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  • 1.
    Llamas, Ángel David García
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Guo, Ning
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, NTNU - Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Li, Tian
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, NTNU - Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway;RISE Fire Research, Tiller 7092, Norway.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rapid change of particle velocity due to volatile gas release during biomass devolatilization2022In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 238, article id 111898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our earlier study showed significant differences in average particle velocity between simulation and experimental results for devolatilizing biomass particles in an idealised entrained flow reactor [N. Guo et al., Fuel, 2020]. This indicates that the simulations do not accurately describe the physicochemical transformations and fluid dynamic processes during devolatilization. This article investigates the reasons for these discrepancies using time-resolved analyses of the experimental data and complementary modelling work. The experiments were conducted in a downdraft drop-tube furnace with optical access, which uses a fuel-rich flat flame (CH4 O2 CO2) to heat the particles. Gas flow was characterized using particle image velocimetry, equilibrium calculations and thermocouple measurements. High-speed images of devolatilizing Norway spruce (Picea Abies) particles were captured and analysed using time-resolved particle tracking velocimetry methods. The data were used to estimate the balance of forces and fuel conversion. Thrust and “rocket-like” motions were frequently observed, followed by quick entrainment in the gas flow. Rocketing particles were, on average, smaller, more spherical and converted faster than their non-rocketing counterparts. These differences in conversion behaviour could be captured by a particle-size dependent, 0-D devolatilization model, corrected for non-isothermal effects. The results from this investigation can provide a basis for future modelling and simulation work relevant for pulverized firing technologies.

  • 2.
    Mattsson, Roger
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Kupiainen, M.
    Department of Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Carlsson, T.E.
    The Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI, Department of Weapons and Protection, Warheads and Propulsion, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fureby, C.
    The Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI, Department of Weapons and Protection, Warheads and Propulsion, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pulsed TV holography and schlieren studies, and large eddy simulations of a turbulent jet diffusion flame2004In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 139, no 1-2, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for an improved understanding of jet-flame dynamics we here compare predictions from large-eddy simulations (LES) and measurements using schlieren and holographic interferometry of a round turbulent jet diffusion flame. The studies concern a turbulent propane-air (C3H 8-O2/N2) diffusion flame under ambient conditions at a Reynolds number of Re=104. The interferometric measurements were performed with an all-electronic method, pulsed TV holography, using a pulsed laser and a fast charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The LES calculations use the probability density function (PDF) flamelet approach with a beta function as the probability density function, whereas the subgrid turbulence is modeled with a one-equation eddy viscosity model. In order to validate the LES model quantitative comparisons of first-order statistical moments of the velocity were first made with available data for nonreactive jets. The LES model captures the statistics well. The next step in the validation process concerns comparing the jet-flame development between LES and the schlieren and pulsed TV holography data. To this end the results of the LES calculations were used to simulate instantaneous interference patterns using ray tracing. The LES model describes the overall behavior of the flame successfully

  • 3.
    Mazza, Francesco
    et al.
    Advanced Laser Diagnostics and Flames Laboratory, Aerodynamics, Wind Energy, Flight Performance & Propulsion (AWEP) Department, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, the Netherlands.
    Griffioen, Nathan
    Advanced Laser Diagnostics and Flames Laboratory, Aerodynamics, Wind Energy, Flight Performance & Propulsion (AWEP) Department, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, the Netherlands.
    Castellanos, Leonardo
    Advanced Laser Diagnostics and Flames Laboratory, Aerodynamics, Wind Energy, Flight Performance & Propulsion (AWEP) Department, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, the Netherlands.
    Kliukin, Dmitrii
    Advanced Laser Diagnostics and Flames Laboratory, Aerodynamics, Wind Energy, Flight Performance & Propulsion (AWEP) Department, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, the Netherlands.
    Bohlin, Alexis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Advanced Laser Diagnostics and Flames Laboratory, Aerodynamics, Wind Energy, Flight Performance & Propulsion (AWEP) Department, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, the Netherlands.
    High-temperature rotational-vibrational O2CO2 coherent Raman spectroscopy with ultrabroadband femtosecond laser excitation generated in-situ2022In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 237, article id 111738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present ultrabroadband two-beam femtosecond/picosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy on the ro-vibrational spectra of CO2 and O2, applied for multispecies thermometry and relative concentration measurements in a standard laminar premixed hydrocarbon flame. The experimental system employs fs-laser-induced filamentation to generate the compressed supercontinuum in-situ, resulting in a ∼24 fs full-width-at-half-maximum pump/Stokes pulse with sufficient bandwidth to excite all the ro-vibrational Raman transitions up to 1600 cm-1. We report the simultaneous recording of the ro-vibrational CO2 Q-branch and the ro-vibrational O2 O-, Q- and S-branch coherent Stokes Raman spectra (CSRS) on the basis of a single-laser-shot. The use of filamentation as the supercontinuum generation mechanism has the advantage of greatly simplifying the experimental setup, as it avoids the use of hollow-core fibres and chirped mirrors to deliver a near-transform-limited ultrabroadband pulse at the measurement location. Time-domain models for the ro-vibrational Q-branch spectrum of CO2 and the ro-vibrational O-, Q- and S-branch spectra of O2 were developed. The modelling of the CO2 Q-branch spectrum accounts for up to 180 vibrational bands and for their interaction in Fermi polyads, and is based on recently available, comprehensive calculations of the vibrational transition dipole moments of the CO2 molecule: the availability of spectroscopic data for these many vibrational bands is crucial to model the high-temperature spectra acquired in the flue gases of hydrocarbon flames, where the temperature can exceed 2000 K. The numerical code was employed to evaluate the CSRS spectra acquired in the products of a laminar premixed methane/air flame provided on a Bunsen burner, for varying equivalence ratio in the range 0.6–1.05. The performance of the CO2 spectral model is assessed by extracting temperatures from 40-laser-shots averaged spectra, resulting in thermometry accuracy and precision of ∼5% and ∼1%, respectively, at temperatures as high as 2220 K.

