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  • 1. Cole, Raymond J.
    et al.
    Sterner, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Reconciling theory and practice of life-cycle costing2000In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 28, no 5-6, p. 368-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of Life-Cycle Costing (LCC) is generally recognized as a valuable approach for comparing alternative building designs - enabling operational cost benefits to be evaluated against any initial cost increases. However, a host of practical difficulties conspire to limit its widespread adoption. This limited acceptance is particularly important in green building where many of the benefits of strategic choices can often only be understood and justified when cast in a life-cycle context. This paper identifies some of the critical gaps between the theory (and promise) and practice of Life-Cycle Cost analysis to discover strategies that encourage greater use.

  • 2.
    Fawcett, William
    et al.
    Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd.
    Hughes, Martin
    Cambridge Architectural Research Ltd.
    Krieg, Hannes
    Institute of Building Physics, University of Stuttgart.
    Albrecht, Stefan
    Institute of Building Physics, University of Stuttgart.
    Vennström, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Flexible strategies for long-term sustainability under uncertainty2012In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 545-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the economic and environmental life cycle impacts of long-lasting construction projects presents numerous methodological challenges. Three advances over established methods are presented for the life cycle evaluation of construction projects. First, future uncertainty during the project life or study period is explicitly accounted for. This involves moving from a deterministic approach requiring precise data to a probabilistic approach where uncertain variables are defined by ranges. The outcome of life cycle evaluation is then given by probability distributions, generated by Monte Carlo simulation. Second, flexible strategies are considered that allow for adaptation to changing conditions during the project life. Flexible strategies (also modelled by Monte Carlo simulation) incorporate specified ‘life cycle options’ which are exercised if it is advantageous to do so, otherwise they remain unexercised. Third, cost-based life cycle costing (LCC) and environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) are linked in a single LCC+A evaluation tool. There are still differences between cost and environmental evaluation, but the use of a shared framework enables the two aspects to be compared systematically. The two-dimensional ‘ecoportfolio’ diagram presents one way of analysing results. The innovations are demonstrated in a case study that assesses both economic and environmental impacts while accounting for future uncertainties.

  • 3.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Environmental labelling of timber-framed dwellings and their building components2002In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 248-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands by customers for environmentally better products produced under economically sound conditions are increasing steadily. Wood has a lower environmental impact than most of the competing materials used in the building sector. However, for reliable customer information, environmental impact verification methods for timber-frame houses are needed. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is a forest certification scheme operating at a global level. It relies upon a performance-based standard that includes specific performance measures that can be used as a basis for product labelling; minimizing the environmental impact is covered by one of the FSC's ten principles. A case study of a customized timber-frame house illustrates the possibility of using the FSC percentage-based volume criteria as an environmental labelling, ensuring criteria that the wood products come from well-managed forests. The case study demonstrates not only the simplicity, but also the drawbacks of applying the FSC labelling to complex wood products such as houses, and an analysis of a proposed model gives insights into how the FSC labelling can be extended for houses by incorporating building functional and service-life criteria.

  • 4.
    Sterner, Eva
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Life-cycle costing and its use in the Swedish building sector2000In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 28, no 5-6, p. 387-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from a survey examing the extent that Swedish clients in the building sector use life-cycle cost (LCC) estimations are reported. The limits and benefits from the client and user perspectives are also explored. The interest in using LCC approaches for economic evaluation of investment decisions is large. However, constraints exists at a number of levels: uncertainties related to the long term forecasts used, difficulties in achieving relevant input data and lack of experience in using LCC models, incentives for consultants and contractors. Nonetheless, the LCC perspective is proving to be most useful during the design phase where the possibilities of cost reductions related to operation and maintenance are large. LCC can provide motivation for environmental progressive building despite the sometime higher initial cost. The implication for expanding the use of LCC are considered for government, clients/developers, professionals.

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