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  • 1.
    Arasteh khouy, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Optimisation of track geometry inspection interval2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 5, p. 546-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement and improvement of track quality are key issues in determining the time at which railway maintenance must be performed and its cost. Efficient track maintenance ensures optimum allocation of limited maintenance resources which has an enormous effect on maintenance efficiency. Applying an appropriate tamping strategy helps reduce maintenance costs, making operations more cost-effective and leading to increased safety and passenger comfort levels. This paper discusses optimisation of the track geometry inspection interval with a view to minimising the total ballast maintenance costs per unit traffic load. The proposed model considers inspection time, the maintenance-planning horizon time after inspection and takes into account the costs associated with inspection, tamping and risk of accidents due to poor track quality. It draws on track geometry data from the iron ore line (Malmbanan) in northern Sweden, used by both passenger and freight trains, to find the probability distribution of geometry faults.

  • 2.
    Arasteh khouy, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Cost-effective track geometry maintenance limits2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 2, p. 611-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, railway maintenance actions were usually planned based on the knowledge and experience of the infrastructure owner. The main goal was to provide a high level of safety, and there was little concern about economic and operational optimisation issues. Today, however, a deregulated competitive environment and budget limitations are forcing railway infrastructures to move from safety limits to cost-effective maintenance limits to optimise operation and maintenance procedures. By so doing, one widens the discussion to include both operational safety and cost-effectiveness for the whole railway transport system. In this study, a cost model is proposed to specify the cost-effective maintenance limits for track geometry maintenance. The proposed model considers the degradation rates of different track sections and takes into account the costs associated with inspection, tamping, delay time penalties, and risk of accidents due to poor track quality. It draws on track geometry data from the Iron Ore Line (Malmbanan) in northern Sweden, used by both passenger and freight trains, to estimate the geometrical degradation rate of each section. The methodology is based on reliability and cost analysis and facilitates the maintenance decision-making process to identify cost-effective maintenance thresholds.

  • 3.
    Arasteh khouy, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Geometrical degradation of railway turnouts: a case study from a Swedish heavy haul railroad2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 611-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turnouts are critical components of track systems in terms of safety, operation and maintenance. Each year, a considerable part of the maintenance budget is spent on their inspection, maintenance and renewal. Applying a cost-effective maintenance strategy helps to achieve the best performance at the lowest possible cost. In Sweden, the geometry of turnouts is inspected at predefined time intervals using the STRIX / IMV 100 track measurement car. This study uses time series for the measured longitudinal level of turnouts on the Iron Ore Line (Malmbanan) in northern Sweden. Two different approaches are applied to analyse the geometrical degradation of turnouts due to dynamic forces generated by train traffic. In the first approach, the recorded measurements are adjusted at the crossing point and then the relative geometrical degradation of turnouts is evaluated by using two defined parameters, the absolute residual area and the maximum settlement, In the second approach, various geometry parameters are defined to estimate the degradation in each measurement separately. The growth rate of the longitudinal level degradation as a function of million gross tonnes / time is evaluated. The proposed methods are based on characterisation of the individual track measurements. The results facilitate correct decision-making in the maintenance process through understanding the degradation rate and defining the optimal maintenance thresholds for the planning process. In the long run, this can lead to a cost-effective maintenance strategy with optimised inspection and maintenance intervals.

  • 4.
    Arasteh khouy, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Schunnesson, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nissen, Arne
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Evaluation of track geometry maintenance for heavy haul railroad in Sweden: a case study2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 5, p. 496-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement and improvement of track quality are key issues in determining both the restoration time and cost of railway maintenance. Applying the optimal tamping strategy helps reduce maintenance costs, making operations more cost effective and leading to increased safety and passenger comfort. In this paper, track geometry data from the iron ore line (Malmbanan) in northern Sweden, which handles both passenger and freight trains, are used to evaluate track geometry maintenance in cold climate. The paper describes Trafikverket’s (Swedish Transport Administration) tamping strategy and evaluates its effectiveness in measuring, reporting, and improving track quality. Finally, it evaluates the performance of the maintenance contractor and discusses the importance of the functional requirements stated in the outsourcing contracts.

  • 5.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics. The Swedish Transport Administration, Trafikverket.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Schoech, Wolfgang
    3Speno International, Meyrin, Switzerland.
    A Nordic heavy haul experience and best practices2017In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 231, no 7, p. 794-804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes the experiences gained at the Nordic heavy haul line “Malmbanan” located in Northern Sweden and Norway during the years 2007 to 2015 and the resulting best practice. Unique long-term information of field trials and monitoring from the on-going development for maintenance of rail and wheel has been described. The reported results come from the rail profile measurements using MiniProf and HC-recordings with Eddy-current devices and visual inspection on 43 test sections. The monitoring has been continuous since the project started, to reveal a deep insight into the complex wheel–rail interaction and provide understanding of the effect of applying optimized specifications. This was particularly important in view of the increasing traffic load that contributed to doubling of the yearly grinding campaigns. This article presents in particular the new MB5 profile, the wear rate behaviour between two different curves, impacts of gauge widening on rail rolling contact fatigue and the speed of gauge widening as well as the seasonal impact on the crack propagation. The presently applied maintenance strategy is discussed together with other experiences. The article finishes with some conclusions and an outlook into further work.

