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  • 1.
    Dadhich, Siddharth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Key challenges in automation of earth-moving machines2016In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 68, p. 212-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wheel loader is an earth-moving machine used in construction sites, gravel pits and mining to move blasted rock, soil and gravel. In the presence of a nearby dump truck, the wheel loader is said to be operating in a short loading cycle. This paper concerns the moving of material (soil, gravel and fragmented rock) by a wheel loader in a short loading cycle with more emphasis on the loading step. Due to the complexity of bucket-environment interactions, even three decades of research efforts towards automation of the bucket loading operation have not yet resulted in any fully autonomous system. This paper highlights the key challenges in automation and tele-remote operation of earth-moving machines and provides a survey of different areas of research within the scope of the earth-moving operation. The survey of publications presented in this paper is conducted with an aim to highlight the previous and ongoing research work in this field with an effort to strike a balance between recent and older publications. Another goal of the survey is to identify the research areas in which knowledge essential to automate the earth moving process is lagging behind. The paper concludes by identifying the knowledge gaps to give direction to future research in this field.

  • 2.
    Dadhich, Siddharth
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Martinsson, Torbjörn
    Volvo CE, Bolindervägen 5, 63185 Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Field test of neural-network based automatic bucket-filling algorithm for wheel-loaders2019In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 97, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation of earth-moving industries (construction, mining and quarry) require automatic bucket-filling algorithms for efficient operation of front-end loaders. Autonomous bucket-filling is an open problem since three decades due to difficulties in developing useful earth models (soil, gravel and rock) for automatic control. Operators make use of vision, sound and vestibular feedback to perform the bucket-filling operation with high productivity and fuel efficiency. In this paper, field experiments with a small time-delayed neural network (TDNN) implemented in the bucket control-loop of a Volvo L180H front-end loader filling medium coarse gravel are presented. The total delay time parameter of the TDNN is found to be an important hyperparameter due to the variable delay present in the hydraulics of the wheel-loader. The TDNN network successfully performs the bucket-filling operation after an initial period (100 examples) of imitation learning from an expert operator. The demonstrated solution show only 26% longer bucket-filling time, an improvement over manual tele-operation performance.

  • 3.
    Edrees, Tarek
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nikolakopoulos, George
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Comfort Level Identification for Irregular Multi-storey Building Subjected to Vibrations2015In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 50, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the System Identification approach is being used to identify the vertical frequencies of the top storey in a multi-storey building prefabricated from reinforced concrete in Stockholm. Before building construction, detailed investigation indicated that the building will not be affected by train vibrations from the nearby railway yard. After building completion, disturbing vibrations were observed in the building. Three measurement types namely: ambient vibration test, forced vibration test on the rails, and forced vibration test have been performed in order to specify the probable reasons for these vibrations. Five methods of structural identification approach, specifically: ARX, ARMAX, BJ, OEand State Space Models have been implemented for the identification process in this study usingthe tests' results. All the test types and model structures utilized have identified a concentration inthe floor only, which is close to the frequencies of human body parts. Furthermore, the article concludes that the ARMAX model and the Output Error model have indicated an excellent performance to predict the mathematical models of vibration's propagation in the building, when compared with other models used from the three types of tests. In addition, the results of the aforementioned system identification methods, implemented for this study, have indicated that there are no other reasons for the disturbing vibrations still observed in the building. Furthermore, the results confirmed the correctness of the previous theoretical and experimental results obtained by different specialists, who stated that the values of floor acceleration are within the acceptable limits, and the probable reason for any disturbance is the resonance between the generated low frequencies and the human body parts’ frequencies.

  • 4.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Viklund, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Design management using knowledge innovation and visual planning.2016In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 330-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An open platform used for industrialised house-building imposes restrictions on the flexibility of the product offering when developing design standardisation. How design process standardisation incorporates variations in products has not been widely studied. The aim of this research is to explain how design breakdown enables Lean Product Development Flow (LPDF) and look-ahead planning in an industrialised house-building context where an open platform is used. A case study was conducted of how one of the leading industrialised house-building companies in Sweden introduced the LPDF tool Knowledge Innovation/Visual Planning (KI-VP) into their design process. The implementation of KI-VP led to an increased cross-functional understanding of relationships between activities, which are an important factor in achieving flexibility and a synchronised workflow. By using design standardisation, look-ahead planning was implemented and used in the management of design flow. Standardisation through design breakdown provides a basis for knowledge innovation that enables improvement of the open platform using a bottom-up approach and increases the production flow. 

