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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 110, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed.It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment requirement to meet the total biofuel demand in the system. The main conclusion is that PO/BL co-gasification is a technically and economically attractive production route for production biomethanol.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Tim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy performance certificates and 3-dimensional city models as a means to reach national targets: A case study of the city of Kiruna2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 116, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced dissemination of information regarding energy saving and climate change targeted toward property owners is considered to be an important strategy in order to reach the Swedish national target of energy efficiency in the building sector by 2050. Here the municipality energy advisors and the national register for energy performance certificates can facilitate the mitigation of energy use in the building stock. So far few studies have focused on the practical road map to the national target of energy use on the city/district level and to the communication aspects with stakeholders in the creation of energy city models.In this paper a city energy model is developed based on the requests and need for visualization from a group of energy advisors. Six different scenarios are studied in order to analyze the possibility of reaching the energy targets specified by the government in the town of Kiruna. The results show that: (1) it is possible to automatically create city energy models using extract, transform and load tools based on spatial and non-spatial data from national registers and databases; (2) city energy models improve the understanding of energy use in buildings and can therefore be a valuable tool for energy advisors, real estate companies and urban planners. The case study of Kiruna showed that the proposed energy saving measures in the energy performance certificates need to be implemented and new buildings in the urban transformation must be of high energy standard in order to reach the national target in Kiruna.

  • 3.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Qatar University, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Department, Doha.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Al-Khawaj, Mohammed
    Qatar University, Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Department, Doha.
    Hassani, Ferri
    McGill University, Department of Mining Metals and Materials Engineering.
    Warming impact on energy use of HVAC system in buildings of different thermal qualities and in different climates2014In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 81, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to combat climate change, energy use in the building must be further reduced. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings account for considerable fraction of global energy consumption. The potential contribution the domestic sector can make in reducing energy consumption is recognized worldwide.The driving energy of HVACs depends on the thermal quality of the building envelope (TQBE) and outside temperature. Definitely, building regulations are changing with the time toward reduce the thermal loads of buildings. However, most of the existing residential buildings were built to lower TQBE. For instant, 72% of residential dwellings in the 15-EU were built before 1972.To investigate the impact of warming on driving energy of HVACs of a residential building a computer model was developed. Three climate categories/cities were considered, i.e. Stockholm (cold), Istanbul (mild), and Doha (hot). In each city, two buildings were modeled: one was assumed to be built according to the current local buildings regulations (standard TQBE), while the anther was built to lower TQBE. The simulations were run for present and future (in 2050) outdoor designing conditions.The calculations show that the impact of the warming on annual driving energy of HVACs (reduction or increase) depends very much on the climate category and on the TQBE. Based on the climate and TQBE, the change in annual HVACs energy varies from −7.4% (in cold climate) to 12.7% (in hot climate). In mild climate, it was shown that the warming does not have significant impact on annual HVACs energy. Improving the TQBE can mitigate the impact of the warming.

  • 4.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Integrating the processes of a Kraft pulp and paper mill and its supply chain2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 103, p. 300-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the possibility of combining different forest industries (a pulp and paper mill, its supply chain, and a wood-pellet plant) into an integrated industrial site in which they share a common heat and power utility. Advanced process integration and optimization techniques are used to study the site from both material and energy viewpoints. An existing pulp and paper mill is used as the site core plant and its pulp and paper production rates are kept fixed as they are in reality, while the other material flow links among the plants are based on the current industrial situation in Sweden. Different scenarios are evaluated in order to reflect the two main objectives that can be pursued (increased electricity production or biomass resource saving) and the two technologies that can be considered for the shared CHP system (boilers and product gas fired gas turbines). The corresponding non-integrated (standalone) configurations are compared to these scenarios to quantify the potential benefits of the integration. Investment opportunity is also calculated for the considered scenarios as an indicator of the economic convenience

