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  • 1. Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Ingri, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    A rapid preconcentration method for multielement analysis of natural freshwaters1991In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 617-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes an inexpensive and rapid preconcentration method which can be applied directly in the field. It is based on coprecipitation with magnesium hydroxide and has been applied for Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, V, Cr, Co, Cd, Be, Y, Sc and Yb in freshwaters. The method has been tested using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) by adding known amounts of metals to distilled water and natural freshwater. The detection limit for ICP-AES can be enhanced more than two orders of magnitude for Al, Y, Sc, Yb and approximately one order of magnitude for the other tested elements.

  • 2. Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    et al.
    Zinger, Yaron
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Deletic, Ana
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Fletcher, Tim
    Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Influence of intermittent wetting and drying conditions on heavy metal removal by stormwater biofilters2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 18, p. 4590-4598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofiltration is a technology to treat urban stormwater runoff which conveys pollutants, including heavy metals. However, the variability of metals removal performance in biofiltration systems is as yet unknown.A laboratory study has been conducted with vegetated biofilter mesocosms, partly fitted with a submerged zone at the bottom of the filter combined with a carbon source. The biofilters were dosed with stormwater according to three different dry/wet schemes, to investigate the effect of intermittent wetting and drying conditions on metal removal.Provided that the biofilters received regular stormwater input, metal removal exceeded 95%. The highest metal accumulation occurs in the top layer of the filter media.However, after antecedent drying before a storm event exceeding three to four weeks the filters performed significantly worse, although metal removal still remained relatively high. Introducing a submerged zone into the filter improved the performance significantly after extended dry periods. In particular, copper removal in filters equipped with a submerged zone was increased by around 12% (α = 0.05) both during wet and dry periods and for lead the negative effect of drying could completely be eliminated, with consistently low outflow concentrations even after long drying periods.

  • 3.
    Du, Qing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sun, Zhongxi
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Forsling, Willis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Tang, Hongxiao
    SKLEAC, Research Center for Eco–Environmental Sciences, Academia Sinica.
    Complexations in illite-fulvic acid-Cu2+ systems1999In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 693-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of an extended project to illustrate how heavy metals are complexed by natural aquatic particles, we conducted various experiments to study the adsorption of fulvic acid (FA) at aqueous illite surfaces and the complexation of heavy metal copper(II) in illite-FA bi-complexant systems. By analyzing batch adsorption and potentiometric titration data, we found that (i) the adsorption of FA by illite decreases with increases in pH values and its pH adsorption edge resembles those of SiO2-FA and montmorillonite-FA systems described by other researchers, (ii) it is possible to effectively simulate the complexation of Cu2+ ions in illite-FA bi-complexant systems by taking it to be an additive complexation of two mono-complexant systems (FA-Cu2+ and illite-Cu2+) and (iii) FA can inhibit the retention of heavy metals at solid surfaces by forming soluble complexes with metal ions. The above results and conclusions are supported by FT-IR analysis of various illite-FA-Cu2+ systems

  • 4.
    Guyonvarch, Estelle
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    Ramin, Elham
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Plósz, Benedek Gy
    Department of Environmental Engineering (DTU Environment), Technical University of Denmark.
    iCFD: Interpreted computational fluid dynamics – Degeneration of CFD to one-dimensional advection-dispersion models using statistical experimental design – The secondary clarifier2015In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 83, p. 396-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims at using statistically designed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations as numerical experiments for the identification of one-dimensional (1-D) advection-dispersion models – computationally light tools, used e.g., as sub-models in systems analysis. The objective is to develop a new 1-D framework, referred to as interpreted CFD (iCFD) models, in which statistical meta-models are used to calculate the pseudo-dispersion coefficient (D) as a function of design and flow boundary conditions. The method – presented in a straightforward and transparent way – is illustrated using the example of a circular secondary settling tank (SST). First, the significant design and flow factors are screened out by applying the statistical method of two-level fractional factorial design of experiments. Second, based on the number of significant factors identified through the factor screening study and system understanding, 50 different sets of design and flow conditions are selected using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). The boundary condition sets are imposed on a 2-D axi-symmetrical CFD simulation model of the SST. In the framework, to degenerate the 2-D model structure, CFD model outputs are approximated by the 1-D model through the calibration of three different model structures for D. Correlation equations for the D parameter then are identified as a function of the selected design and flow boundary conditions (meta-models), and their accuracy is evaluated against D values estimated in each numerical experiment. The evaluation and validation of the iCFD model structure is carried out using scenario simulation results obtained with parameters sampled from the corners of the LHS experimental region. For the studied SST, additional iCFD model development was carried out in terms of (i) assessing different density current sub-models; (ii) implementation of a combined flocculation, hindered, transient and compression settling velocity function; and (iii) assessment of modelling the onset of transient and compression settling. Furthermore, the optimal level of model discretization both in 2-D and 1-D was undertaken. Results suggest that the iCFD model developed for the SST through the proposed methodology is able to predict solid distribution with high accuracy – taking a reasonable computational effort – when compared to multi-dimensional numerical experiments, under a wide range of flow and design conditions. iCFD tools could play a crucial role in reliably predicting systems’ performance under normal and shock events.

