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  • 1.
    Hermansson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Solar assisted small-scale biomass district heating system in the northern part of Sweden2004In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 467-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a case study of a projected solar assisted biomass district heating system in the north of Sweden. It is generally known that a biomass district heating system combined with solar heat brings many important benefits. The most common system solution is to install a heat store and a large solar collector field near the heating central. No plant of this type is however in operation in the northern part of Sweden. The main reason for this is that the solar irradiation at these latitudes is very low when the demand for heat is high. Solar heat could however be useful during summer in order to generate hot tap water. One problem is that the heat losses, calculated as percentage of the delivered heat, become very large during these months. This article presents the idea of allowing the connected households to generate their own hot tap water using solar collectors and heat stores installed in each house. The district heating network can therefore be closed in summer, which eliminates the heat losses outside the heating period. A case study of a projected plant has been carried out and it is shown that it is possible to reduce the heat losses by 20% compared to a conventional system. This idea also provides many other important technical and economic benefits.

  • 2. Larsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ohlsson, Hans
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Rutqvist, Staffan
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    Ångström, Sten
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Comprehensive study regarding greenhouse gas emission from iron ore based production at the integrated steel plant SSAB Tunnplåt AB2006In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 171-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the years 2001-2002, a comprehensive study regarding CO2 emissions related to the steel production for the integrated steel making production route, was carried out. The study was financed by SSAB and carried out by a research group with members from SSAB, MEFOS and LTV. The aim was to study the emissions from the existing system and how these could be influenced by process changes and by process modifications. The calculations were made using a global spreadsheet model for calculating the CO2 emissions, developed from an existing energy and process integration model of the same system. The calculated cases included the existing BF/BOF route as well as integration of other processes, e.g., an electric arc furnace, DR processes, COREX and a new future smelting reduction process concept (Sidcomet). All new existing alternative ore based process technologies would increase the specific CO2 emission from the system. A technology transfer to scrap based metallurgy would significantly decrease the emission level, but is not feasible for SSAB, due to the future product mix and the structure of scrap availability. In a 5-20 year perspective, the existing steel making process route with the use of magnetite ore for pellet production has the lowest specific CO2 emission. In a long-term perspective, 20-50 years, alternative process routes, e.g., based on H2 and DRI, could be of interest. Studies on such changes are, however, big projects and should be carried out as joint European and/or international efforts

  • 3. Larsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Wang, Chuan
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wedholm, Anita
    Samuelsson, Caisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Magnusson, Marcel
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Lampinen, Hans Olov
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Su, Fenwei
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Improved energy and material efficiency using new tools for global optimisation of residue material flows2006In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residue materials generated in the metallurgical industry have gained an increasing importance, both from the points of view of energy and material supply. A joint process integration model for the integrated steel plant system is developed and used in this paper. It takes into account both residue materials and energy recirculation for the system. The potential for increased recirculation and the effect on the system from an environmental point of view is presented, and implementations and practical experiences are discussed. The model developed can serve as a benchmark for different steelmaking operations and constitute a basis for the continuous work involved in material, energy, environment or economic analyses for the steel production system.

  • 4.
    Sandberg, Peter
    et al.
    Asset Management, Business Development, Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Söderström, Mats
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Vuorinen, Henrik
    SSAB Tunnplåt AB.
    In search of stability: investigating flexible and stable production strategies for an optimised steel plant2006In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 159-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is crucial for a steel making production system to operate at the lowest possible production cost, while satisfying stability and reliability conditions. To plan future production strategies, it is therefore important to be able to model the system behaviour when internal and external parameters are changed. In this study the sensitivity and stability of an optimised solution, of an integrated steel plant, have been investigated. The solution's sensitivity has been analysed taking both internal process changes and external price variations into account, through applying both simulation and optimisation. The analysis also includes both costs and environmental issues such as carbon dioxide and sulphur emissions. Based on the methodology suggested, it is possible to determine the stability of the system solution, including both economic and environmental performance.