  • 5. Paul, Jan
    et al.
    Pradier, Claire-Marie
    Political and technological means of reducing carbon dioxide in Sweden and how an International Symposium can help in providing a better understanding of some basic concepts1993In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 34, no 9-11, p. 797-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A method for the simulation and optimization of district heating systems with meshed networks2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 89, p. 555-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two main methods nowadays for modeling district heating systems, but a key disadvantage of both is that a real network containing loops cannot be described without artificial simplifications in order to eliminate those distinguishing features. However, loops are very common in mature networks that have developed a meshed structure, and make the distribution of mass and heat flows quite characteristic. For this reason, a new process integration method for modeling complex district heating systems containing loops is described in this paper. This method makes it possible to analyze how loops and bottlenecks affect the behavior of the network, as well as the distribution path of the thermal energy in it. The district heating system in the town of Kiruna (located in the north of Sweden) has a complex design with several loops and part of it is used in the paper as an example of application.

  • 7.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Simulation and analysis of a meshed district heating network2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 122, p. 63-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow distribution in a district heating network tends to become no longer obvious when system design is developed and its complexity increased. As a consequence, the network owner, often the local energy company, is in need of a simulation program to have the possibility of analysing network behaviour and expand the understanding about the operation of district heating system. In this paper, a simulation tool developed in MATLAB/Simulink is applied in order to analyse the flow distribution in the district heating network of the town of Kiruna (Sweden). The network in Kiruna has been developing since the 60s and is today a complex network with a meshed structure, i.e. it is formed by a set of loops from which secondary branches depart. The simulation tool is part of a methodology that has specifically been developed to analyse the flow pattern in such kind of networks without altering their physical structure, and it is expected to be a valuable tool for the redesign of the network in the forthcoming relocation of some of the urban districts. The results about the current network configuration show that only a few pipes in the network are exceeding the levels of heat flow recommended by pipe manufacturers. The largest drops in pressure and temperature from the heat production site to the nodes serving the main consumer areas are within 1.2 bar and 9 °C in the days of highest demand.

  • 8.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Swerea MEFOS AB, Center for Process Integration in Steelmaking, Swerea MEFOS, Luleå.
    Mellin, Pelle
    Division of Energy and Furnace Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lövgren, Jonas
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå, SSAB Europe.
    Nilsson, Leif
    SSAB EMEA, Luleå, SSAB Europe.
    Yang, Weihong
    Division of Energy and Furnace Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Salman, Hassan
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå, Luleå tekniska universitet, Sveaskog.
    Hultgren, Anders
    SCA Energy, 851 88 Sundsvall.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Biomass as blast furnace injectant: Considering availability, pretreatment and deployment in the Swedish steel industry2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 102, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated and modeled the injection of biomass into blast furnaces (BF), in place of pulverized coal (PC) from fossil sources. This is the easiest way to reduce CO2 emissions, beyond efficiency-improvements. The considered biomass is either pelletized, torrefied or pyrolyzed. It gives us three cases where we have calculated the maximum replacement ratio for each. It was found that charcoal from pyrolysis can fully replace PC, while torrefied material and pelletized wood can replace 22.8% and 20.0% respectively, by weight.Our energy and mass balance model (MASMOD), with metallurgical sub-models for each zone, further indicates that (1) more Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) will be generated resulting in reduced fuel consumption in an integrated plant, (2) lower need of limestone can be expected, (3) lower amount of generated slag as well, and (4) reduced fuel consumption for heating the hot blast is anticipated. Overall, substantial energy savings are possible, which is one of the main findings in this paper.Due to the high usage of PC in Sweden, large amounts of biomass is required if full substitution by charcoal is pursued (6.19 TWh/y). But according to our study, it is likely available in the long term for the blast furnace designated M3 (located in Luleå).Finally, over a year with almost fully used production capacity (2008 used as reference), a 28.1% reduction in on-site emissions is possible by using charcoal. Torrefied material and wood pellets can reduce the emissions by 6.4% and 5.7% respectively. The complete replacement of PC in BF M3 can reduce 17.3% of the total emissions from the Swedish steel industry.

1 - 8 of 8
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