  • 6.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gustafsson, Per
    SWECO Energuide AB.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    LKAB.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Wandt, Karina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Reliability and measurement accuracy of a condition monitoring system in an extreme climate: a case study of automatic laser scanning of wheel profiles2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 695-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Iron Ore Line (Malmbanan) is a 473 km long track section located in northern Sweden and has been in operation since 1903. This track section stretches through two countries, namely Sweden and Norway, and the main part of the track runs on the Swedish side, where the owner is the Swedish Government and the infrastructure manager is Trafikverket (the Swedish Transport Administration). The ore trains are owned and managed by the freight operator and mining company LKAB. Due to the high axle load exerted by transportation of the iron ore, 30 tonnes, and the high demand for a constant flow of ore and pellets, the track and wagons must be monitored and maintained on a regular basis. The condition of the wagon wheel is one of the most important aspects in this connection, and here the wheel profile plays an important role. For this reason an automatic laser-based wheel profile monitoring system (WPMS) has been installed on this line using a system lifecycle approach that is based on the reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS) approach for railways. The system was prepared and installed and is being operated in a collaborative project between the freight operator and infrastructure manager. The measurements are used to diagnose the condition of the wheels, and to further optimize their maintenance. This paper presents a study of the concepts and ideas of the WPMS, and the selection, installation and validation of the equipment using a system lifecycle approach that is based on RAMS for railways. Results from the profile measurements and validation are shown. The system’s reliability during performance in extreme climate conditions, with severe cold and large quantities of snow, is presented. Then the benefits, perceived challenges and acquired knowledge of the system are discussed, and an improved V-model for the lifecycle approach is presented.

  • 7.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Palo, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A study of railway wheel profile parameters used as indicators of an increased risk of wheel defects2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 2, p. 323-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity demands on the railways will increase in the future, as well as the demands for a robust and available system. The availability of the railway system is dependent on the condition of the infrastructure and the rolling stock. To inspect the rolling stock and to prevent damage to the track due to faulty wheels, infrastructure managers normally install wayside monitoring systems along the track. Such systems indicate, for example, wheels that fall outside the defined safety limits and have to be removed from service to prevent further damage to the track. Due to the nature of many wayside monitoring systems, which only monitor vehicles at definite points along the track, damage may be induced on the track prior to fault detection at the location of the system. Such damage can entail capacity-consuming speed reductions and manual track inspections before the track can be opened for traffic again. The number of wheel defects must therefore be kept to a minimum. In this paper wheel profile parameters measured by a wayside wheel profile measurement system, installed along the Swedish Iron Ore Line, are examined and related to warning and alarm indications from a wheel defect detector installed on the same line. The study shows that an increased wheel wear, detectable by changes in the wheel profile parameters could be used to reduce the risk of capacity-consuming wheel defect failure events and its reactive measures.

  • 8.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Evaluation of wheel profile measurements by means of the contact-point function for the wheel-rail interface2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 4, p. 1225-1239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the accuracy of a wayside train wheel profile measurement system. This was accomplished by an evaluation of the contact-point function for the wheel–rail interface. The wheel profile measurement system in question generates data about the wheel profiles of passing trains. These data are used for improving the wheel maintenance procedures for the rolling stock operator. Recent work shows that there are differences between the data from the two different units in the system, but how this influences further use of the data, e.g. in wheel–rail contact analysis, has not been investigated so far. Accordingly, this article shows how two key wheel measures (the wheel flange thickness and the wheel profile) impact on the contact-point function and which of these measures has the largest impact on the contact-point function. The data used in this study were generated by two different measurement units for the same wheel and with the same wheel status. The results show that the different units produce different results and that these differences are more prominent when a difference in the flange thickness is detected, with a resulting shift of the front side of the flange and of the tread. With no difference in the flange thickness, i.e. no shift of the front side of the flange and of the tread, a difference was still detected in the contact conditions. Furthermore, this investigation shows that the shape of the tread has a greater impact on the contact-point conditions compared to a change in the flange thickness of up to 2.5 mm. This difference in the tread shape could have originated in measurement noise or different wheel measurement positions. The results of the study also show the importance of managing the measurement quality before using the data, for example for maintenance decisions.

  • 9.
    Berghuvud, Ansel
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Freight car curving performance in braked conditions2002In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 216, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway freight vehicles that are run with full payload on long downhill slopes with many tight curves must be braked more or less continuously. The influence of braking on the curving performance of iron ore freight cars equipped with different types of three-piece bogie designs and pneumatically actuated single-block tread brakes run on curved track in a downhill slope is investigated. The focus is put on the change in performance in terms of self-steering ability, track forces and expected wear in contacts between wheels and rails. Modelling and simulation of the strongly non-linear dynamic interaction between vehicle and track in braked conditions are performed. The large influence of wheel/rail profile matching and the quite different responses to braking for the studied vehicles are shown.

