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  • 1.
    Bennitz, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Schmidt, Jacob W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Division of Structural Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Goltermann, Per
    Technical University of Denmark, Division of Structural Engineering.
    Ravn, Dorthe L.
    COWI A/S.
    Reinforced concrete T-beams externally prestressed with unbonded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer tendons2012In: ACI Structural Journal, ISSN 0889-3241, E-ISSN 1944-7361, Vol. 109, no 4, p. 521-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a series of experiments examining the behavior of seven beams prestressed with unbonded external carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) tendons anchored using a newly developed anchorage and post-tensioning system. The effects of varying the initial tendon depth, prestressing force, and the presence of a deviator were investigated. The results were compared to those observed with analogous beams prestressed with steel tendons, common beam theory, and predictions made using an analytical model adapted from the literature. It was found that steel and CFRP tendons had very similar effects on the structural behavior of the strengthened beams; the minor differences that were observed are attributed to the difference between the modulus of elasticity of the CFRP and the steel used in the tests. The models predicted the beams’ load-bearing behavior accurately but were less effective at predicting the stress experienced by the tendons.

  • 2.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ožbolt, Joško
    University of Stuttgart .
    Hofmann, Jan
    University of Stuttgart .
    Eligehausen, Rolf
    University of Stuttgart .
    Influence of Surface Reinforcement, Member thickness and Cracked Concrete on Tensile Capacity of Anchor Bolts2017In: ACI Structural Journal, ISSN 0889-3241, E-ISSN 1944-7361, Vol. 114, no 6, p. 1543-1556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive numerical study was carried out to evaluate the influence of concrete member thickness and orthogonal surface reinforcement on the tensile capacity and performance of anchor bolts in uncracked concrete members. Anchor bolts at various embedment depths (hef=50 to 300 mm (1.97 to 11.81 in.)) in unreinforced and reinforced concrete members of various thicknesses (H=1.5 – 5.0∙hef) were simulated. The reinforced concrete slabs were considered to be lightly-reinforced and over-reinforced to evaluate also the influence of amount of reinforcement. Furthermore, the behavior of anchor bolts at various embedment depths in pre-cracked reinforced concrete members was numerically investigated. The numerical results were compared with predictions from current design models including the Concrete Capacity (CC) method.

    The numerical results show that in uncracked concrete the tensile capacity of anchor bolts increases up to 20% and the anchorage behavior becomes more ductile with increasing member thickness or by having surface reinforcement. The numerical results also show that the CC method underestimates the tensile capacity of deep anchors (hef≥200 mm (7.87 in.)), while it slightly overestimates the capacity of short anchors (hef≤100 mm (3.94 in.)) in thin unreinforced members. It was also found that the over-reinforced concrete does not improve the anchorage capacity and performance any further than the lightly-reinforced concrete. Based on the numerical results, several recommendations are proposed to account for the influence of member thickness, surface reinforcement and cracked concrete. Further experimental studies are ongoing to verify and generalize the recommendations of this study.

  • 3.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ožbolt, Joško
    University of Stuttgart .
    Hofmann, Jan
    University of Stuttgart .
    Eligehausen, Rolf
    University of Stuttgart .
    Tensile capacity of anchor bolts in uncracked concrete: Influence of member thickness and anchor’s head size2017In: ACI Structural Journal, ISSN 0889-3241, E-ISSN 1944-7361, Vol. 114, no 6, p. 1519-1530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the influence of concrete member thickness and size of anchor head on the tensile capacity and performance of anchor bolts in concrete. Anchor bolts at various embedment depths (hef=50 – 500 mm (1.97 – 19.69 in.)) in concrete members of various thicknesses (H=1.5 – 5.0∙hef) were simulated. Three different sizes of anchor head (small, medium and large) were considered at each anchor embedment depth. The numerical results were compared with predictions from several theoretical and empirical models, including current design models, as well as some test results.

    The numerical results show that the concrete cone resistance increases with increasing thickness of concrete member and/or size of the anchor head. Simulations also indicate that current design models generally underestimate the tensile capacity of large anchors.

    Two modification factors are proposed to account for the influence of the member thickness and the size of anchor head. Predictions of anchorage capacity using the proposed modification factors have good correlation with the available test results found in the literature.

  • 4.
    Nilforoush, Rasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Söderlind, Gunnar
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Long-Term Performance of Adhesive Bonded Anchors2016In: ACI Structural Journal, ISSN 0889-3241, E-ISSN 1944-7361, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 251-261, article id MS No. S-2014-302.R2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-installed adhesive anchors used for fastening nonstructural and/or structural elements to concrete structures are prone to creep under sustained loads over their service life, which may considerably affect their long-term performance. In this study, the influence of various in-service conditions and sustained loading levels on the long-term performance of adhesive anchors was experimentally examined. The tested adhesive was an unsaturated polyester resin and the bonded anchors were subjected to sustained loads of 23, 47 and 70% of their mean ultimate short-term capacities for up to 10376 days (28.4 years). The tested in-service conditions were indoor temperature, outdoor temperature and humidity variations, wetness and presence in the concrete of salt additives.Results indicate that the tested bonded anchors did not fail indoors when subjected to sustained loads up to 47% of their mean ultimate short-time capacity. However, the long-term performance was substantially impaired outdoors, presumably due to temperature and humidity variations, leading to failure for sustained loads higher than 23% of the anchors’ mean ultimate short-time capacity.

  • 5.
    Noghabai, Keivan
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Behavior of tie elements of plain and fibrous concrete and varying cross sections2000In: ACI Structural Journal, ISSN 0889-3241, E-ISSN 1944-7361, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 277-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tension stiffening effect on reinforcing bars embedded in concrete prisms is investigated experimentally. Both metallic (steel) and non-metallic (polyolefin and carbon) fibers of different dimensions are used in high-strength concrete mixtures. In addition, the cross section is varied. The softening behavior of the concrete, determined through a uniaxial tension procedure, was used in an analytical model. The model reproduced the dependency of the load-deformation responses of the elements on the tensile behavior of the concrete

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