.

  • 7. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Norms and economic motivation in the Swedish green electricity market2008In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 68, no 1-2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an econometric analysis of the most important determinants of Swedish households' choice to pay a price premium for "green" electricity. We draw on recent developments in the literature on integrating norm-motivated behavior into neoclassical consumer theory, and assume that individuals have a preference for keeping a self-image as a morally responsible person. Consumer behavior in the "green market place" will then be heavily determined by how purchases of different goods affect this self-image. The analysis is based on postal survey responses from 655 Swedish households, which are analyzed within a binary choice econometric framework. The results indicate that the impact of choosing "green" on the household budget largely influences the choice between "green" and "brown" electricity, as does the degree of perceived personal responsibility for the issue and the felt ability to affect the outcome in a positive way. We find limited support for the notion that perceptions about others' behavior in general affect individual moral norms and ultimately expressed behavior, but this is also complemented by the influence of explicit social influence. The difficulty in observing others' purchases makes it however difficult to distinguish between social and moral norms in the case of "green" electricity.

  • 8. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technology learning in the presence of public R&D: the case of European wind power2010In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 2356-2362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the role of technology learning in European wind power generation in the presence of public R&D. A Cobb-Douglas cost function is employed to derive a learning curve model for wind power, thus illustrating how the investment costs for this technology are influenced by global learning-by-doing, scale effects, and a European R&D-based knowledge stock. We assume that public R&D expenses targeting wind power add to the above stock, and these R&D outlays are in turn hypothesized to be influenced by technology cost levels, the opportunity cost of public R&D as well as by government budget constraints. We estimate the learning and the R&D model, respectively, using a panel data set covering five European countries over the time period 1986-2002. The empirical results confirm the importance of both learning-by-doing and public R&D support in the cost reduction process, and governments' R&D expenses have declined in response to lowered investment costs. This is efficient in the sense that public funds are best targeted at technologies which are far from being commercial. The results also illustrate that governments in Europe have been sensitive to the opportunity cost of public R&D in the energy R&D budget process.

  • 9.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University.
    Nguyen Thu, Huong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Division of Mathematical Statistics, Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Weak support for weak sustainability: Genuine savings and long-term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850 – 20002018In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 145, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study genuine savings as an indicator of long-term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive ‘green’ national accounts for this entire period and is, therefore, interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, namely that genuine savings are correlated with future economic well-being. However, the stronger hypotheses in this literature are not supported: there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, or with more comprehensive savings measures. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good forward-looking indicator of future prosperity.

  • 10.
    Luyanga, Shadrick
    et al.
    Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Rural Development.
    Miller, Richard
    IPA Energy Consulting.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, Umeå University.
    Index number analysis of Namibian water intensity2006In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 374-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ntuli, Herbert
    et al.
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch .
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Effects of wildlife resources on community welfare in Southern Africa2017In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 131, p. 572-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates the importance of wildlife in the portfolio of environmental income in the livelihoods of poor rural communities living adjacent to a national park. The results show that wealthier households use more wildlife resources in total than do relatively poor households. However, poorer households derive greater proportional benefit than wealthier households from the use of wildlife resources. Excluding wildlife understates the relative contribution of environmental resources while at the same time overstating the relative contribution of farm and wage income. Wildlife income alone accounts for about a 5.5% reduction in the proportion of people living below the poverty line. Furthermore, wildlife income has an equalizing effect, bringing about a 5.4% reduction in measured inequality. Regression analysis suggests that the likelihood of belonging to a wealthier category of income increases with an increase in environmental income. As expected, household wealth significantly and positively affects environmental income generated by households. This seems to suggest that wildlife-based land reform also needs to empower poor households in the area of capital accumulation while imposing restraints on the use of capital investments by well-off households to harvest wildlife.

  • 12.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Pricing environmental externalities in the power sector: ethical limits and implications for social choice2003In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 333-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, a series of valuation studies have made attempts at estimating the external environmental costs of various power generation sources. The purposes of this paper are: (a) to explore some of the ethical limits of the economic valuation of environmental impacts; and (b) to analyze what the implications are of these limits for the social choice between different electric power sources. Environmental valuation based on welfare economic theory builds on restrictive behavioral foundations and can only partly model moral values, although such values are an essential part of people's preference towards the environment. In addition, public preferences are seldom exogenously given as is commonly assumed in economic theory, but are instead formed in public discourse. For this reason, the range of electricity externalities where economic valuation (and thus cost–benefit analysis) should be applied is likely to be narrower than often assumed. After analyzing the scope, methodology and the results of the so-called ExternE project, the paper concludes that many power generation externalities are either inherently ‘new’ or inherently ‘complex’. In these cases, the initial challenge lies not in ‘discovering’ private preferences, but in specifying the conditions for public discourse over common ways of understanding what the pertinent issues are about. This implies that research on the environmental externalities of power generation must, in addition to refining the theory and the applications of existing non-market valuation techniques, also address the instruments and content of political and moral debate.

  • 13.
    Thondhlana, Gladman
    et al.
    Rhodes University, Department of Environmental Science.
    Muchapondwa, Edwin
    School of Economics, University of Cape Town.
    Dependence on environmental resources and implications for household welfare: Evidence from the Kalahari drylands, South Africa2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 108, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines dependence on environmental resources and impacts on household welfare among the indigenous San and Mier rural communities neighbouring Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa. Data on the various household income types, including environmental income, were collected through a structured survey of 200 households. Environmental income constituted 20% of the total income. The poorest income quintile showed the highest relative dependence on environmental income (31%), though absolute environmental income increased with total income.Poverty analyses showed that poverty incidence and poverty gap would increase by 13 and 7 percentage points respectively without environmental income. Gini-coefficient analyses revealed that income inequality would increase by 6 percentage points for all households if environmental income was excluded. The results generally suggest that environmental income is important for both the poor and the well-off, and wealth accumulation might be tied to resource use. There is a case for promoting sound environmental management, and sustainable and fair resource use in the Kalahari drylands in order to help pull more households out of poverty. Our findings also point to issues of heterogeneity in resource access even among indigenous communities previously thought to be homogenous. These should be key considerations for conservation interventions

  • 14.
    Wollni, Meike
    et al.
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Georg-August-University of Goettingen.
    Spatial patterns of organic agriculture adoption: Evidence from Honduras2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 97, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
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