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  • 4.
    Pignatelli, F.
    et al.
    Division of Fluid Mechanics, Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Derafshzan, S.
    Division of Combustion Physics, Department Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sanned, D.
    Division of Combustion Physics, Department Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Papafilippou, Nikolaos
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Szasz, R. Z.
    Division of Fluid Mechanics, Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Chishty, M. A.
    Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Piteå 941 38, Sweden.
    Petersson, P.
    Dantec Dynamics A/S, Skovlunde, Denmark.
    Bai, X. S.
    Division of Fluid Mechanics, Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ehn, A.
    Division of Combustion Physics, Department Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Richter, M.
    Division of Combustion Physics, Department Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lörstad, D.
    Siemens Energy AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Subash, A. A.
    Division of Combustion Physics, Department Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Effect of CO2 dilution on structures of premixed syngas/air flames in a gas turbine model combustor2023In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 255, article id 112912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of CO2 dilution on combustion of syngas (a mixture of H2, CO, and CH4) was investigated in a lab-scale gas turbine model combustor at atmospheric pressure conditions. Two mild dilution levels of CO2, corresponding to 15% and 34% of CO2 mole fraction in the syngas/CO2 mixtures, were experimentally investigated to evaluate the effects of CO2 dilution on the flame structures and the emissions of CO and NOx. All experiments were performed at a constant Reynolds number (Re = 10000). High-speed flame luminescence, simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of the OH radicals and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were employed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the resulting flame and flow structures. The main findings are: (a) the operability range of the syngas flames is significantly affected by the CO2 dilution, with both the lean blowoff (LBO) limit and the flashback limit shifting towards fuel-richer conditions as the CO2 dilution increases; (b) syngas flames exhibit flame-pocket structures with chemical reactions taking place in isolated pockets surrounded by non-reacting fuel/air mixture; (c) the inner recirculation zone tends to move closer to the burner axis at high CO2 dilution, and (d) the NOx emission becomes significantly lower with increasing CO2 dilution while the CO emission exhibits the opposite trend. The flame-pocket structure is more significant with increased CO2 dilution level. The low NOx emissions and high CO emissions are the results of the flame-pocket structures.

