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  • 1.
    Gårder, Per
    et al.
    University of Maine.
    Leden, Lars
    Pulkkinen, Urho
    Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Measuring the safety effect of raised bicycle crossings using a new research methodology1998In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 1636, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before-and-after study methodology was developed and applied to evaluating the effect on bicyclists' safety of raising urban bicycle crossings by 4 to 12 cm. In total, 44 junctions were reconstructed in this way in Gothenburg, Sweden. Four of these were studied in detail. Before the implementations, bicyclists were riding either in the roadway or on separate paths parallel to the roadway. The paths then ended with short ramps or curb cuts at each cross street, and bicyclists used nonelevated, marked bicycle crossings, similar to pedestrian crosswalks but delineated by white painted rectangles rather than zebra stripes. The results show that the paths with raised crossings attracted more than 50 percent more bicyclists and that the safety per bicyclist was improved by approximately 20 percent due to the increase in bicycle flow, and with an additional 10 to 50 percent due to the improved layout. However, the increased bicyclist volume means that the total number of bicycle accidents is expected to increase. Besides accident analysis, the change in risk was estimated using four different methods: surveys of bicyclists and experts, respectively; conflict data; and a quantitative expert model. Using a Bayesian approach for combining the results shows that the most likely effect of raising the bicycle crossing is a risk reduction of around 30 percent, compared with the before situation with a conventional bicycle crossing. Motorists and pedestrians also saw safety benefits from this traffic-calming measure.

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  • 2.
    Hermansson, Åke
    et al.
    VTI - Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Discussion of paper 01-0121 by Parker, Buch and Chatti Discussion to paper given by Parker, Buch and Chatti, entitled "Development of Effective Layer Temperature Prediction Model and Temperature Correction Using FWD Deflections2001In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 1699Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Leden, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    Gårder, Per
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Maine, Orono.
    Toward vision zero at zebra crossings: case study of traffic safety and mobility for children and the elderly, Malmö, Sweden2003In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1828, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Vision Zero's goal is to eliminate all fatalities and incapacitating traffic injuries. One step toward Vision Zero is through traffic calming. Code changes are also part of this effort The Swedish Code concerning car drivers' responsibility to give way to pedestrians was strengthened in 2000. A study was done to evaluate the short-term effects of the change in the code, as well as of the reconstruction of urban intersections to eliminate overtaking and speeding over 30 km/h. The focus of the evaluation was on children and elderly people, as pedestrians and cyclists. Between 1995 and 1999, an average of 7 pedestrians were killed and about 60 seriously injured at unsignalized zebra crossings. In 2001, those numbers were 8 and 70, respectively, despite the fact that some crosswalks were eliminated in connection with the change of the code. The conclusion is that the change of code has not improved safety. Field studies in Malmö in regard to behavior, speed, and conflicts, as well as analysis of crash data, show that the code change has increased mobility for cyclists, whereas motor vehicle speeds did not change significantly. The reconstruction increased mobility further and, at least based on indirect measures, improved safety. Also, safe traffic behavior, expressed as one's looking sideways, increased somewhat at the reconstructed intersections, but stopping at the curb before crossing the street decreased. Children and the elderly did not benefit more than people in other age groups.

  • 4.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran.
    bagheri, Morteza
    School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran.
    Goiroo, Amir
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Use of power spectral density for effective turnout geometry maintenance2016In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2545, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to assess the geometrical quality of railway turnouts through application of power spectral density (PSD). PSD in the form of a continuous curve can show turnout irregularities by means of wavelength and amplitude. As a case study, the data related to longitudinal level parameter measurements for four turnouts in the Swedish Railways from 2007 to 2011 were acquired. The PSD curves for these measurements were calculated by means of ProVal software. The PSD curves were compared by PSD standard in a program written in MATLAB and turnout irregularities were determined. The results show that PSD is able to demonstrate the condition of turnouts individually and can also identify the wavelength faults present in different sections of a turnout. More important, PSD can be applied to prioritize maintenance needs of turnouts on the basis of their criticality. Use of PSD can help identify tamping needs more precisely. As a result, the geometrical quality can be restored before the defined maintenance thresholds are exceeded. This maintenance action also would reduce the total downtime, obligatory speed reductions, and maintenance costs

  • 5.
    Nasibulina, Larisa I.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Anoshkin, Ilya V.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Shandakov, Sergey D.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulin, Albert G.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Aalto University.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Mudimela, Prasantha R.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Malm, Jari E M
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Koltsova, Tatiana S.
    Material Science Faculty, State Polytechnical University.
    Tian, Ying
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Vasilieva, Ekaterina S.
    Material Science Faculty, State Polytechnical University.
    Penttala, Vesa
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Aalto University.
    Tolochko, Oleg V.
    Material Science Faculty, State Polytechnical University.
    Karppinen, Maarit J.
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Kauppinen, Esko I.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Direct synthesis of carbon nanofibers on cement particles2010In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2142, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibers (CNFs) are promising candidates for the next generation of high-performance structural and multifunctional composite materials. One of the largest obstacles to creating strong, electrically or thermally conductive CNT-CNF composites is the difficulty of getting a good dispersion of the carbon nanomaterials in a matrix. Typically, time-consuming steps are required in purifying and functionalizing the carbon nanomaterial. A new approach under which CNTs-CNFs are grown directly on the surface of matrix and matrix precursor particles is proposed. Cement was selected as the precursor matrix, since it is the most important construction material. A novel cement hybrid material (CHM) was synthesized in which CNTs and CNFs are attached to the cement particles by two different methods: screw feeder and fluidized bed reactors. CHM has been proved to increase the compressive strength by two times and the electrical conductivity of the hardened paste by 40 times.

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