  • 5.
    Wang, C.
    et al.
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Larsson, Mikael
    Yan, Jinyue
    Dahl, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    CO2 emission reduction in the steel industry by using emission trading programs2007In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 505-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of the EU Emission Trading Scheme ( ETS) started on January 1(st) 2005 according to national plans for allocating emissions rights. The steel industry is one of the industrial sectors included in this scheme. The objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the optimum solution( s) for European steel plants to meet their emission allowance with low reduction cost. An optimization model based on a Swedish steel plant is developed and used. Three scenarios were created in the model, i. e., internal changes within the steel plant, EU ETS, and the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism ( CDM). For the last scenario, China was selected as a country of the non- Annex I Party for the emission trading by CDM. The modeling results show that the studied plant will face an emission gap between allowed and calculated emissions in the near future. Compared to EU ETS, the implementation of CDM projects will make the plant reduce CO2 emissions at a lower cost. The internal changes within the plant will also play an important role for the solution of low abatement cost. The model developed could serve as a benchmark for the future emission trading simulation's purpose within the European steel industry.

  • 6.
    Wang, Chuan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Feasibility analysis of wood pellets production and utilization in China as a substitute for coal2005In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 91-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood pellets are regarded as one of the substitutes for fossil fuels like coal and oil for heating and co-generation. Wood pellets are a successful example of market penetration of renewable energy in some countries in Europe, e.g., Sweden. An analysis process is proposed in this paper and used to conduct a techno-economic assessment of wood pellets production and applications in some areas in China with the consideration of technology transfer from Sweden by examining their market competitiveness with coal in these areas. Financial indices such as net present value (NPV), internal return rate (IRR) and year-to-positive cash flow are calculated to investigate the profitability of the technology transfer. Four locations of applications in China have been considered as case studies. The result indicates that in the market-only-based scenario, wood pellets production will not be profitable in all selected areas. New scenarios from the analysis process show that reducing investment and increasing the amount of bank loan will be helpful to increase the project's profitability in general; adding taxes on coal could be effective, but it depends on Chinese government's future efforts on climate change mitigation; carbon credits on wood pellets through the clean development mechanism (CDM) might make wood pellet projects profitable giving wood pellets a nich-market. The potential global environment benefits of CO2 emission reduction by using wood pellets to replace coal in a 7 MWth coal-fired industrial boiler with a thermal efficiency of 80% and 5000 hours of operation time are also presented.

  • 7. Yan, Jinyue
    et al.
    Ryman, Christer
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wikström, Jan-Olov
    Swerea MEFOS AB.
    Preface2006In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 115-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Zeng, Lei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Policy, institutional and market barriers to the implementation of clean development mechanisms (CDM) in China2005In: International Journal of Green Energy, ISSN 1543-5075, E-ISSN 1543-5083, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 259-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the world, with potentially about two thirds of total Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) for Asia on the world carbon market (Gruetter, 2002). Since 68% of its primary energy is from coal, China's average energy intensity is 7.5 times higher than the EU and 4.3 times higher than the US (EU, 2003). Therefore, introducing advanced clean technologies and management to China represents opportunities for Annex I countries to obtain low-cost CERs through CDM projects, and access to one of the largest potential energy conservation markets in the world. CDM can provide a win-win solution for both China and Annex I countries, and the Chinese government considers that the introduction of CDM projects can bring advanced energy technologies and foreign investment to China, thereby helping China's sustainable economy and generating CERs. As energy efficiency is generally low and carbon intensity is high in both China's energy supply and demand sectors, numerous options exist for cost-effective energy conservation and GHG mitigation with CDM. This paper reviews current Chinese policies and administrative and institutional settings for CDM cooperation, and discusses existing policy, institutional and other barriers in the energy market by drawing on observations and experience from previous initiatives such as Cleaner Production and energy efficiency. Some options to remove these barriers are addressed. In order to make CDM projects feasible, China's government needs to promote awareness, streamline administrative systems, and be more active in building a competitive edge in the world carbon market.

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