  • 5.
    Hellman, Maria
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bonilla-Rosso, Germán
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Widerlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Juhanson, Jaanis
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallin, Sara
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    External carbon addition for enhancing denitrification modifies bacterial community composition and affects CH4 and N2O production in sub-arctic mining pond sediments2019In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 158, p. 22-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explosives used in mining operations release reactive nitrogen (N) that discharge into surrounding waters. Existing pond systems at mine sites could be used for N removal through denitrification and we investigated capacity in tailings and clarification pond sediments at an iron-ore mine site. Despite differences in microbial community structure in the two ponds, the potential denitrification rates were similar, although carbon limited. Therefore, a microcosm experiment in which we amended sediment from the clarification pond with acetate, cellulose or green algae as possible carbon sources was conducted during 10 weeks under denitrifying conditions. Algae and acetate treatments showed efficient nitrate removal and increased potential denitrification rates, whereas cellulose was not different from the control. Denitrifiers were overall more abundant than bacteria performing dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) or anaerobic ammonium oxidation, although DNRA bacteria increased in the algae treatment and this coincided with accumulation of ammonium. The algae addition also caused higher emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The bacterial community in this treatment had a large proportion of Bacteroidia, sulfate reducing taxa and bacteria known as fermenters. Functional gene abundances indicated an imbalance between organisms that produce N2O in relation to those that can reduce it, with the algae treatment showing the lowest relative capacity for N2O reduction. These findings show that pond sediments have the potential to contribute to mitigating nitrate levels in water from mining industry, but it is important to consider the type of carbon supply as it affects the community composition, which in turn can lead to uwanted processes and increased greenhouse gas emissions.

  • 6.
    Herrmann, Inga
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Svensson, Malin
    Ecke, Holger
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash: sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 14, p. 3541-3547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash - sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 27-1 fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material×ash ratio and ash ratio×compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (α = 0.05). Freezing on 5 freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R2adjusted values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 × 10-11 m s-1 and 8.9 × 10-10 m s-1 if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm-3, the ash ratio between 20 and 75 % and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10-9 m s-1.

  • 7.
    McCarthy, David T.
    et al.
    Environmental and Public Health Microbiology Laboratory (EPHM Lab), Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Zhang, Kefeng
    Monash Infrastructure Research Institute, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Water Coordinator, Water Authority-bottenvikens Water District Lulea.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc
    Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon.
    Fletcher, Tim D.
    School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash Infrastructure Research Institute, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University.
    Assessment of sampling strategies for estimation of site mean concentrations of stormwater pollutants2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 129, p. 297-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of stormwater pollutant concentrations is a primary requirement of integrated urban water management. In order to determine effective sampling strategies for estimating pollutant concentrations, data from extensive field measurements at seven different catchments was used. At all sites, 1-min resolution continuous flow measurements, as well as flow-weighted samples, were taken and analysed for total suspend solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). For each of these parameters, the data was used to calculate the Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) for each event. The measured Site Mean Concentrations (SMCs) were taken as the volume-weighted average of these EMCs for each parameter, at each site. 17 different sampling strategies, including random and fixed strategies were tested to estimate SMCs, which were compared with the measured SMCs. The ratios of estimated/measured SMCs were further analysed to determine the most effective sampling strategies. Results indicate that the random sampling strategies were the most promising method in reproducing SMCs for TSS and TN, while some fixed sampling strategies were better for estimating the SMC of E. coli. The differences in taking one, two or three random samples were small (up to 20% for TSS, and 10% for TN and E. coli), indicating that there is little benefit in investing in collection of more than one sample per event if attempting to estimate the SMC through monitoring of multiple events. It was estimated that an average of 27 events across the studied catchments are needed for characterising SMCs of TSS with a 90% confidence interval (CI) width of 1.0, followed by E.coli (average 12 events) and TN (average 11 events). The coefficient of variation of pollutant concentrations was linearly and significantly correlated to the 90% confidence interval ratio of the estimated/measured SMCs (R2 = 0.49; P < 0.01) as well as the number of events required to achieve certain accuracy, and hence could be a promising surrogate for determining the sampling frequency needed to accurately estimate SMCs of pollutants