  • 10.
    Ekberg, Anders
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Kabo, Elena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Karttunen, Kalle
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Lindqvist, Bernt
    LKAB.
    Lundén, Roger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Olovsson, Jan
    LKAB.
    Salomonsson, Ove
    LKAB.
    Vernersson, Tore
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Identifying the root causes of damage on the wheels of heavy haul locomotives and its mitigation2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 663-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper illustrates how damage patterns in the form of rolling contact fatigue (RCF) on wheels, can be employed to identify and improve underlying operational conditions. The focus is on RCF of locomotive wheels operating on the Iron Ore Line in northern Sweden and Norway. Seasonal changes and damage patterns are charted. Potential root causes for observed damage patterns are identified and investigated. Mitigating actions are proposed and the efficiency of implemented actions is quantified.

  • 11.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Juntti, Ulla
    Luleå Railway Research Centre.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Augmented utilisation of possession time: Analysis for track geometry maintenance2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 4, p. 1118-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for increased capacity on existing railway networks is a challenge for many Europe-based infrastructure managers; addressing this challenge requires augmented utilisation of track possession time. It is considered that large-scale maintenance tasks such as geometry maintenance can be improved; thus, reducing the on-track maintenance time and allowing more traffic. In this study, an analysis of track geometry maintenance was performed with the objective of reducing the required possession time. The procedure and models for planning and optimizing track geometry maintenance are presented. A statistical model that uses a simulation approach was used to determine the condition of the track geometry, and a schedule optimization problem was formulated to support intervention decisions and optimize the track possession time. The results of the case study show that optimizing the maintenance shift length and cycle length are opportunities to reduce the extent of track possession required for the maintenance of the track geometry. In addition, continuous improvement of the tamping process through lean analysis promises about a 45% reduction in the required possession time for a tamping cycle.

  • 12.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Xin, Tao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Optimisation of maintenance track possession time: A tamping case study2015In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 229, no 1, p. 42726-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimum allocation and efficient utilisation of track possession time are becoming important topics in railway infrastructure management due to increasing capacity demands. This development and other requirements of modern infrastructure management necessitate the improvement of planning and scheduling of large-scale maintenance activities such as tamping. It is therefore necessary to develop short-, medium- and long-term plans for performing tamping on a network or track section within a definite time horizon. To this end, two key aspects of infrastructure maintenance planning are considered in this paper, deterioration modelling and scheduling optimisation. An exponential deterioration function is applied to model the geometry quality of a series of 200 m segments of a 130 km line section, and an empirical model for recovery after tamping intervention is developed. These two models are subsequently used to generate a methodology to optimise a schedule for tamping intervention by minimising the total cost of intervention including the cost of track possession while geometry quality is ascertained to be within a desirable limit. The modelling considers two types of tamping interventions, preventive and corrective, with different intervention limits and tamping machines. The result of this paper suggests a tamping plan which will lead to optimum allocation of track possession time while maintaining the track geometry quality within specified limits.

  • 13.
    Granström, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A system and stakeholder approach for the identification of condition information: a case study for the Swedish railway2008In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 222, no 4, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify stakeholders' need for system condition information in order to improve railway punctuality. The paper provides a holistic formulation of maintenance-related punctuality problems within the interface between the contact wire and the pantograph. From the identified problem formulation, the information needed to support the maintenance of technical functions can be identified. The incorporated system and stakeholder perspective adds a dimension to the explanation of what information is needed and why it is needed. The system and stakeholder perspective on the assessment of the information need can serve as decision support when acquiring new condition monitoring technologies. On the basis of the problem formulation, this perspective can also serve as an illustration of how information is to be used to improve punctuality. In order to identify stakeholders' need for system condition information, a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) approach was used. The FMEA is complemented with information derived from informal interviews performed with a variety of experts working with issues related to contact wires and pantographs. The applied methodology can be useful for conducting further research studies on other stakeholder and engineering interfaces, such as the wheel-rail interface.

  • 14.
    Jönsson, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Rantatalo, Matti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nissen, Arne
    Trafikverket.
    Measurement of vertical geometry variations in railway turnouts exposed to different operating conditions2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 2, p. 486-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turnouts are critical units in a railway system; they perform the switching procedure that allows trains to change between routes. Monitoring the track geometry of a turnout is necessary for maintenance planning and design optimisation. Monitoring is usually done by track recording cars, however, to isolate the ageing and dynamic behaviour of the track it is also necessary to study the unstressed track geometry of the turnouts. Such measurements can be used to develop degradation models to optimise maintenance and design, thereby increasing availability and reducing life cycle cost. This paper introduces a new method to measure the vertical position of the track geometry over time during non-operational conditions (unstressed) to show track degradation. The new method includes a smart system that uses relative measurement reference points to create a better accuracy and lower costs compared with fixed reference points. It evaluates various types of measurement equipment and uses levelling equipment to measure the unstressed vertical geometry of 13 turnouts located on Swedish railway lines, with three follow-up measurements over a year and a half. The turnouts were categorised into four groups: based on their accumulated capacity in million gross tonnes (MGT) and whether they were on a straight or curved main track. Surprisingly, the first three measurements showed the geometry of turnouts on the straight main track to have a vertical elevation tendency towards the mid-section, whereas the turnouts on the curved main track had a general vertical downwards bend tendency towards the mid-section. The results also showed that a higher capacity in MGT has a greater influence on track geometry changes over time.

