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  • 1.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Jackson, Paul
    Ramboll, Ringwood Rd., Woodlands, Netley Marsh, Southampton, UK.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Ramboll, Ringwood Rd., Woodlands, Netley Marsh, Southampton, UK.
    White, Harry
    New York State Dept. of Transportation, Albany, NY.
    Strengthening Bridges with Postinstalled Coiled Spring Pin Shear Connectors: State-of-the-Art Review2019In: Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, ISSN 1084-0680, E-ISSN 1943-5576, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 03118001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many existing bridge structures experience much more significant loads and load cycles than were anticipated when the bridges were originally designed. An effective way to increase the load capacity and fatigue resistance of steel girder with non-composite concrete deck bridge structures is to retrofit the structure with shear connectors to create a composite girder-deck structure. This paper presents a state-of the art study of post-installed shear connectors in general and coiled spring connectors in particular. The strengthening method is described together with experiences from real bridge strengthening projects, along with a study of load capacity and structural behavior.

  • 2.
    Hällmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    White, Harry
    New York State Department of Transportation, Albany, NY.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Prefabricated bridge construction across Europe and America2012In: Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, ISSN 1084-0680, E-ISSN 1943-5576, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining the most efficient and economical way to build a new or replacement bridge is not as straightforward a process as it once was. The total cost of a bridge project is not limited to the amount spent on concrete, steel, and labor. Construction activities disrupt the typical flow of traffic around the project and results in additional costs to the public in the form of longer wait times, additional mileage traveled to get around the work zone, or business lost attributable to customers avoiding the construction. The risk of injury to workers because of traffic interactions or construction activities increase with each hour spent at the construction site. Finding a way to shorten the time spent on the jobsite is beneficial to the contractor, the owner, and the traveling public. Prefabricating certain bridge elements reduces the time spent at the construction site and reduces the effects on the road users and the surrounding community. For example, steel beams with composite concrete decks reduce the construction time over cast-in-place concrete superstructures. In some instances, entire structures have been fabricated off-site under strict environmental and quality controls and then shipped to the site and erected in a matter of days instead of months. The total cost of using prefabricated bridge elements (PBE) depends greatly on the scale of the prefabrication. The more that prefabrication is used, the lower the costs. Even under limited use, however, prefabrication is usually comparable to traditional construction techniques. However, when durability and user costs are taken into account, the overall cost may be significantly less than traditional pieceby-piece construction. To improve the competitiveness of prefabricated composite bridges, a European research and development project, ELEM RFSR-CT-2008-00039, was started in 2008. The overall objective of the project is to make prefabricated bridges more competitive through development of new cost-effective, time-efficient, and sustainable bridge structures. The project has started with a knowledge extension, in the form of the workshop on “Composite Bridges with Prefabricated Deck Elements.” This workshop was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in March 2009 to share the knowledge and experience gained by agencies around the globe. During the workshop, experiences from Europe and the United States were presented in an effort to promote the use of accelerated bridge construction (ABC) and prefabricated bridge elements.

  • 3.
    White, Harry
    et al.
    New York State Department of Transportation, Albany, NY.
    Pétursson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Collin, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Integral abutment bridges: the European way2010In: Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, ISSN 1084-0680, E-ISSN 1943-5576, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integral abutment bridges are becoming more popular in Europe, but the traditions differ from country to country. This leads to different technical solutions for the same problem in each country. A European survey was conducted in early 2007 to illustrate the design criteria used by each different country for integral abutment bridges. The survey requested information useful to a designer comparing the design requirements and restrictions of various European countries. As an added measure of comparison, these results were compared to some recently conducted surveys of state agencies within the United States. When looking at the results of the European survey responses and past surveys of U.S. transportation agencies, it is clear that there are many similarities in design assumptions and construction practices. Yet, there are also significant differences.

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