  • 8.
    Muthanna, Tone Merete
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Thorolfsson, Sveinn T.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim.
    Snowmelt pollutant removal in bioretention areas2007In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 41, no 18, p. 4061-4072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Snow accumulating in urban areas and alongside roads can accumulate high pollutant loads and the subsequent snowmelt can produce high pollutant loads in receiving waters. This paper examines the treatment of roadside snowmelt in bioretention with respect to pollutant removal, pollutant pathways, and major sinks. Bioretention was used to treat snowmelt from three types of urban roads in Trondheim, Norway: residential, medium, and roads with high-density traffic. Metal retention in bioretention boxes had a mass reduction in zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in the range of 89-99%, and a decrease in outflow concentrations in the range 81-99%. Cadmium was only measured in the water samples, while the other three metals were traced through the system to identify the main sinks. The top mulch layer was the largest sink for the retained metals, with up to 74% of the zinc retained in this mulch layer. The plant metal uptakes were only 2-8% of the total metal retention; however, the plants still play an important role with respect to root zone development and regeneration, which fosters infiltration and reduces the outflow load. Dissolved pollutants in snowmelt tend to be removed with the first flush of meltwater, creating an enrichment ratio with respect to the average pollutant concentrations in the snow. The effect of this enrichment ratio was examined through the bioretention system, and found to be less predominant than that typically reported for untreated snowmelt. The enrichment factors were in the range of 0.65-1.51 for the studied metals.

  • 9.
    Pronk, Wouter
    et al.
    Eawag Aquatic Research, Dübendorf.
    Palmquist, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Biebow, Martin
    Eawag Aquatic Research, Dübendorf.
    Boller, Markus
    Eawag Aquatic Research, Dübendorf.
    Nanofiltration for the separation of pharmaceuticals from nutriens in source-separated urine2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1405-1412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of nanofiltration for the separation of pharmaceutical and estrogenic compounds from salts in urine was investigated with the aim of producing a micropollutant-free nutrient solution that can be used as a fertilizer. A fresh urine solution and a synthetic solution of similar inorganic composition were tested at different pH values in order to investigate their separation behavior. These solutions were spiked with the micropollutants propranolol, ethinylestradiol, ibuprofen, diclofenac and carbamazepine. Among the membranes tested, NF270 showed the best performance with respect to the retention of micropollutants. The optimum retention of micropollutants was obtained at values of around pH 5. At this point, the retention of all micropollutants in non-hydrolysed urine was above 92%, while the corresponding value for the synthetic urine solution was above 73%. From the results, it can be concluded that the retention mechanism is determined by steric and electrostatic effects as well as by the partitioning of the micropollutants in the membrane. The nutrients urea and ammonia were well permeated, but phosphate and sulfate were almost completely retained. Nanofiltration can consequently be used to produce a permeate which contains most of the nitrogen and a greatly reduced proportion of micropollutants.