  • 15.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Stenström, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Carry distance of top-of-rail friction modifiers2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 10, p. 2418-2430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rail issues such as corrugation, rolling contact fatigue, noise and wear have been increasing with the increase in railway traffic. The application of top-of-rail friction modifiers (TOR-FMs) is claimed by their manufacturers in the railway industry to be a well-established technique for resolving the above-mentioned issues. There are various methods for applying friction modifiers at the wheel–rail interface, among which stationary wayside systems are recommended by TOR-FM manufacturers when a distance of a few kilometres is to be covered. TOR-FM manufacturers also claim that by using wayside equipment, the TOR-FM can be spread over a minimum distance of 3 km, over which it maintains a coefficient of friction of µ = 0.35 ± 0.05. To determine the carry distance of TOR-FMs, some researchers use tribometers to measure the coefficients of friction. However, moisture and deposits from the environment and trains can alter the top-of-rail friction and give a misleading indication of the presence of a friction modifier. Therefore, the coefficient of friction itself is not a clear indicator of the presence of TOR-FMs. In the present study, cotton swabs dipped in a mixture of alcohol and ester were used to collect surface deposits (a third body) from both the wheel and rail at various distances from the point of application. Subsequently, the third body collected on the cotton swab was analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The results have shown that the maximum carry distance of TOR-FMs on the top of the rail is limited to 70 m when using a TOR-FM from one manufacturer and to 450 m when using a TOR-FM from another manufacturer. The carry distance on the contact band of the wheel is limited to 100 m and 340 m. The friction modifier on the edges of the contact band was detected over a distance of up to 3 km; however, this will not minimise the damage or friction at the wheel–rail interface.

  • 16.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Stenström, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Life cycle cost analysis for the top-of-rail friction-modifier application: A case study from the Swedish iron ore line2020In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of top-of-rail friction modifiers (TOR-FMs) is claimed by their manufacturers as a well-established technique for minimising the damages in the wheel–rail interface. There are various methods for applying friction modifiers at the wheel–rail interface, among which stationary wayside systems are recommended by TOR-FM manufacturers when a distance of a few kilometres is to be covered. An on-board system is recommended when an area of many kilometres has to be covered and focus is more on particular trains. Trafikverket in Sweden is considering the implementation of the TOR-FM technology on the iron ore line. Directly implementing such technology can be inappropriate and expensive, because the life cycle cost of a TOR-FM system has never been assessed for the conditions of the iron ore line. In the present study, the life cycle cost is calculated for wayside and on-board application systems, by taking inputs from the research performed on iron ore line. The present research has taken the iron ore line as a case study, but the results will be applicable to other infrastructure with similar conditions. The results have shown that the wayside equipment is economically unfeasible for the iron ore line. In this case, the life cycle cost increases by 4% when the friction modifier is applied on all curves with a radius smaller than 550 m and by 19% when the friction modifier is applied on all curves with a radius smaller than 850 m. The on-board system used in this study is shown to be economically feasible, as it has a significantly lower operation and maintenance cost than the wayside equipment. The reduction in the maintenance (grinding and rail replacement) cost when the cost of the friction modifier application is added is 27% when the friction modifier is applied on curves with a radius smaller than 550 m and 23% when the friction modifier is applied on curves with a radius smaller than 850 m.

  • 17.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Persson, Ingemar
    AB DEsolver, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Stenström, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Prediction of the effects of friction control on top-of-rail cracks2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 484-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling contact fatigue is a major problem connected with railway tracks, especially in curves, since it leads to highermaintenance costs. By optimising the top-of-rail friction, the wear and cracks on the top of the rail can eventually bereduced without causing very long braking distances. There are several research articles available on crack prediction,but most of the research is focused either on rail without a friction modifier or on wheels with and without frictioncontrol. In the present study, in order to predict the formation of surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue, a range offriction coefficients with different Kalker’s reduction factors has been assumed. Kalker’s reduction factor takes care ofthe basic tendency of creepage as a function of the traction forces at lower creepage. The assumed range covers possiblefriction values from those for non-lubricated rail to those for rail with a minimum measured friction control on the top ofthe rail using a friction modifier. A fatigue index model based on the shakedown theory was used to predict thegeneration of surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue. Simulations were performed using multi-body simulation, forwhich inputs were taken from the Iron Ore line in the north of Sweden. The effect of friction control was studiedfor different curve radii, ranging from 200 m to 3000 m, and for different axle loads from 30 to 40 tonnes at a constanttrain speed of 60 km/h. One example of a result is that a maximum friction coefficient (m) of 0.2 with a Kalker’s reductionfactor of 15% is needed in the case of trains with a heavy axle load to avoid crack formation.