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  • 5.
    Qu, Zhechao
    et al.
    Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory (TEC-Lab), Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University.
    Holmgren, Per
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wagner, David R.
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory.
    Broström, Markus
    Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory (TEC-Lab), Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Distribution of temperature, H2O and atomic potassium during entrained flow biomass combustion: Coupling in situ TDLAS with modeling approaches and ash chemistry2018In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 188, p. 488-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is employed for simultaneous detection of gas temperature, water vapor (H2O) and gas-phase atomic potassium, K(g), in an atmospheric, research-scale entrained flow reactor (EFR). In situ measurements are conducted at four different locations in the EFR core to study the progress of thermochemical conversion of softwood and Miscanthus powders with focus on the primary potassium reactions. In an initial validation step during propane flame operation, the measured axial EFR profiles of H2O density-weighted, path-averaged temperature, path-averaged H2O concentration and H2O column density are found in good agreement with 2D CFD simulations and standard flue gas analysis. During biomass conversion, temperature and H2O are significantly higher than for the propane flame, up to 1500 K and 9%, respectively, and K(g) concentrations between 0.2 and 270 ppbv are observed. Despite the large difference in initial potassium content between the fuels, the K(g) concentrations obtained at each EFR location are comparable, which highlights the importance of considering all major ash-forming elements in the fuel matrix. For both fuels, temperature and K(g) decrease with residence time, and in the lower part of the EFR, K(g) is in excellent agreement with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations evaluated at the TDLAS-measured temperatures and H2O concentrations. However, in the upper part of the EFR, where the measured H2O suggested a global equivalence ratio smaller than unity, K(g) is far below the predicted equilibrium values. This indicates that, in contrast to the organic compounds, potassium species rapidly undergo primary ash transformation reactions even if the fuel particles reside in an oxygen-deficient environment

  • 6.
    Sepman, Alexey
    et al.
    RISE Energy Technology Center, Box 726, SE-94128, Piteå, Sweden.
    Thorin, Emil
    Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Ögren, Yngve
    RISE Energy Technology Center, Box 726, SE-94128, Piteå, Sweden.
    Ma, Charlie
    Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Wennebro, Jonas
    RISE Energy Technology Center, Box 726, SE-94128, Piteå, Sweden.
    Broström, Markus
    Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. RISE Energy Technology Center, Box 726, SE-94128, Piteå, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Laser-based detection of methane and soot during entrained-flow biomass gasification2022In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 237, article id 111886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane is one of the main gas species produced during biomass gasification and may be a desired or undesired product. Syngas CH4 concentrations are typically >5 vol-% (when desired) and 1–3 vol-% even when efforts are made to minimize it, while thermochemical equilibrium calculations (TEC) predict complete CH4 decomposition. How CH4 is generated and sustained in the reactor core is not well understood. To investigate this, accurate quantification of the CH4 concentration during the process is a necessary first step. We present results from rapid in situ measurements of CH4, soot volume fraction, H2O and gas temperature in the reactor core of an atmospheric entrained-flow biomass gasifier, obtained using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the near-infrared (1.4 µm) and mid-infrared (3.1 µm) region. An 80/20 wt% mixture of forest residues and wheat straw was converted using oxygen-enriched air (O2>21 vol%) as oxidizer, while the global air-fuel equivalence ratio (AFR) was set to values between 0.3 and 0.7. Combustion at AFR 1.3 was performed as a reference. The results show that the CH4 concentration increased from 1 to 3 vol-% with decreasing AFR, and strongly correlated with soot production. In general, the TDLAS measurements are in good agreement with extractive diagnostics at the reactor outlet and TEC under fuel-lean conditions, but deviate significantly for lower AFR. Detailed 0D chemical reaction kinetics simulations suggest that the CH4 produced in the upper part of the reactor at temperatures >1700 K was fully decomposed, while the CH4 in the final syngas originated from the pyrolysis of fuel particles at temperatures below 1400 K in the lower section of the reactor core. It is shown that the process efficiency was significantly reduced due to the C and H atoms bound in methane and soot.

  • 7.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    et al.
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå university.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå university.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå university.
    High-temperature aerosol formation in wood pellets flames: spatially resolved measurements2006In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 147, no 4, p. 278-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation and evolution of high-temperature aerosols during fixed bed combustion of wood pellets in a realistic combustion environment were investigated through spatially resolved experiments. The purpose of this work was to investigate the various stages of aerosol formation from the hot flame zone to the flue gas channel. The investigation is important both for elucidation of the formation mechanisms and as a basis for development and validation of particle formation models that can be used for design optimization. Experiments were conducted in an 8-kW-updraft fired-wood-pellets combustor. Particle samples were withdrawn from the centerline of the combustor through 10 sampling ports by a rapid dilution sampling probe. The corresponding temperatures at the sampling positions were in the range 200-1450 °C. The particle sample was size-segregated in a low-pressure impactor, allowing physical and chemical resolution of the fine particles. The chemical composition of the particles was investigated by SEM/EDS and XRD analysis. Furthermore, the experimental results were compared to theoretical models for aerosol formation processes. The experimental data show that the particle size distribution has two peaks, both of which are below an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The mode diameters of the fine and coarse modes in the PM2.5 region were [similar to] 0.1 and [similar to] 0.8 μm, respectively. The shape of the particle size distribution function continuously changes with position in the reactor due to several mechanisms. Early, in the flame zone, both the fine mode and the coarse mode in the PM2.5 region were dominated by particles from incomplete combustion, indicated by a significant amount of carbon in the particles. The particle concentrations of both the fine and the coarse mode decrease rapidly in the hot oxygen-rich flame due to oxidation of the carbon-rich particles. After the hot flame, the fine mode concentration and particle diameter increase gradually when the temperature of the flue gas drops. The main contribution to this comes from condensation on preexisting particles in the gas of alkali sulfates, alkali chlorides, and Zn species formed from constituents vaporized in the fuel bed. The alkali sulfates were found to condense at a temperature of [similar to] 950 ° C and alkali chlorides condensed later at [similar to] 600 ° C. This agrees well with results of chemical equilibrium calculation of the gas-to-particle conversion temperature. After the hot flame the coarse mode concentration decreased very little when the flue gas was cooled. In addition to carbon, the coarse mode consists of refractory metals and also considerable amounts of alkali.