  • 10.
    Ringqvist, L.
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Holmgren, Allan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Oborn, I.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment.
    Poorly humified peat as an adsorbent for metals in wastewater2002In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 2394-2404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal adsorption and surface charge determinations were performed previously on well-characterised Sphagnum and Carex peat samples. The aim of this investigation was to determine metal adsorption from complex wastewaters onto these peat samples and compare it to the adsorption onto peat granules, clinoptilolite, glauconite and a flue dust from steel production. A sulphide mine leachate, a landfill leachate and a laundry wastewater were chosen, giving a variation in pH, ionic strength, total organic carbon and concentrations of metals. Metal adsorption was determined in batch and column experiments. The wastewater composition was of great importance for metal removal efficiency, mainly due to the difference in dominating metal species. In the sulphide mine leachate, containing free metal ions, a high metal adsorption was observed onto both peat and inorganic adsorbents. In the landfill leachate the metals formed carbonate and organic complexes and a low metal removal was achieved. Contrary to the leachates, the laundry wastewater contained suspended particles. The high amount of metals removed, 80% of the Cu and 30-60% of the Zn concentration, was probably withdrawn bound to the particle fraction. The highest removal of metal ions was obtained in the sulphide mine leachate with Carex peat, removing 97-99% of the Zn and 85-100% of the Cu content. The Sphagnum peat sample removed 37-77% of the Zn and 80-100% of the Cu content. The differences found between Sphagnum and Carex peat were attributed to the original chemistry of the plant material and the habitat conditions at the time of peat formation. Generally, the combination of glauconite or clinoptilolite with the peat samples in column experiments gave a minor improvement in metal removal.

  • 11.
    Särner, Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Removal of Dissolved and Particulated Organic Matter in High-Rate Trickling Filters1981In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 671-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biochemical reaction is normally assumed to control the over-all purification rate in a trickling filter and the most commonly used mathematical models are based on first-order reaction kinetics. The substrate is assumed to consist of one single substance, normally measured as the biochemical or chemical oxygen demand.The result of this investigation indicates that the removal of dissolved organic matter in high-rate trickling filters is disturbed if fine suspended and colloidal matter is present in the influent to the filters. This is an important factor to be considered and further research on the influence of the substrate composition on the purification rate is needed. The result also indicates that liquid film diffusion might control the substrate removal rate. The efficiency of the filter could not be related to the specific surface of the plastic packing used. The configuration of the packing is obviously a more relevant factor, possibly affecting the turbulence and/or the wetted area.

  • 12.
    Tenno, Robert A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Activated sludge concentration dynamics1994In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 491-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between activated sludge concentration in the aeration and settling tank is determined on the basis of settling process characteristics. The relationship is used for description of the activated sludge concentration and stock dynamics in the aeration and settling tank. A limit value for maximization of activated sludge concentration is determined

  • 13.
    Tenno, Robert A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Renko, Esa K.
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Pelkonen, Markku
    Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Online identification of activated sludge settling properties1995In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 2587-2590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated sludge settling properties can be characterised with two time-varying parameters. A simple method is presented for online identification of these parameters. The method is obtained as an exact solution of the filtration problem; it is obtained on the basis of the settling process description and the parameters variation process description. The method is suitable for practical application. It is a more exact solution of the identification problem than the alternative regression analysis method. An easily implementable system is proposed for automatic characterisation of the sludge settling properties

  • 14.
    Wang, Feiyue
    et al.
    Peking University.
    Chen, Jingsheng
    Peking University.
    Chen, Jianglin
    Peking University.
    Forsling, Willis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Surface properties of natural aquatic sediments1997In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 1796-1800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eleven geographically and hydrologically diverse sediment samples were collected from major rivers of China and determined for the surface properties. The results indicate the sediments have a large variation in surface area (6.9-16.0 m(2)/g of SSA(N2), 35.6-73.2 m(2)/g Of SSA(CPB), surface site density (10.3-149.8 mu mol/g) and surface acidity constants (1.56-2.50 of pK(s.a1)(int), and 3.75-5.58 of pK(s.a2)(int)) but a small difference in PZSE (3.0-4.0). Within the pH range 3.0-9.0, all sediments present negative surface charges. Their surface charge distribution curves with pH extend between these of SiO2, montmorillonite. kaolinite, alpha-MnO2, calcite and gamma-Al2O3;. Correlation analysis reveals that surface area and surface site density of the sediments are correlated strongly with reactive and amorphous iron oxides, total aluminum, clay and total organic carbon, while surface acidity constants, PZSE and the permanent structural charge only show a weak correlation with total aluminum in the sediments.

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