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  • 1.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Cheng, Xudong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Measurement and calculation of adiabatic surface temperature in a full-scale compartment fire experiment2013In: Journal of fire sciences, ISSN 0734-9041, E-ISSN 1530-8049, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 35-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adiabatic surface temperature is an efficient way of expressing thermal exposure. It can be used for bridging the gap between fire models and temperature models, as well as between fire testing and temperature models. In this study, a full-scale compartment fire experiment with wood crib fuel was carried out in a concrete building. Temperatures were measured with plate thermometers and ordinary thermocouples. Five plate thermometers and five thermocouples with a diameter of 0.25 mm were installed at different positions. These two different temperature devices recorded different temperatures, especially near the floor surface. The adiabatic surface temperature was derived by a heat balance analysis from the plate thermometer measurements. The thermal inertia of the plate thermometer was taken into account to correct the measured results. In addition, the fire experiment scenario was also simulated with fire dynamics simulator. The fire source was specified as a given heat release rate, which was calculated from the measured mass loss rate of the wood fuel. The adiabatic surface temperatures at these measuring positions were simulated by the fire dynamics simulator model and compared with the experimental adiabatic surface temperatures. The comparative results showed that fire dynamics simulator predicted the adiabatic surface temperature accurately during the steady-state period.

  • 2.
    Cheng, Xudong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Thermal analysis of a pool fire test in a steel container2012In: Journal of fire sciences, ISSN 0734-9041, E-ISSN 1530-8049, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pool fire test was conducted in an uninsulated steel container under low ambient temperature condition, at −20°C. The heat balance of the enclosure fire was analyzed. The size of the container was 12 m × 2.4 m and 2.4 m high, and it was made of 3-mm-thick steel. During the fire test, the fuel mass loss rate was recorded and the temperatures at different positions were measured with high-temperature thermocouples and plate thermometers. The fire scenario was simulated by using fire dynamics simulator software, and the simulated and measured results were compared. The coarse high-temperature thermocouple responded slower, and therefore, temperature measured by the high-temperature thermocouple was corrected to eliminate the effect of the thermal inertia. Furthermore, a simple two-zone model was proposed for estimating gas temperature in the enclosure of the highly conductive steel walls assuming a constant combustion rate. The convective and radiative heat transfer resistances at the inside and outside surfaces of the enclosure were analyzed.

  • 3.
    Häggkvist, Andreas
    et al.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås.
    Sjöström, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Using plate thermometer measurements to calculate incident heat radiation2013In: Journal of fire sciences, ISSN 0734-9041, E-ISSN 1530-8049, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 166-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plate thermometer is a device used mainly to measure temperatures in fire resistance tests according to ISO 834-1 and EN 1363-1 and to measure the so-called adiabatic surface temperature. However, it can also be used to measure incident radiant heat flux (q̇″inc) as a simpler, more robust and less-expensive alternative to water-cooled heat flux meters. The accuracy of the measured q̇″inc is subject to simplifications in the heat transfer analysis model and uncertainties of parameters such as convective heat transfer coefficients, emissivities and ambient gas temperatures. This study investigates the accuracy of the model itself, isolated from the uncertainties of the physical surrounding, by comparing a simple one-dimensional model to the results of finite element modelling. The so-obtained model includes a heat transfer coefficient due to heat losses of the plate thermometer, found to be KPT = 8 W/m2 K and a heat storage lumped heat capacity CPT = 4200 J/m2 K for an ISO/EN standard plate thermometer. The model is also compared to real field experiments.

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