  • 18.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Al-Jumaili, Mustafa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    eMaintenance in railways: Issues and challenges in cybersecurity2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 233, no 10, p. 1012-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The convergence of information technology and operation technology and the associated paradigm shift toward Industry 4.0 in complex systems, such as railways has brought significant benefits in reliability, maintainability, operational efficiency, capacity, as well as improvements in passenger experience. However, with the adoption of information and communications technologies in railway maintenance, vulnerability to cyber threats has increased. It is essential that organizations move toward security analytics and automation to improve and prevent security breaches and to quickly identify and respond to security events. This paper provides a statistical review of cybersecurity incidents in the transportation sector with a focus on railways. It uses a web-based search for data collection in popular databases. The overall objective is to identify cybersecurity challenges in the railway sector.

  • 19.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Thaduri, Adithya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Cybersecurity for railways: A maturity model2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advancements in and widespread adoption of information and communication technologies in infrastructures, cyber-attacks are becoming more frequent and more severe. Advanced cybersecurity threats with automated capabilities are increasing in such sectors as finance, health, grid, retail, government, telecommunications, transportation, etc. Cyber-attacks are also increasing in railways with an impact on railway stakeholders, e.g. threat to the safety of employees, passengers, or the public in general; loss of sensitive railway information; reputational damage; monetary loss; erroneous decisions; loss of dependability, etc. There is a need to move towards advanced security analytics and automation to identify, respond to, and prevent such security breaches. The objective of this research is to reduce cyber risks and vulnerabilities and to improve the cybersecurity capabilities of railways by evaluating their cybersecurity maturity levels and making recommendations for improvements. After assessing various cybersecurity maturity models, the Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (C2M2) was selected to assess the cybersecurity capabilities of railway organizations. The contributions of this research are as follows. First, a new maturity level MIL4 (Maturity Indicator Level 4) is introduced in the C2M2 model. Second, the C2M2 model is adapted by adding advanced security analytics and threat intelligence to develop the Railway-Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (R-C2M2). The cybersecurity maturity of three railway organizations is evaluated using this model. Third, recommendations and available standards & guidelines are provided to the three railway organizations to improve maturity levels within different domains. In addition, they are given an action plan to implement the recommendations in a streamlined way. The application of this model will allow railway organizations to improve their capability to reduce the impacts of cyber-attacks and eradicate vulnerabilities. The approach can also be extended to other infrastructures with necessary adaptations.

  • 20. Kumar, Saurabh
    et al.
    Espling, Ulla
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    A holistic procedure for rail maintenance in Sweden2008In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 222, no 4, p. 331-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses a procedure for systematic and holistic (considering most of the factors influencing the rail degradation process) analysis and prediction of rail failures so that rail maintenance can be performed effectively. The current rail maintenance and reporting procedure followed by Banverket (Swedish National Rail Administration) for the Swedish Iron Ore Line is also described. The paper will also discuss on the improvement areas in Banverket's database management system highlighting what to measure and record and the reason behind it.This paper will help the infrastructure managers to better understand the existing rail maintenance procedure, and the improvements which can be incorporated in the existing procedure to make it more effective.

  • 21. Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Managing avalanches using cost-benefit-risk analysis2012In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 226, no 6, p. 641-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malmbanan, the Swedish Iron Ore Line, runs through rough terrain including high mountains, peat, terraces situated on fjords, and numerous short bridges and culverts. The area is sub-arctic and mountainous, with a sharp gradient between the part with a maritime climate and that with a continental climate. Global warming and new climate conditions are increasing the risk of slab and snow avalanches. A cost-benefit-risk analysis, dealing with slab and snow avalanches, high spring temperatures with fast snow melting, high water levels and heavy rainfalls, was performed in 2001. A number of at-risk sections along the track were identified and some of the risks were later addressed with changes in the infrastructure and changes in train operation during bad weather conditions. During the past 10 years, the various actions taken have been continuously improved. An evaluation based on operational data shows a lower risk of trains running into hazard areas and better control of slab and snow avalanches. Other improvements are better control and monitoring of rock falls and a lowered risk for trains operating during bad weather conditions. The technical systems in use consist of instrumented arrays of poles placed along the track to indicate avalanches. Bridges have been built to permit avalanches to pass under the railway and artificial tunnels have been designed and constructed to allow avalanches to pass over the railway. Rock fall nets have been put into service and professional avalanche inspection teams have been used for risk evaluation during high-risk weather conditions