  • 8.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. RISE Energy Technology Center AB.
    Tóth, Pál
    RISE Energy Technology Center AB.
    Jansson, Kjell
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE Energy Technology Center.
    Broström, Markus
    Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory (TEC-Lab), Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Energy Technology Center AB.
    Lighty, Jo Ann S.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE Energy Technology Center.
    Particle formation during pressurized entrained flow gasification of wood powder: Effects of process conditions on chemical composition, nanostructure, and reactivity2018In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 189, p. 240-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of operating condition on particle formation during pressurized, oxygen blown gasification of wood powder with an ash content of 0.4 wt% was investigated. The investigation was performed with a pilot scale gasifier operated at 7 bar(a). Two loads, 400 and 600 kW were tested, with the oxygen equivalence ratio (λ) varied between 0.25 and 0.50. Particle concentration and mass size distribution was analyzed with a low pressure cascade impactor and the collected particles were characterized for morphology, elemental composition, nanostructure, and reactivity using scanning electron microscopy/high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. In order to quantify the nanostructure of the particles and identify prevalent sub-structures, a novel image analysis framework was used. It was found that the process temperature, affected both by λ and the load of the gasifier, had a significant influence on the particle formation processes. At low temperature (1060 °C), the formed soot particles seemed to be resistant to the oxidation process; however, when the oxidation process started at 1119 °C, the internal burning of the more reactive particle core began. A further increase in temperature (> 1313 °C) lead to the oxidation of the less reactive particle shell. When the shell finally collapsed due to severe oxidation, the original soot particle shape and nanostructure also disappeared and the resulting particle could not be considered as a soot anymore. Instead, the particle shape and nanostructure at the highest temperatures (> 1430 °C) were a function of the inorganic content and of the inorganic elements the individual particle consisted of. All of these effects together lead to the soot particles in the real gasifier environment having less and less ordered nanostructure and higher and higher reactivity as the temperature increased; i.e., they followed the opposite trend of what is observed during laboratory-scale studies with fuels not containing any ash-forming elements and where the temperature was not controlled by λ

  • 9.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Energy Technology Centre, S-941 28 Piteå, Box 726, Sweden.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Energy Technology Centre, Box 726, S-941 28 Piteå, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    Energy Technology Centre, Box 726, S-941 28 Piteå, Sweden.
    Öhrman, Olov
    Energy Technology Centre, Box 726, S-941 28 Piteå, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Per
    Energy Technology Centre, Box 726, S-941 28 Piteå, Sweden.
    Stjernberg, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. LKAB, S-971 28 Luleå, Sweden.
    Characterisation of submicron particles produced during oxygen blown entrained flow gasification of biomass2014In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 161, no 7, p. 1923-1934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper submicron particles sampled after the quench during 200 kW, 2 bar(a) pressurised, oxygen blown gasification of three biomass fuels, pure stem wood of pine and spruce, bark from spruce and a bark mixture, have been characterised with respect to particle size distribution with a low pressure cascade impactor. The particles were also characterised for morphology and elemental composition by a combination of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy/selected area electron diffraction pattern (HRTEM/EDS/SAED) techniques. The resulting particle concentration in the syngas after the quench varied between 46 and 289 mg/Nm3 consisting of both carbon and easily volatile ash forming element significantly depending on the fuel ash content. Several different types of particles could be identified from classic soot particles to pure metallic zinc particles depending on the individual particle relation of carbon and ash forming elements. The results also indicate that ash forming elements and especially zinc interacts in the soot formation process creating a particle with shape and microstructure significantly different from a classical soot particle.

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