  • 5.
    Jensen, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Johnsson, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Configuration through the parameterization of building components2012In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 23, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many construction companies have developed building systems, based on prefabrication strategies, to enhance productivity. Current practice coupled with the difficulties of introducing these systems early in the design process often leads to ad hoc solutions and problems downstream along the value chain. In 2008 a multi-storey timber building system based on modularization principles was developed. The customization process used in this system is illustrated herein using a configurable timber floor slab module. The downstream flow of design information and upstream flow of constraints on, and rules for, the building system are described from three product viewpoints: the customer view, the engineering view and the production view. Using a manufacturing CAD tool, design automation is implemented in the engineering view and connected to an architectural CAD tool. The demonstration software shows that manufacturing CAD tools can be used to create design automation alternatives for modularized building systems within the construction industry.

  • 6.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Kimb, Jonghoon
    Center for Integrated Facility Engineering, Stanford University.
    Fischer, Martin
    Center for Integrated Facility Engineering, Stanford University.
    Mourgues, Claudio
    Engineering School, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Quantitative analysis of workflow, temporary structure usage, and productivity using 4D models2008In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 780-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents time-space analyses of construction operations supported by quantitative information extracted from 4D CAD models. The application of 4D models is a promising approach to help introduce construction innovations and to evaluate construction alternatives. Current analyses of 4D models are mainly visual and provide project stakeholders with a clear, but limited, insight of construction planning information. This practice does not take advantage of the quantitative data contained in 4D models. We use two 4D models of an industry test case to illustrate how to analyze, compare, and present 4D content quantitatively (i.e., workspace areas, work locations, and distances between concurrent activities). This paper shows how different types of 4D content can be extracted from 4D models to support 4D-content-based analyses and novel presentation of construction planning information. We suggest further research aimed at formalizing the contents in 4D models to enable comparative quantitative analyses of construction planning alternatives. Formalized 4D content can enable the development of reasoning mechanisms that automate 4D-model-based analyses and provide the data content for presentations of construction planning information.

  • 7. Jongeling, Rogier
    et al.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    A method for planning of work-flow by combined use of location-based scheduling and 4D CAD2007In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great potential to improve the flow of resources through locations on construction sites, termed work-flow. Current activity-based scheduling techniques do not provide adequate support for the planning of work-flow due to practical and methodological reasons. Location-based scheduling techniques provide a promising alternative to activity-based scheduling techniques for planning of work-flow. However, neither location-based nor activity-based scheduling techniques provide users with insight in the spatial configuration of scheduled construction operations. A technique that can provide this insight is 4D CAD in which 3D CAD models are combined with data from construction schedules. This article presents a process method for the planning of work-flow by combined use of location-based scheduling and 4D CAD. We suggest that a location-based approach to 4D CAD can improve the usability of the 4D CAD models for work-flow analyses. In addition, the article suggests that 4D CAD can enhance the value of location-based schedules.

  • 8.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Building information modeling and discrete event simulation: towards an integrated framework2014In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 44, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a realistic Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model needs the complete specification of the interdependencies between activities and resources. Also, the maintenance of an existing DES model is challenging especially when changes in the logical relationships between activities, resource allocation and design need to be considered. The process of development and maintenance is time-consuming, error-prone and it restricts the application of DES within the construction industry. In this research, a Building Information Modeling (BIM) and DES framework is proposed to enable the implementation and integration of DES in the planning and follow-up of construction activities. The framework consists of: (1) A building information modeling process that exports material quantity take-offs, schedules and required resources to a relational database and (2) An intelligent simulation engine that automatically reads information from the database at the start of each simulation run. This implies that changes in the building information modeling process, such as design modification, different resource allocations and alternative construction methods can be explored without manually checking and re-formalizing the simulation model. A preliminary prototype has been developed using the proposed BIM-DES framework. The initial results show that the proposed BIM-DES framework reinforces both elements by providing valuable additional information. BIM provides the product and process information to DES, facilitating the building and maintenance of the DES model; the DES model evaluates the construction performances and provides valuable feedback to the BIM process for decision support.

  • 9.
    Mousavi, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Energy Efficient Agent Function Block: A semantic agent approach to IEC 61499 function blocks in energy efficient building automation systems2015In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 54, p. 127-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation plays a vital role in improving energy efficiency in buildings. Building Automation Systems (BASs) are drastically growing in size and complexity. The traditional centralized automation systems cannot suitably address this growth due to insufficient flexibility and scalability. IEC 61499 Function Block (FB) is a promising software paradigm for industrial automation that addresses these complexities because of its object-oriented, event-driven and distributed paradigm. However, efficient energy management in a heterogeneous system comprising of many energy consuming components, functioning in highly dynamic and partially predictable environments, requires a higher level of intelligence that FB currently does not possess. To cope with this issue, a software entity called 2eA-FB has been introduced by combining FB, intelligent software agent and semantic web technologies. Being capable of field-level control, communication and reasoning over semantically enriched domain knowledge, 2eA-FB bridges the gap between management and automation layers of BAS and controls the energy consumption for individual energy consuming components, separately and intelligently. This in turn results in more efficient overall energy consumption for the whole system

1 - 9 of 9
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