  • 22.
    Lin, Jing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Asplund, Matthias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Bayesian Semi-parametric Analysis for Locomotive Wheel Degradation using Gamma Frailties2015In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 229, no 3, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reliability study based on a Bayesian semi-parametric framework is performed in order to explore the impact of the position of a locomotive wheel on its service lifetime and to predict its other reliability characteristics. A piecewise constant hazard regression model is used to analyse the lifetime of locomotive wheels using degradation data and taking into account the bogie on which the wheel is located. Gamma frailties are included in this study to explore unobserved covariates within the same group. The goal is to flexibly determine reliability for the wheel. A case study is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and the following conclusions are drawn. First, a polynomial degradation path is a better choice for the studied locomotive wheels; second, under given operational conditions, the position of the locomotive wheel, i.e. on which bogie it is mounted, can influence its reliability; third, a piecewise constant hazard regression model can be used to undertake reliability studies; fourth, considering gamma frailties is useful for exploring the influence of unobserved covariates; and fifth, the wheels have a higher failure risk after running a threshold distance, a finding which could be applied in optimisation of maintenance activities

  • 23. Lundmark, Jonas
    et al.
    Kassfeldt, Elisabet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hardell, Jens
    Prakash, Braham
    The influence of initial surface topography on tribological performance of the wheel/rail interface during rolling/sliding conditions2009In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 223, no 2, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of surface roughness in a rail/wheel contact has been a concern for railway owners since the introduction of ‘rail grinding' as a maintenance strategy. Presently, there are no well-defined guidelines regarding the surface topographies of ground rails and re-turned wheels. There is thus a need to establish scientific guidelines regarding the surface topographies for the rails and wheels in order to minimize grinding costs/time and to improve rail/wheel performance. This study is aimed at investigating the influence of surface topographies of wheels and rails on running-in behaviour, wear, friction, and the resultant surface damage through experimental simulation in the laboratory. A two-disc rolling/sliding test machine has been used in this experimental work. Two different roughness values were produced on both the rail and wheel test specimens. A design of experiment approach has been used to conduct experiments and to analyse the results. The results show that the surface roughness values of the specimens in some material pairs do influence wear, friction, and resulting surface damage.

  • 24.
    Morant, Amparo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gustafson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Safety and availability evaluation of railway operation based on the state of signalling systems2017In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 231, no 2, p. 226-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework is presented to evaluate the safety and availability of the railway operation, and quantifying the probability of the signalling system not to supervise the railway traffic. Since a failure of the signalling systems still allows operation of the railway, it is not sufficient to study their effect on the railway operation by considering only the failures and delays. The safety and availability are evaluated, handling both repairs and replacements by using a Markov model. The model is verified with a case study of Swedish railway signalling systems with different scenarios. The results show that the probability of being in a state where operation is possible in a degraded mode is greater than the probability of not being operative at all, which reduces delays but requires other risk mitigation measures to ensure safe operation. The effects that different improvements can have on the safety and availability of the railway operation are simulated. The results show that combining maintenance improvements to reduce the failure rate and increase the repair rate is more efficient at increasing the probability of being in an operative state and reducing the probability of operating in a degraded state.

  • 25.
    Morant, Amparo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson-Kråik, Per-Olof
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Data-driven model for maintenance decision support: A case study of railway signalling systems2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 1, p. 220-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Signalling systems ensure the safe operation of the railway network. Their reliability and maintainability directly affect the capacity and availability of the railway network, in terms of both infrastructure and trains, as a line cannot be fully operative until a failure has been repaired. The purpose of this paper is to propose a data-driven decision support model which integrates the various parameters of corrective maintenance data and to study maintenance performance by considering different RAMS parameters. This model is based on failure analysis of historical events in the form of corrective maintenance actions. It has been validated in a case study of railway signalling systems and the results are summarised. The model allows the creation of maintenance policies based on failure characteristics, as it integrates the information recorded in the various parameters of the corrective maintenance work orders. The model shows how the different failures affect the dependability of the system: the critical failures indicate the reliability of the system, the corrective actions give information about the maintainability of the components, and the relationship between the corrective maintenance times measures the efficiency of the corrective maintenance actions. All this information can be used to plan new strategies of preventive maintenance and failure diagnostics, reduce the corrective maintenance, and improve the maintenance performance.

  • 26.
    Nielsen, J.C.O.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Stensson, A.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Enhancing freight railways for 30 tonne axle loads1999In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 213, no 4, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An effective approach to decrease railway transportation costs is to invest in higher axle load and higher speed. Following a query from the Swedish iron-ore mining company LKAB, the railway infrastructure authorities of Banverket in Sweden and Jernbaneverket in Norway initiated a study of consequences and costs for an upgrading of axle loads from 25 to 30 tonnes (t) on Malmbanan and Ofotbanen. The influence of increased axle loads and improved bogie design on track structure degradation and costs for maintenance and reinvestments has been investigated. Full-scale field measurements of wheel-rail contact forces for the present iron-ore wagons with 25 t axle loads and for two types of prototype wagon with axle loads of 301 have been performed. Computer simulations of dynamic wagon-track interaction and literature studies also provided information used in the estimation of track degradation rates. The total cost for upgrading the infrastructure to take 301 axle loads was found to be lower than anticipated. As a consequence, five prototype wagons dimensioned for 301 axle loads and radial self-steering bogies of the Scheffel HS type have been ordered and were delivered in early 1999 for tests on Malmbanan-Ofotbanen

