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  • 1. Gavelin, Anders
    et al.
    Iraeus, J.
    Epsilon HighTech AB, Göteborg.
    Lindquist, M.
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umeå University.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Evaluation of finite element models of seat structures with integrated safety belts using full-scale experiments2010Inngår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 265-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Any numerical model needs to be evaluated in order to perform as accurately as possible. The aim of the present study is to develop an FE model of a seat structure with integrated safety belts evaluated to full-scale experiments. Simplified seat structures with 3-point integrated safety belt configurations and corresponding FE models were established. The dimension and the material states of the seat back frame were varied. A 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy was used as occupant. A number of biomechanical and mechanical responses of both experiments and simulations were compared and evaluated. The majority of the simulated responses showed good agreement with or slightly underestimated the corresponding experimental responses during belt loading but differed during belt unloading in some cases. Some inadequacies of the FE model were discovered and areas for further development are suggested. The FE model developed and evaluated in the present study may well be used in future studies

  • 2. Gavelin, Anders
    et al.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Umeå university.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Methodology for mass minimisation of a seat structure with integrated safety belts constrained by biomechanical responses on the occupant in frontal crashes2010Inngår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 343-355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology using finite element (FE) modelling and simulation with a property-based model (PBM) is presented. A generic 3-D FE model of a seat structure with a three-point seat-integrated safety belt configuration was established. A 50th percentile Hybrid III FE dummy model was used as occupant. Metamodelling techniques were used in optimisation calculations performed in two steps. Step 1: Six separate optimisations minimising biomechanical responses of the FE dummy model. Step 2: Four separate optimisations with different start values of the design variables, with the total mass of the seat structure as objective function and with the minimised biomechanical responses from Step 1 as constraint values. Six design variables were used in both Step 1 and Step 2. The four optimisations performed in Step 2 generated four different results of the total mass. Thus, different local minima were found instead of one single global minimum. The presented methodology with a PBM may be used in a concept design phase. Some issues concerning the FE model suggest further improvement.

  • 3. Gavelin, Anders
    et al.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umeå University.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Modelling and simulation of seat-integrated safety belts including studies of pelvis and torso responses in frontal crashes2007Inngår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 367-379Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to investigate how the physical properties influence the interaction of the seat back frame and the safety belt. Seat-integrated 3- and 4-point configurations with both non-rigid and rigid seat back frames were compared with common 3-point configurations with anchor points on the car body. The LS-DYNA FE-analysis software was used in order to perform frontal crash simulations with a belted 50th percentile Hybrid III FE-dummy model as occupant. The belt-webbing distribution between the lap and the torso belts via a slip-ring and in combination with a non-rigid seat back frame increases the ride-down efficiency compared to a system with no belt-webbing distribution. No tendencies of pelvis submarining were observed regardless of belt configuration. The dynamic response of the seat back frame has some influence on the ride-down efficiency.

  • 4. Gavelin, Anders
    et al.
    Lindquist, Mats
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Umeå University.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Numerical studies concerning upper neck and head responses in frontal crashes with seat-integrated safety belts2007Inngår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 465-479Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigation of neck and head injuries is critical in automotive occupant protection. The aim of the present study is to investigate how the physical properties influence the interaction of the seat back frame and the safety belt. Seat integrated 3- and 4-point configurations with both non-rigid and rigid seat back frames were compared with 3-point configurations with anchor points on the car body. The LS-DYNA FE-analysis software was used in order to perform frontal crash simulations with a belted 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy model as occupant. The belt-webbing distribution between the lap and the torso belts via a slip-ring and in combination with a non-rigid seat back frame had an advantageous influence concerning the loads of the upper neck and injury criteria compared to a system with no belt-webbing distribution.

  • 5. Isaksson, Erik
    et al.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Sundin, Karl-Gustaf
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Correlation of vehicle crash model parameters to car properties in low-speed collisions: a design of experiments approach2010Inngår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 241-249Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study, a methodology for relating model parameters in a one dimensional Mass Spring Damper (MSD) model to global properties of a car, e.g. axial stiffness, bending stiffness and mass, is presented. It is shown that these three vehicle properties affect the vehicle's crash performance in low-speed collision tests used for industrial verification of bumper system performance. Based on information of the properties for a vehicle under development, parameters in the MSD model can be adjusted to give the correct boundary conditions for a finite element (FE) crash simulation with a candidate bumper design. In the FE simulations, the MSD model is then coupled to the FE mesh of candidate bumper design to find a bumper that meets the crash performance requirements of a car under development. The methodology is based on Design of Experiments (DOE) and FE simulations on a public domain model of a Ford Taurus. The knowledge gained from this study gives a valuable tool to use in design and development of bumper systems for the automotive industry.

  • 6.
    Jonsén, Pär
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Isaksson, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Sundin, Karl-Gustaf
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Identification of lumped parameter automotive crash models for bumper system development2009Inngår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 533-541Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the design and development process of bumper systems for the automotive industry, information about the future car model is limited. Normally, iterative finite element (FE) analyses of different crash loading tests are used to find an appropriate bumper system to the coming car model. Because of the lack of information, only a rough model of the car is normally utilised in the FE simulations. This leads to uncertainties in the bumper design since the dynamic response of the car is dependent on the load case and the properties of the actual bumper system. This paper presents a method for identification of lumped parameter models based on results from crash tests of a Volvo S40. The ability to predict the measured results for models with different number of degrees of freedom (DOF) is investigated. Also, a validation of the model together with an FE mesh of the bumper system is presented. The results clearly show that a linear mass spring damper model with 2 DOF can be used to predict the response from the measurements in case of symmetric loading. Further increase of the number of DOF only causes small or no improvements of the agreement between the predicted and measured crash response.

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