  • 27.
    Palo, Mikael
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Asplund, Matthias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Larsson, Dan
    Damill AB, Luleå.
    Condition monitoring at the wheel/rail interface for decision-making support2014In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 705-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many railway assets, such as wheels, suffer from increasing deterioration during operation. Good condition monitoring based on good decision-making techniques can lead to accurate assessment of the current health of the wheels. This, in turn, will improve safety, facilitate maintenance planning and scheduling, and reduce maintenance costs and down-time. In this paper, wheel/rail forces are selected as a parameter (feature) for the condition monitoring of wheel health. Once wheels are properly thresholded, determining their condition can help operators to define maintenance limits for their rolling stock. In addition, if rail forces are used as condition indicators of wheel wear, it is possible to use measurement stations that cost less than ordinary profile stations. These stations are located on ordinary tracks and can provide the condition of wheelsets without causing shutdowns or slowdowns of the railway system and without interfering with railway traffic. The paper uses the iron-ore transport line in northern Sweden as a test scenario to validate the use of wheel/rail forces as indicators of wagon and wheel health. The iron-ore transport line has several monitoring systems, but in this paper only two of these systems will be used. Wheel/rail force measurements are performed on curves to see how the vehicle negotiates the curve, and wheel profile measurements are done on tangent track not far away. The vehicles investigated are iron-ore wagons with an axle load of 30 tonnes and a loaded top speed of 60 km/h. The measurements are non-intrusive, since trains are moving and assets are not damaged during the testing process

  • 28. Patra, Ambika Prasad
    et al.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Availability analysis of railway track circuits2010In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 224, no 3, p. 169-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railways are expected to operate with ever increasing availability. The availability of railway systems and subsystems influences the overall operational availability. As the track circuit is a key component of railway signalling and control, it can contribute significantly to the loss of availability of the railway system. One way to increase the availability of the track circuit is by implementing a proper maintenance policy. In this article, Petri-nets have been used to develop models for availability analysis of the track circuit for both time-based and condition-based maintenance. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to estimate the effect of maintenance parameters on availability performance using cost-benefit analysis.

  • 29.
    Patra, Ambika Prasad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Uncertainty estimation in railway track life-cycle cost: a case study from Swedish National Rail Administration2009In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 223, no 3, p. 285-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle cost (LCC) is used as a cost-effective decision support for maintenance of railway track infrastructure. However, a fair degree of uncertainty associated with the estimation of LCC is due to the statistical characteristics of reliability and maintainability parameters. This paper presents a methodology for estimation of uncertainty linked with LCC, by a combination of design of experiment and Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed methodology is illustrated by a case study of Banverket (Swedish National Rail Administration). The paper also includes developed maintenance cost models for track.

  • 30.
    Soleimanmeigouni, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Arasteh Khouy, Iman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Letot, Christophe
    Machine Design and Production Engineering Lab, Research Institute for the Science and Management of Risks, University of Mons,.
    Evaluation of the effect of tamping on the track geometry condition: a case study2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 408-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tamping is one of the major activities applied by railway maintenance managers to recover track geometry condition. Modelling the tamping effectiveness along with track geometry degradation is essential for long term prediction of track geometry behaviour. The aim of this study is to analyse theeffect of tamping on the different track geometry measures, i.e. longitudinal level, alignment and cant; on the basis of inspection car records from a part of Main Western Line in Sweden. To model recovery after tamping a probabilistic approach is applied. The track geometry condition before tamping was considered as the dominant factor for modelling the model parameters. Correlation analysis has performed to measure the linear relation between the recoveries of the different geometry measures. The results show a moderate correlation between the recovery of the longitudinal level and that of the cant, and a weak correlation between the recovery of the longitudinal level and that of the alignment. Linear regression and Wiener process are also applied to model track geometry degradation and to obtain degradation rates. Theeffect of tamping on degradation rate is analysed. It is observed that the degradation rate was increased after tamping intervention.  

  • 31.
    Soleimanmeigouni, Iman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Track geometry degradation and maintenance modelling: A review2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 1, p. 73-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased demand for railway transportation is creating a need for higher train speeds and axle loads. These, in turn,increase the likelihood of track degradation and failures. Modelling the degradation behaviour of track geometry anddevelopment of applicable and effective maintenance strategies has become a challenging concern for railway infrastructuremanagers. During the last three decades, a number of track geometry degradation and maintenance modellingapproaches have been developed to predict and improve the railway track geometry condition. In this paper, existingtrack geometry measures are identified and discussed. Available models for track geometry degradation are reviewedand classified. Tamping recovery models are also reviewed and discussed to identify the issues and challenges of differentavailable methodologies and models. Existing track geometry maintenance models are reviewed and critical observationson each contribution are provided. The most important track maintenance scheduling models are identified and discussed.Finally, the paper provides directions for further research.

  • 32.
    Stenström, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Link and effect model for performance improvement of railway infrastructure2013In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 227, no 4, p. 392-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway traffic has increased over the last decade due to its fuel efficiency and the need to reduce emissions. The railway infrastructure performance needs to be measured to allow assets to be managed effectively against set objectives. Various systems are used to collect and store data on traffic, failures, inspections, track quality, etc. However, these systems are often used in an ad hoc manner, partly because of the weaknesses of traditional performance measurement systems. This paper proposes a link and effect model which is focused on the areas of continuous improvement, the key elements of strategic planning and on the underlying factors responsible for the railway performance. The model provides information on the performance of railway systems and components, and how they are linked to each other and to the overall objectives, thereby facilitating proactive decision-making. The model is applied in a case study on the Iron Ore Line, Sweden. The performance of a section of the line is studied in terms of failures, train delays and repair times, and ranked through a risk matrix and composite indicator.Keywords: Railway, infrastructure, performance measurement, performance indicator, reliability, availability, maintainability and supportability, maintenance, failure analysis

  • 33.
    Stenström, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Parida, Aditya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Measuring and Monitoring Operational Availability of Rail Infrastructure2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 5, p. 1457-1468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In reliability and maintenance engineering, availability can be described as the ability of an item to be in a state to perform a required function at a given time. Availability is commonly given as a measure between zero and one, where one means the probability of an item to be available for use at a given time is 100%. Availability is measured in many areas, such as electronics, information technologies, military equipment, electrical grids and the industry. Various indicators related to availability of railways have been examined by academia and industry. However, there is some ambiguity about how to define and measure the availability of rail infrastructure, given railways' semi-continuous operation, besides data quality issues. This article considers the application of common definitions of availability to rail infrastructure. It includes a case study comparing various approaches for measuring availability. The case study ends with a section on how availability as a function of train frequency and maintenance time can be simulated. The results show rail infrastructure availability correlates well with train delay, but this depends on how infrastructure failure data and outliers are treated.Keywords: availability, reliability, dependability, maintenance engineering, railways, linear assets, condition monitoring

  • 34.
    Villarejo, Roberto
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Johansson, Carl-Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Galar, Diego
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Sandborn, Peter
    University of Maryland, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Context-driven decisions for railway maintenance2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 5, p. 1469-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Railway assets suffer wear and tear during operation. Prognostics can be used to assess the current health of a system and predict its remaining life, based on features that capture the gradual degradation of its operational capabilities. Prognostics are critical to improve safety, plan successful work, schedule maintenance, and reduce maintenance costs and down time. Prognosis is a relatively new area; however, it has become an important part of condition-based maintenance of systems. As there are many prognostic techniques, usage must be tuned to particular applications. Broadly stated, prognostic methods are either data driven, or rule or model based. Each approach has advantages and disadvantages, depending on the hierarchical level of the analysed item; consequently, they are often combined in hybrid applications. A hybrid model can combine some or all model types; thus, more-complete information can be gathered, leading to more-accurate recognition of the impending fault state. However, the amount of information collected from disparate data sources is increasing exponentially and has different natures and granularity; therefore, there is a real need for context engines to establish meaningful data links for further exploration. This approach is especially relevant in railway systems where the maintainer and operator know some of the failure mechanisms, but the sheer complexity of the infrastructure and rolling stock precludes the development of a complete model-based approach. Hybrid models are extremely useful for accurately estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of railway systems. This paper addresses the process of data aggregation into a contextual awareness hybrid model to obtain RUL values within logical confidence intervals so that the life cycle of railway assets can be managed and optimized.

  • 35.
    Xin, Tao
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, People’s Republic of China.
    Famurewa, Stephen Mayowa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gao, Liang
    School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, People’s Republic of China.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Zhang, Qi
    School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, People’s Republic of China.
    Grey-system-theory-based model for the prediction of track geometry quality2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 230, no 7, p. 1735-1744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of track geometry is an important aspect in railway engineering, as it reflects any deviations and thus the actual condition of a track. Monitoring and prediction of a relevant geometry quality parameter provides an opportunity for effective maintenance, thus creating the advantages of extending the life of the asset, reducing maintenance costs and minimizing possession time requirements. Effective maintenance practice requires a good understanding of the behaviour of track structures over time and also prediction of its condition using only a few inputs. This paper presents a grey-system-theory-based model for predicting track irregularity. Three variants of the grey model are presented and their performances are compared with simple linear and exponential models. Regression models and the grey-system-theory-based models are used to obtain the standard deviation of the longitudinal level from a series of geometry inspection data. The overall performances of the models are evaluated in terms of the regression and prediction accuracies, and it is shown that a Fourier series modification of the grey model has the best performance and the minimum error. The contribution of this paper is the creation of a prediction model for track geometry quality, which is essential for planning and scheduling of preventive geometry maintenance.

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